Additional Reading: Africa
· Adegoke, A. A (2001) Pubertal Development and Traditional Support Systems in Africa: An Overview, African J Reproductive Health 5,1:20-30
· Caldwell, J. C., Caldwell, P. & Orubuloye, I. O. (1992) The Family and Sexual Networking in Sub-Saharan Africa: Historical Regional Differences and Present-Day Implications, Popul Stud 46,3:385-410
· Caldwell, J. C., Caldwell, P. & Quiggin, P. (1989) The Social Context of AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa, Populat & Developm Rev 15,2:185-234
A. (1927) Die Sozialen Beziehungen
des Kindes bei den Bantunegern.
· Hoernle, A. W. (1931) An outline of the native conception of education in Africa Africa 4,2:145-63
· Jansen, C. J.(1988) Homosexuele Handelingen in Noord Afrika. Onderzoek naar het Voorkomen en de Vorm van Homosexuele Handelingen in Noord Afrika.Dissertation, Amsterdam [Dutch]
· Klepp, K., Ndeki, S. et al. (1996) Predictors of intention to be sexually active among Tanzanian school children, East Afr Med J 73,4:218-24
· Lalor, K. (April 2004) Child sexual abuse in sub-Saharan Africa: a literature review, Child Abuse & Neglect 28,4:439-60
· Olenick, I. (1998)Female Circumcision is Nearly Universal in Egypt, Eritrea, Mali and Sudan (in Digests), Int Fam Plann Perspect 24,1:47-9
· Pattman, R. & Chege, F. (2003) ‘Dear diary I saw an angel, she looked like heaven on earth’: Sex talk and sex education, African J AIDS Res 2, 2:103-12
· Ravenhill, Ph. L. (1978) The Interpretation of Symbolism in Wan Female Initiation, Africa 48,1:66-78
· Rooth, G. (1973) Exhibitionism outside Europe and America, Arch Sex Behav 2,4:351-63
· Smith, T. L. (2001) Pre-teen and early adolescent African American girls’ attitudes toward teen sexual behavior and pregnancy, DAI-B 61(8-B): 4429
· Stavrou, S. E. & Kaufman, C. E. (2000) “Bus Fare Please”: The Economics of Sex, Gifts and Violence among Adolescents in Urban South Africa. To be presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, March 23-25, Los Angeles, California, United States [www.dra.co.za/downloads/sexgifts.doc]
· Stevens, W. E. & Vrzal, R. D. (1974) Male false pride syndrome: Cause and cure, J Am Instit Hypnosis 15,4:157-60
· Task Force to Protect Children from Sexual Exploitation in Tourism, Africa, in French and English (full document pdf - 2.832 KB) Dakar, Senegal, 30 September - 1 October 2003. Final Reports for the Regional Consultations for the Protection of Children from Sexual Exploitation in Tourism [http://www.world-tourism.org/protect_children/reunions/final-report-africa.pdf]
· Varga, Ch. A. (1999) South African young people’s sexual dynamics: implications for behavioural responses to HIV/AIDS, Resistances to Behavioural Change to Reduce HIV/AIDS Infection, p13-34
Janssen, D. F., Growing Up Sexually. Volume I. World Reference Atlas. 0.2 ed. 2004. Berlin: Magnus Hirschfeld Archive for Sexology
Last revised: May 2005
 Rasing (2001:p282), cit. infra, song 194: “Please mother, come out and ulululate for me, I have brought my maturity”.
 Minor adjustments having been made, the present monograph has been digitally available at http://www.sexarchive.info/GESUND/ARCHIV/GUS/AFRICAWEB.HTM as of January 30th, 2003. The Sub-Saharan Africa part of GUS Volume 1 was released as a monograph: Occasional delivery of paper excerpt monograph, “Growing Up Sexually in Sub-Saharan Africa” for African Studies Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands
 Barton, Th. G. (1991) Sexuality and Health in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Annotated Bibliography. Nairobi, Kenya: African Medical and Research Foundation
 Standing, H. & Kisekka, M. N. (1989) Sexual Behavior in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review and Annotated Bibliography. London: Overseas Development Administration
 Beck, R. B. (1979) A
Bibliography of Africana in the Institute for Sex Research, Indiana University.
African Studies Program,
 Molnos, A. (Ed., 1973) Cultural Source Materials for Population Planning in East Africa. University of Nairobi, Institute of African Studies. Esp. Vol. 3
 Ayisi, E. O. (1979) An Introduction to the Study of African Culture. 2nd ed. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, see p6-12
 Cudjoe, S. D. (1965) Sex and human relations: African pattern, in Sex and Human Relations. Proeccedings of the 4th Conference of the Region Earope, Near East and Africa of the International Parenthood Federation, London, 8-11th June, 1964. Amsterdam [etc.]: Excerpta Medica, p31-3
 Caldwell, J. C., Caldwell, P. & Quiggin, P. (1989) The Social Context of AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa, Populat & Developm Rev 15,2:185-234; Caldwell, J. C., Caldwell, P. & Quiggin, P. (1991) The African Sexual System: A Reply to Le Blanc et al., Populat & Developm Rev 17,3:506-15
 Le Blanc, M. N., Meintel, D. & Piche, V. (1991) The African Sexual System: Comment on Caldwell et al., Populat & Developm Rev 17,3:497-505. See further Heald, S. (1995) The power of sex: some reflections on the Caldwell's “African sexuality” thesis, Africa 65,4:489-505
 Ahlberg, B. M. (1994) Is there a distinct African sexuality? A critical response to Caldwell, Africa 64,2:220-42
 Savage, O. M. & Tchombe, T. M. (1994) Anthropological perspectives on sexual behaviour in Africa, Ann Rev Sex Res 5:50-72. the authors point to problems including 1) an inability to reflect differences between and within regions, 2) the potential trap for researchers of moralizing and applying pejorative stereotypes, and 3) the contradictory nature of the results of modeling attempts that call the very research methodologies used into question.
 Taylor, T. N. (nd) African Sexual Culture, AIDS and Anthropology. Online paper at http://www.sas.upenn.edu/~tonyat/SexualCulture.html
 Cit. infra
 Delius, P. & Glaser, C. (2001) Sexual Socialisation in Historical Perspective. Paper presented at the conference Aids in Context, University of the Witwatersrand. From online draft abstract. Cf. Delius, P. & Glaser, C. (2002) Sexual Socialisation in South Africa: a Historical Perspective, African Studies 61,1:27-54
 Mcfadden, P. (1994) African female sexuality and the heterosexual form, South Afr Polit Econ Mon 7,6:56-8
 Feyisetan, B. & Pebley, A. R. (1989) Premarital sexuality in urban Nigeria, Stud Fam Plann 20,6 Pt 1:343-54
 Adedoyin, M. & Adegoke, A. A. (1995) Teenage prostitution--child abuse: a survey of the Ilorin situation, Afr J Med & Med Sci 24,1:27-31
 Dossou-yovo, N. (1980) Sex and family-life education in Francophone West Africa, Afr Link, Dec.:6-10
 Barker, G. K. & Rich, S. (1992) Influences on adolescent sexuality in Nigeria and Kenya: findings from recent focus-group discussions, Stud Fam Plann 23,3:199-210
 Renne, E. P. (2000) Introduction to Special Issue: Sexuality and Generational Identities in Sub-Saharan Africa, Africa Today 47,3-4:vii-xii
 These references were identified as
Mersuing, K. (1993) Child Sexual Abuse in Matabeleland. Matabeleland
AIDS Council; and Chikamba & Loewenson, R. (1994) Sexual Abuse of
Children in Zimbabwe. Report on an Action Research Project, Redd Barna-Zimbabwe,
 Chinyangara, I., Chokuwenga, I., Dete, R. G., Dube, L., Kembo, J., Moyo, P. & Nkomo, R. Sh. (1997) Indicators For Children’s Rights: Zimbabwe Country Case Study. [http://www.childwatch.uio.no/cwi/projects/indicators/Zimbabwe/ind_zim_ch4.html#6]
 Bledsoe, C. H. & Cohen, B. (Eds. 1993) Social Dynamics of Adolescent Fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, p77
 Guyon, R. (1929) La Légitimé des Actes Sexuels. Saint-Denis: Dardaillon
 Edwardes, A. & Masters, R. E. L. (1962/3) The Cradle of Erotica. New York: The Julian Press. See also p136, 290
 De Rachewiltz, B. (1963) Eros Nero. Milan: Longanesi & Co. Translated by P. Whigham, (1964) Black Eros. Milan: Allen & Unwin
 Mungazi, D. A. (1996) Gathering under the Mango Tree. New York: P. Lang
 E.g., Adler, B. & Harrington, H. (Eds., 1971) Growing Up African.New York: Morrow; Erny, P. (1991) L’Enfant dans la Pensée Traditionelle de l'Afrique Noire. Éditions l’Harmattan
 Knapen, M. Th. (1958) Some results of an enquiry into the influence of child-training practices on the development of personality in a Bacongo society (Belgian Congo), J Soc Psychol 47,2:223-9
 Welch, M. R., (1978) Childhood socialization differences in African and non-African societies, J Social Psychol 106,1:11-5
 Illustrated in Castiglioni, A. & Castiglioni, A. () Adams Schwartze Kinder. Zürich: Schweizer Verlagshaus. Translated from Italian
 Lallemand, S. (1985) L’Apprentissage de la Sexualité dans les Contes d’Afrique de l’Ouest. Paris: Editions L’Harmattan
 Raymaekers, R. (1960) Materiaux pour une Étude Sociologique de la Jeunesse Africaine du Milieu Coutumier de Leopoldville. Leopoldville: Université Lovanium
 Barry, H. III, Josephson, E. et al. (1976) Traits inculcated in childhood: cross-cultural codes 5, Ethnology 15:83-114
 Barry, H. III & Schlegel, A. (1984) Measurements of adolescent sexual behavior in the standard sample of societies, Ethnology 23,4:315-29
 Schlegel, A. & Barry III, H. (1979) Adolescent initiation ceremonies: a cross-cultural code, Ethnology 18,2:199-210, column I
 De Leeuwe, J. (1970) Society system and sexual life, Bijdr Taal- Land- & Volkenk 126:1-36, see p28-32; Ford, C. S. & Beach, F. A. (1951) Patterns of Sexual Behavior. New York: Harper & Row
http://www.interpol.int/Public/Children/SexualAbuse/NationalLaws/Default.asp (Legislation of Interpol member states on sexual offences against children)
 Graupner, H. (2000) Sexual consent: The criminal law in Europe and overseas, Arch Sex Behav 29,5:415-61
 CRLP (2001) Women of the World: Laws and Policies Affecting Their Reproductive Lives: Anglophone Africa. Progress Report [Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe]; CRLP (2000) Women of the World: Laws and Policies Affecting Their Reproductive Lives: Francophone Africa. Progress Report [Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Mali, and Senegal]
http://www.ecpat.net/eng/Ecpat_inter/projects/monitoring/online_database/index.asp, under “protection” subchapters
 Smyth, B. (nd) The [Commercial] Sexual Exploitation of [Children] in Southern Africa. ECPAT International
 International Lesbian and Gay Association, online data updated 2000
 “It was not until 1988 in South Africa that the age limit for sexual relations between women and boys has been raised from 7 (!) to 16 (and the one for lesbians from 12 to 19)” (Graupner).
®vol.II, chapter 12,13.
 Dinslage, Sabine (1981) Mädchenbeschneidung in Westafrika. Munich: Klaus Renner
 Ombolo, J. P. (1981) Les Mutilations Sexuelles en Afrique Noire. Yaoundé: J-P Ombolo
 Wiggins, D. (2001) Male and Female Circumcision in Africa: Pharaonic Egyptian and Religious Origins, Africa Update Vol VIII, Issue 3 (Summer 2001): Female Circumcision Revisited [http://www.ccsu.edu/afstudy/upd8-3.htm#Male and Female Circumcision in Africa:]
 ‘Estimate: Total number of girls and women mutilated in Africa’. Women's International Network News, Autumn 1992, Vol. 18 Issue 4, p29; ‘More than 149 million girls/women mutilated in Africa’. Women's International Network News, Summer 1997, Vol. 23 Issue 3, p28-9, and: Hosken, Fran P. ‘110 million girls and women mutilated in Africa-Middle East’, Women's International Network News, Summer 1994, Vol. 20 Issue 3, following p29
 Most medical and legal activity is geared toward various bloody practices, with little comment on nonbloody practices. For a recent note on legal policies, the reader is referred to Toubia, N. & Rahman, A. (2000) Female Genital Mutilation: A Guide to Laws and Policies Worldwide. London [etc.]: Zed Books
 Olamijulo, S. K. et al. (1983) Female circumcision in Ilesha, Nigeria, Clin Pediatr 22,8:580-1
 See also Onadeko, M. O. (1985) Female circumcision in Nigeria: a fact or a farce? J Trop Pediatr 31:180-4
 Abdalla, R. H. D. (1982) London: Zed Press; Hosken, F. P. (1982) The Hosken Report: Genital and Sexual Mutilation of Females. Koso-Thomas, O. (1987) The Circumcision of Women: A Strategy for Eradication. London: Dotesios Ltd. It was also practised in parts of Indonesia and Malaysia.
 Odoi, A., Brody, S. P. & Elkins, T. E. (1997) Female genital mutilation in rural Ghana, West Africa, Int J Gynaecol & Obstet 56,2:179-80
 Op.cit.; Gallo Grassivaro, P. (1985) Female Circumcision in Somalia: Some Psycological Aspecls, 41,1-2:133-47
 Ntiri, D. W. (1993) Circumcision and health among rural women of southern Somalia as part of a family life survey, Health Care Women Int 14,3:215-26
 For more information see Seligmann, C. G. (1913) Some Aspects of the Hamitic Problem in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, J Royal Anthropol Instit Great Britain & Ireland 43:593-705, see p639-46;
 De Cardi, C. N. (1899) Ju-Ju Laws and Customs in the Niger Delta, J Royal Anthropol Instit Great Britain & Ireland 29,1/2:51-64
 Buschan, S. (1912), in Moll, A. (Ed.) Handbuch Der Sexualwissenschaften. Berlin. Quoted by Bryk (1931:p244-5)
 Widstrand, C. G. (1964) Female infibulation, Studia Ethnogr Upsal 20,Varia 1:95-124
 Worseley, A. (1938) Infibulation and Female Circumcision: A Study of a Little-known Custom, 45:686-91
 Montagu (1945) noted the age of 7-8. See Montagu, M. F. A. (1945) Infibulation and defibulation in the Old and New Worlds, Am Anthropol 47,3:464-7. Mustafa (1966) states 3-10 as the timing of genital operations. See Mustafa, A. Z. (1966) Female circumcision and infibulation in the Sudan, J Obstet & Gynaecol Brit Commonw 73:302-6
 El-Gibaly, O., Ibrahim, B., Mensch, B. S. & Clark, W. H. (2002) The decline of female circumcision in Egypt: evidence and interpretation, Soc Sci & Med 54,2:205-220
 Gray, L.H. () Circumcision, in Hastings, J. (Ed.) . New York: International Universities Press
 Hicks, E. K.(1986) Infibulation: Status through Mutilation. Dissertation, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Alblasserdam: Kanters; Hicks, E. K. (1993) Infibulation: Female Mutilation in Islamic Northeastern Africa. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publication; Lightfoot-Klein, H. (Ed.) (1989) Prisoners of Ritual: An Odyssey into Female Genital Circumcision in Africa. Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press; Van der Kwaak, A. (1992) Female circumcision and gender identity: A questionable alliance? Soc Sci & Med 35:777-87
 Lowenfels, A. B. & Pieters, G. (1977) Infibulation in the Horn of Africa, New York State J Med 77,6:729-31
 Gallo, P. G. & Abdisamed, M. (1985) Female Circumcision in Somalia: Anthropological Traits, , 43,4:311-26
 Melly, J. M. (1935) Infibulation, Lancet ii:1272, Nov.30
 Preliminary shadow draft.
 Africa: Nyakyusa, Mangaia, Ra’Ivavae, Nama Hottentot, Betchuans, Luba, Nkundo, Ngoni, Zimba, Baganda, Bagishu, Suaheli, Shona, Burundi, Zande, VaRemba, Bahemba, Venda, Lenda, Bapende, Bemba, M’wemba, Nkoya, Kgatla, Thonga, Tetela, Lamba, Beti, “Bamouns”, Tikars, Mangbetu, Fan (Dahomey), Ila, “Grand Lacs” tribes, Chewa, Chaga, Makonde, Lozi, Baushi
 The Azande “take a little girl and rub the paste on her vulva and then pinch the eleusine [a riverside shrub dug up and sun-dried in] with it, saying: “You are medicine of eleusine. Eleusine, you expand like a woman’s vulva which, be it ever so small, is sufficient for any man. Eleusine, you expand in the granary like a woman’s vulva. Eleusine, you expand like susu. May not eleusine lessen. Let it be sufficient” (Evans-Pritchard, 1937:p457).
 Hansson, G. (1996) Mnana Ndi Mai. Doctoral Dissertation, Uppsala University. More information is found in Mabuwa, C. (1993) The Komba Ritual of the VaRemba Tribe of Mberengwa. Dissertation, University of Zimbabwe, p25-6; and Afschwanden, H. (1982) Symbols of Life. Gweru: Mambo Press, p77-8
 Bourgeois, R. (1954) Banyarwanda et Barundi. Brussel: [s.n.]
 Stephens, W. N. (1971) A cross-cultural study of modesty and obscenity, in Technical report of the Commission on Obscenity and Pornography. Washington, US: Government printing office. Vol. 9, p405-51. Data originally published in Stephens, W. N. (1968) A Cross-Cultural Study of Modesty and Obscenity. Halifax: Dalhousie University Press
 Herskovits, M. (1938) Dahomey: An Ancient West-African Kingdom. Vol. 1. Locust Valley, New York: J.J. Augustin
 Junod, H. I. (1912, 1927 ) The Life of a South African Tribe. Hyde Park, New York: University Books
 Wilson, M. (1957) Rituals of Kinship among the Nyakyusa. Oxford: Oxford University Press
 Schapera, I. (1930) The Khoisan Peoples of South Africa, Bushmen and Hottentots. London: Routledge
 Ploß, H. H. & Bartels, M. () Das Weib in der Natur- und Völkerkunde, Vol. 1. Rev. ed. Leipzig: Th. Grieben
 Merensky, A. (1875) Die Hottentotten (Vortrag), Zeitschr Ethnol 7, Verhandlungen, [18-23]
 Stoll, O. (1908) Das Geschlechtsleben in die Völkerpsychologie. Leipzig: Veit
 Its masturbatory significance may be disputed. See Karsch-Haack, F. (1911) Das Gleichgeschlechtliche Leben der Naturvölker. München: E. Reinhardt, p474-5
 Cesara, M. (1982) Reflections of a Woman Anthropologist: No Hiding Place. London [etc.]: Academic Press
 Evans-Pritchard, E. E. (1937) Witchcraft, Oracles and Magic Among the Azande. Oxford: Clarendon Press
 Blacking, J. () Venda Girls’ Initiation Schools. Unpublished field data edited by Michael Fischer and David Zeitlyn, Department of Social Anthropology, Queen’s University of Belfast. See also Blacking, J. (1967) Venda Children’s Songs. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press, with interpretations of children’s songs. See esp. 83-4
 Johnston, H. H., Torday, E., Joyce, T. & Seligmann, C. G. (1913) A Survey of the Ethnography of Africa: And the Former Racial and Tribal Migrations in That Continent, J Royal Anthropol Instit Great Britain & Ireland 43:375-421
Cf. Janssen, D. F. (2003) Enculturation Curricula, Abuse Categorisation and the Globalist/Culturalist Project: The Genital Reference, Issues in Child Abuse Accusations 13 [http://www.ipt-forensics.com/journal/volume13/j13_1_2.htm]
 Kosssodo, B. L. (1978) Die Frau in Afrika. München: List. Translated from the English
 Ashton (1952) The Basuto. London [etc.]: Oxford University Press. See also Erny (1980:p180)
 Schenkel, R. (1971) Le vecu de la vie sexuelle chez les Africains accultures du Senegal, a partir des notions d’impuissance et de puissance sexualle, Psychopathol Afr 7,3:313-88
 Gibbs, J. L. (1965) The Kpelle of Liberia, in Gibbs, J.L. (Ed.) Peoples of Africa. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, p199-240, at p209; Duerr, H. P. (1988) Nacktheit und Scham. Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp. Vol. 1 of Der Mythos vom Zivilizationprocess. 2nd ed., p201/416n25
 Kokonge, M. & Erny, P. (1976) Comportements sexuels chez les Baushi Kinama (Shaba, Zaire), Psychopathol Afr 12, 1:5-33
 Eibl-Eibesfeldt, I. (1972) Die !Ko-Buschmann-Gesellschaft. München: Piper. Also cited by Duerr, H. P. (1988) Nacktheit und Scham. Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp. Vol. 1 of Der Mythos vom Zivilizationprocess. 2nd ed., p201
 Sbrzesny, H. (1976) Die Spiele der !Ko-Buschleute. München: Piper
 Konner, M. J. (1972) Aspects of the developmental ethology of a foraging people, in Jones, N. B. (Ed.) Ethological Studies of Child Behaviour. London: Cambridge University Press, p285-304
 Wembah-Rashid (1994) Traditional fertility regulation and child-spacing practice: a Tanzanian matrilineal tradition of child spacing, Afr Anthropol 1,1/2:49-58
 Loewenson, R. et al. (1997) Sexual Abuse of Children in Zimbabwe. Harare: Training and Research Support Centre
 Kaye, B. (1960) Child Training in Ghana. Institute of
Education, Child Development Monographs 1; Kaye, B. (1962) Bringing Up Children in Ghana.
 Among 21 sites studied, in 2 it was said that a majority did it, a few do not; in 7 some do, some don’t, in 4 nobody did, and in one there is insufficient data. In Banko, “some mothers stroke little babies’ penises and make them stiff and laugh at the boys”. At the same time, they did not allow masturbation. In sixteen sites, it was said that everyone gives special attention to genitals when bathing.
 Vincent, M. (1954) L’Enfant au Ruanda-Uruundi. Brussels: IRCB. Also cited by Erny (1972 [1981:p60]). See Erny, P. (1972) L’Enfant et son Milieu en Afrique Noire. Paris: Bibliotheque Scientifique. Abridged and adapted by Wanjohi, G. J. (1981) as The Child and his Environment in Black Africa.
 Leblanc, M. (1960) Personnalité de la Femme Katangaise. Paris, Louvain, Publ. Universitaires
 Ackerman, D. A. (1990) Natural History of the Senses. New York: Random House, p111-2; Mtoro, Bin M. Bakari (tr. J.W.T. Allen) Desturi Za Waswahili: The Customs of the Swahili People. California, USA: University of California Press, 1981 
 Van der Burgt, J. M. M. (1903) Dictionnaire Français-Kirundi [etc.]. Bois-le-Duc : Societé L’Illustration Catholique ; Van der Burgt, J. M. M. (1904) Un Grand Peuple de l’Afrique Equatoriale. Bois-le-Duc : Societé L’Illustration Catholique
 Remarkably, the male practice, which is typical for its kneeling position, is illustrated photographically (p118).
 Cf. De Leeuwe (1970)
 Bryk, F. (1928) Neger-Eros: Ethnologische Studien über das Sexualleben bei Negern. Berlin & Köln: A. Marcus & E. Weber’s Verlag. Translated as Voodoo-Eros. New York: United Book Guild (1964)
 Bryk, F. (1931) Die Beschneidung bei Mann und Weib. New Brandenburg: Gustav Feller. English translation by David Berger, MA (1934) Circumcision in Man and Woman. New York: American Ethnological Press, and AMS Press (1974)
 Merker (1910:p65n) remarks that “[b]oys and girls already begin to practice cohabitation at the age of eight to ten”.
 Hargraves, B. J. (1978) Killing and curing: succulent use in Chipita, Soc Malawi J 31,2:21-30
 Thomas, Th. I. (1899) The Psychology of Modesty and Clothing, Am J Sociol 5,2:246-62
 Ploß, H. H. / Renz, B. (1912) Das Kind in Brauch und Sitte der Völker. 3rd enl. & rev. ed. Leipzig: Th. Grieben. Vol. II. See p535-44
 Examples are found for the Kanuri, Baifa, Pangwe / Fan, Santal, Pedi, Xhosa, Ila, Baushi, Batetela, Alur, northern Basukuma, Shona, Thonga, Venda, Bemba, and in Tanzania; also Sharanahua
 Mantlewane (Seligman), or mandwane (Krige and Krige) or mantlantlwane (Pitje), or mantloana, or housie-housie (Gevisser and Cameron), and masanje (Stannus) or mansansa (Kokonge and Erny), masansa (Maxwell) or perhaps mahundwani (“miniature village”) (Stayt).
Zaire (Baushi, Batetela, Mongo), Zambia (Luvale), Botswana (Kgatla), Zimbabwe (Shona), Uganda (Acholi).
 Bozon, M. (2003) At what age do women and men have their first sexual intercourse? World comparisons and recent trends, Population & Sociétés, 391, June:1-4
 “The Babwa, Fan, Kuku and Rega practise intercourse as soon as they are capable of it” (p229).
 Mair, L. P. (1953) African marriage and social change, in Phillips, A. (Ed.) Survey of African Marriage and Family Life. Londond [etc.]: Oxford University Press, p1-171
 Pedrals, D. (1950) La Vie Sexuelle en Afrique Noire. Paris: Payot
 Margold, Ch. W. (1926) The Need of a Sociological Approach to Problems of Sex Conduct: III. The Invariable Presence of Social Control in Man's Sexual Conduct, Am J Sociol 31,5:634-56
 Angus, H. C., [The initiation ceremonies of girls as performed in Azimba Land, Central Africa], Zeitschr Ethnol 30:; Stannus, H. S. (1910) Notes on some tribes of British Central Africa, J Royal Anthropol Instit Great Britain & Ireland 40, Jul-Dec.:285-335, see p309, Murdock, J. (1892) Ethnological results of the Point Barrow expedition, in the Ninth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1887-88. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, p418; Malinowski, “Psychoanalysis and Anthropology”, in Psyche 4:; Jochelson, W. (1926) The Yukaghir and the Yukaghirized Tungas, in Boas, F. (Ed.) The Jesup North Pacific Expedition. Leiden & New York: Brill / Stechart. Vol. 9, part I:[p68]; Smith, E. W. & Dale, A. M. (1920) The Ila-Speaking Peoples of Northern Rhodesia. London: Macmillan. 2 vols. See Vol. I, p38; Johnston, H. (1902) The Uganda Protectorate. London: Hutchinson. Vol. II, p824
 Malinowski, loc.cit.
 Tessmann, [1913, II], p252
 Weeks, J. H. (1911) Among Congo Cannibals. London: Seeley, Service & Co, p127. Weeks stated: “Above the age of five years it is impossible to find a girl who is a virgin, and it has been difficult to find a word for virgin in the Congo languages”. Also note Weeks (1910:p416) in Upper Congo: “Boys and girls from an early age until puberty have free intercourse with each other, and I believe that later there is no public condemnation if the girls are not betrothed. […] Premenstrual connection is desired by men because they like it, and also because they can indulge freely and there is no palaver, and it is not until the beginning of the periods that girls are guarded from promiscuous intercourse”. See Weeks, J. H. (1910) Anthropological Notes on the Bangala of the Upper Congo River. (Part III), J Royal Anthropol Instit Great Britain & Ireland 40:360-427]. Among the Congo Ba-huana, sexual indulgence is not checked (Torday, E. & Joyce, T. A. (1906) Notes on the ethnography of the Ba-huana, J Anthropol Institut 36:[235 et seq.]).
 Angus, op.cit., p480
 Stannus, loc.cit.
 Weeks, J. H. (1914) Among the Primitive Bakongo. London: Secley [etc.], p172. Weeks stated: “The unbetrothed girls from an early age up to puberty had free ingress to these houses [adolescent bachelors’ clubs] at night, and their parents encouraged them to go, as it “showed they had proper desires, and later in life they would bear children” ”. Access to the bachelor’s huts is customary for boys aged 12.
 Op.cit., Smith & Dale, II, p38
 Hustaert, R. P. G. (1938) Le Marriage chez les Nkoundo. Bruxelles, as cited by Pedrals (1950:p17), op.cit.
 Hyades & Deniker (1891) Mission Scientifique du Cap Horn, 1882-1883. Paris. Vol. 7, p171; Parsons, E. C. (1906) The Family. New York & London: Putman, p69
 Hyades & Deniker (1891:p188); Parsons (1906:p122), op.cit.
 Culwick, G. M. (1939) New ways for old in the treatment of adolescent African girls, Africa 12:425-32, as cited by Pedrals (1950:p17), op.cit., and by Reuter, A. (1963) Native Marriages in South Africa According to Law and Custom. Münster: Aschendorffsche Verlagsbuchhandlung, p111. See also Schapera, I. (1933) Premarital pregnancy and native opinions, Africa 6:59-89[68-70]
 Trézenem, E. (1936) Notes ethnographiques sur les tribus Fan du Moyen-Ogooué, J Soc Afric 6, as cited by Pedrals (1950:p17), op.cit.
 Halkin, J. & Viaene, E. (1911) Les Ababua. Bruxelles: Dewit, p265, as cited by Pedrals (1950:p17), op.cit.
 Bösch, R. P. (1930) Les Banyamwezi, Anthropos 3,2:[p538], as cited by Pedrals (1950:p17), op.cit.
 Metschnikof, E. () Studien über die Natur des Menschen. Leipzig: Von Veit & Co., p117
 Welch as cited by Bradbury, R. E. (1957) The Benin Kingdom and the Edo-Speaking Peoples of Southwestern Nigeria. International African Institution, p154
 Colle, R. P. (1913) Les Baluba (Congo Belge). Bruxelles: A de Wit, Vol.1
 Vanden Plas, J. (1910) Les Kuku. Bruxelles: A de Wit
 Van Overbergh, C., Les Manbetu. Bruxelles: A. de Wit
 In Van Overbergh, C. (1908) Les Basonge. Bruxelles: A. de Wit
 Delhaise (1909) Les Warega. Bruxelles: A. de Wit
 Schultze, L. (1907) Aus Namaland und Kalahari. Jena: Fischer
Freimark (1911), op.cit.
 See also Ames, D. W. (1953) Plural Marriage among the Wolof in the Gambia. PhD Thesis, Northwestern University, p140: “Young people, including the boys who attend the bush circumcision school, are given no instruction in sexual techniques. They learn by experimentation beginning in childhood”.
 Meekers, D. (1995) Immaculate conceptions in sub-Saharan Africa: exploratory analysis of inconsistencies in the timing of first sexual intercourse and first birth, Soc Biol 42,3-4:151-61
 Valentine, C. H. & Revson, J. E. (1979) Cultural Traditions, Social Change, and Fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa, J Modern Afr Studies 17,3:453-72, at p460
 Ericksen, K. P. (1989) Female genital mutilations in Africa, Behav Sci Res 23,1:182-204
 32 are identified: Amhara, Arusi, Ashanti, Bambara, Barabra, Buduma, Diula, Egypt, Fon, Futajalonke, Ganda, Ibo, Kabyle, Kafa, Kanembu, Kikuyu, Luguru, Mao, Mbum, Mbundu, Mossi, Nyakyusa, Riffains, Sandawe, Siwa, Somali, Songhai, Swazi, Teda, Venda, Wolof, Zazzagawa
 Reuters, J. (2001) Virginity Tests on Comeback Trail in South Africa, Jenda 1,1:1-3
 See Chaga, Kikuyu, Hausa, Dakarkaki, Nyakyusa, Xhosa, Tebu, Swazi, N’Jemp, Amazulu, Kipsigis, Venda, Pedi (debated), Bemba
 Hlobonga or ukusoma (Amazulu), ngwiko (Kikuyu) or ombani na ngweko (N’Jemp), tsarance (Hausa), metsha (Xhosa, Tebu) along with unkuncokolisa and uku-phathaphatha, kujuma (Swasi), kuchompa (Ila), lukh (Wa-Sania). Other expressions include “petting of the pubic apron” (Otoro) and “placing of arms” (Lugbara). Formerly, South African boys and girls had to be instructed “not to play inside”, and only to have “ “panty” or “thigh” sex” (Ntlabati, Kelly and Mankayi, 2001:p9, 11, 18).
 Watts, R. (1999) The challenge of the virginity campaigns, AIDS Anal Afr 9,4:9-10
 Sumner, W. G. (1906) Folkways. Boston [etc.]: Ginn & Co. Citing Peterm Mittlgen Erg 25:9
 “Although now rare, child bethrothal [sic] (yere akoda, asiwa) was once very common, especially for cross-cousins. Marriage is considered more a group union, rather than an individual bond”. Warren, D. M. (1986) The Akan of Ghana: An Overview of the Ethnographic Literature. Accra: Pointer Ltd.
 Danquah, J. B. (1928) Gold Coast: Akan Laws and Customs and the Akim Abuakwa Constitution. London: George Routledge & Sons, Ltd. Cf. Rattray (1927:p76-7)
 Warren, D. M. (1975) The Techiman-Bobo of Ghana: An Ethnography
of an Akan Society. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Pub.
 Forum on Marriage and the Rights of Women and Girls (May 2000) Early Marriage: Whose Right to Choose? Mission Statement [http://www.crin.org/docs/resources/publications/WhoseRighttoChoose.pdf / http://www.eenet.org.uk/key_issues/gender/emarriage_choose.pdf / http://www.eenet.org.uk/key_issues/gender/emarriage_choose.doc]
 Westermarck, E. () The History of Human Marriage. Third Edition. London: MacMillan
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 Bosman, p424
 Burchell, (II, p58, 564); Beecham, Ashantee and the Gold Coast, p126
 Zabin, L. S. & Kiragu, K. (1998) The Health Consequences of Adolescent Sexual and Fertility Behavior in Sub-Saharan Africa, Stud Fam Plann 29,2:210-32
 Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children. WHO/ EMRO Technical Publication No. 2. Alexandria. Report of a Seminar, Khartoum, 10-15 Febr., 1979. Vol. 1:p132-47; Vol. 2
 Early Marriage, Child Spouses, Innocenti Digest 7, March 2001
 Final Report on National Baseline Survey of Positive and Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Girls in Nigeria (1998) Centre for Gender and Social Policy Studies, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife
 As reprinted in Ocholla-Ayayo, A. B. C. (1994) Sociocultural influence on family-planning acceptance in Africa: special reference to Kenya, Afr Anthropol 31-48, see p42-3
 Pavitt, N. (1997) Turkana: Kenya’s Nomads of the Jade Sea. London: Harvill; Akalu, A. (1985) Beyond Morals? Lund: Gleerup
 Nomachi, A. K. (phot., 1989) The Nile. Hong Kong: Odyssey. 1990 Dutch translation, Langs de Oevers van de Nijl
 Jensen, A. E. (1933) Beschneidung und Reifezeremonien bei Naturvölkern. Frankfurt am Main: Strecker & Schröder, p20-73
 Zeller, M. (1923) Die Knabenweihen. Bern: Paul Haupt, p2-40
 Op.cit., Vol. II, p169-89
E.g., Glaser, C. (1998) Swines, Hazels and the Dirty Dozen: Masculinity, Territoriality and the Youth Gangs of Soweto, 1960-1976, J Southern Afr Stud 24,4:719-36, p722
 Read, M. (1955) Education in Africa: its pattern and role in social change, Ann Am Acad Polit & Soc Sci 298:170-9. Reprinted in Middleton, J. (Ed., 1970) From Child to Adult. New York: Natural History Press, p272-86
 Bertling, C. T. (1934) Magie en Phallisme. Amsterdam: H. J. Paris [Dutch]
 Macdonald, D. (1882) Africana. London. Vol.1, p126 [orig. footnote]
 MacDonald, J. (189) Manners, Customs, Superstitions, and Religions of South African Tribes, J Anthropol Instit Great Britain & Ireland 20:113-40. [Macdonald, however, writes that actual sexual intercourse is prohibited]
 Maclean, J. (1858) A Compendium of Kafir Laws and Customs. Mount Coke, p98, 101[orig. footnote]
 Reade, W. W. (1863) Savage Africa. London, p451[orig. footnote]
 MacDonald, J. (1893) East Central African Customs, J Anthropol Instit Great Britain & Ireland 22:99-122 [orig. footnote]. This reference also proved incorrect.
 Seligman, C. G. & Seligman, B. Z. (1928) The Bari, J Royal Anthropol Instit Great Britain & Ireland 58,Jul-Dec:409-79
 Cakravarti, C. (1963) Sex Life in Ancient India. Calcutta, p144
 Browne, G. (1913) Circumcision Ceremonies Among the Amwimbe, Man 13:137-40
 Sangree, W. H. (1966) Age, Prayer, and Politics in Tiriki, Kenya. New York: Oxford University Press; Kertzer, A. F. (1978) Transitions Over the Life Course: Lessons from Age-Set Societies, Am J Sociol 83,5:1081-104
 Brown, J. T. (1921) Circumcision Rites of the Becwana Tribes, J Royal Anthropol Instit Great Britain & Ireland 51:419-27
 Bohannan, P. (1954) Circumcision Among the Tiv, Man 54:2-6
 Baker, E. C. (1927) Age-Grades in Musoma District, Tanganyika Territory, Man 27:221-4
 Brelsford, V. (1935) History and Customs of the Basala, J Royal Anthropol Instit Great Britain & Ireland 65:205-15
 Róheim lists the following works: Smith, E. W. & Dale, A. M. (1920) The Ila-Speaking Peoples of Northern Rhodesia. Vol. II, p25; Kidd, D. (1904) The Essential Kaffir, p200; Roscoe (1911) The Baganda, p80; Werner, A. (1906) Natives of Central Africa. London, p126; Weiß, M. (1910) Die Völkerstamme im Norden Deutsch Ost-Afrikas. Berlin: Marschner, p299, 300
 Róheim, G. (1929) Dying Gods and Puberty Ceremonies, J Royal Anthropol Instit Great Britain & Ireland 59:181-97
 Banuaku, A. F. (1976) “Kyiribra”: Tradition, Change and Anomie in Puberty Rites, West-African J Sociol & Polit Sci 1,2:169-76
 The introduction of the Christian rite of confirmation as an alternative to puberty rites produced an anomaly, since confirmation was not always delayed until puberty was reached. This was said to relax sexual standards, producing a high incidence of young unmarried mothers.
 Meekers, D. (1994) Sexual initiation and premarital childbearing in sub-Saharan Africa, Population Studies 48,1:47-64
 Gage, A. J. & Meekers, D. (1994) Sexual activity before marriage in sub-Saharan Africa, Social Biol 41,1-2: 44-60
 Cauley, A. P. et al. (October, 1995) Meeting the Needs of Young Adults. Population Reports 23,3. Population Information Program, Center for Communication Programs, The Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, table 2
 Duncan, M.E., Tibaux, G. et al. (1994) Teenage obstetric and gynaecological problems in an African city, 49,9:234-44
 Stewart, M. (1995) Rural Tanzanian Youths’ First Intercourse Is Early, Number of Partners High (in Digests), Int Fam Plann Perspect 21,1:42-3
 Varkevisser, C. M. (1969) Growing up in Sukumaland, in Primary Eduation in Sukumaland (Tanzania). Groningen: Wolters-Noordhoff, p42-82
 “For this reason girls were generally forbidden to play this game when they had become physically mature”.
 See also author’s separate paper entitled “Age Disparate Homoeroticism: Annotated Ethnohistorical Bibliography”.
 Mobayen, L. (2001) ‘Embrace’ explores sexuality, identity in apartheid society, Daily Bruin Online, February 15; Behr, M. (2000) Embrace. London: Little, Brown
 Puterbaugh, G. (1990) Africa, North, in Dynes, W. R. (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Homosexuality. New York & London: Garland Publ. Inc. Vol. I, p19-22. See also Murray, S. O. (1990) Africa, Sub-Saharan, in Dynes, W. R. (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Homosexuality. New York & London: Garland Publ. Inc. Vol. I, p22-4
 Moodie, T. D. et al. (1988) Migrancy and male sexuality on the South Africa Gold mines, J Southern Afr Stud 14,2:228-56; Moodie, T. D. et al. (1989) Migrancy and male sexuality on the South Africa Gold mines, in Duberman, M. et al. (Eds.) Hidden from History: Reclaiming the Gay and Lesbian Past. New York: New American Library, p411-25; Moodie, T. D. with Ndatshe, V. (1994) Going for Gold. Berkeley [etc.]: University of California Press, chapter 4: Sexualities. See Murray and Roscoe (1998:p178-82) for a detailed account. Another reference is given by Breckenridge, K. (1998) The Allure of Violence: Men, Race and Masculinity on the South African Goldmines, 1900-1950, J Southern Afr Stud 24,4:669-93, at p676. Also Levine, S. (1996) “Picannin” Wages and Child Labor in the South African Agriculture, Mining, and Domestic Service Industries: 1658 to the Present, Anthropol Work Rev 17,1-2:42-50. The practice would have diminished: Campbell, C. (1997) Migrancy, masculine identities and aids: the psychosocial context of HIV transmission on the South African gold mines, Soc Sci & Med 45, Issue 2:273-81, at p279n
 Harries, P. (1990) La symbolique du sexe: l’identité culturelle au début de l’exploitation des mines d’or du Witwatersrand, Cah d’Étud Afr 30, ch.120:451-74; Harries, P. (1994) Work, Culture, and Identity. London: Currey, p200-8, 219; Harries, P. (1990) Symbols and Sexuality: Culture and Identity on the Early Witwatersrand Gold Mines, Gender & History [Great Britain] 2,3:318-36. Cf. Grier, B. (1994) Invisible Hands: The Political Economy of Child Labour in Colonial Zimbabwe, 1890-1930, J Southern Afr Stud 20,1:27-52, at p39, citing Van Onselen, C. (1976) Chibaro: African Mine Labour in Southern Rhodesia, 1900-1933. London: Pluto Press, p124. The “Piccanins” performed “[…] a type of surrogate female role […]. This, together with the socially designed shortage of women in the compounds, partly explains the high incidence of sodomy involving young boys […] vulnerable to the demands of adult men who were denied their normal sexual outlets by the compound system”.
 Shepherd, G. (1987) Rank, Gender, and Homosexuality: Mombasa as a key to understanding sexual options, in Caplan, P. (Ed.) The Cultural Construction of Sexuality. London: Tavistock Publ., p240-70
 Falk, K (1925/6) Homosexualität bei den Eingeborenen in Südwest-Afrika, Arch Menschk 1:202-14; Italiaander, R. (1969) Beobachtungen bei den Negern, in Italiaander, R. (Ed.) Weder Krankheit Noch Verbrechen. Hamburg: Gala, p100-27. Reprinted and translated in Murray, S. O. & Roscoe, W. (Eds.) Boy-Wives and Female Husbands. Studies on African Homosexualities. New York: St. Martin’s Press, p187-96
 Tauxier, L. (1912) Les Noirs du Soudan: Pays Mossi et Gourounni. Paris: Émile LaRose. Cited in Murray, S. O. & Roscoe, W. (Eds.) Boy-Wives and Female Husbands. Studies on African Homosexualities. New York: St. Martin’s Press, p92-3
 Soyeaux, H. (1879) Aus West-Afrika, 1873-1876. Leipzig: F. A. Brockhaus. Vol. II
 Morris, D. R. (1965) The Washing of the Spears. New York: Simon & Schuster; Van Onselen, Ch. (1984) The Small Matter of a Horse. Johannesburg: Ravan Press; Murray and Roscoe (1998:p176, 177), op.cit.
 Parin, P., Morgenthaler, F. & Parin-Metthey, G. (1980) Fear thy Neighbour as Thyself. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
 Tessmann, G. (1904) Die Pangwe. Berlin: E Wasmuth. Vol. I; Murray and Roscoe (1998:p142), op.cit.
 Falk, K (1923) Gleichgeschlechtliches Leben bei einigen Negerstämme Angolas, Arch Anthropol 20:42-5. Reprinted and translated in Murray, S. O. & Roscoe, W. (Eds.) Boy-Wives and Female Husbands. Studies on African Homosexualities. New York: St. Martin’s Press, p167-70
 Omari, T. P. (1963) Role Expectation in the Courtship Situation in Ghana, Social Forces 42,2:147-56
 Murray, S. O. & Roscoe, W. (Eds., 1998) Boy-Wives and Female Husbands. Studies on African Homosexualities. New York: St. Martin’s Press
 “The absence of reflection […] on same-sex behavior in what Africans mean by “age sets”—initiation groups and circumcision classes—is particularly unfortunate, given their significance in African societies. Unlike the comparisons [with ancient Greece and Latino and Arab cultures], these are peer groups that are bound, not differentiated, by age. Extended periods of shared rites and experiences often permit same-sex exploration, and sometimes lead to longterm pair bonding”. Brockman, N. C., Africa Today 47(2000),1:153-5
 In Tanzania, young girls not infrequently report having older men or Mshefas (those who provide) as sexual partners (Fuglesang, M. (1997) Lessons for Life - Past and Present Modes of Sexuality Education in Tanzanian Society, Soc Sci & Med 44,8:1245-54).
 The literature is unclear about the existence of “sugar mommies”.
J. van (1999) Mapenzi na Pesa: Girls in Search for Love, Sex and Money. A
Study on Adolescent Sexuality in an Urban Tanzanian Neighbourhood.
Occasional paper. Nijmegen [Holland]: Katholieke Universiteit
 Sellix, T. (1996) An Investigation into the Relationship
between Older Males and Adolescents Females in Africa: Deconstructing the
“Sugar Daddy”. Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for
Master of Arts in International Development. Washington, DC:
 Bledsoe, Caroline H. 1990 School fees and the marriage process for Mende girls in Sierra Leone, in Sanday, P. R. & Goodenough, R. G. (Eds.) New Directions in the Anthropology of Gender. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, p283–309
 Meekers, D. & Calvès, A. (1997) ‘Main’ girlfriends, girlfriends, marriage, and money: The social context of HIV risk behaviour in sub-Saharan Africa, Health Transition Rev 7, Suppl.:361–75
 Kuate-Defo, B. (2004) Young people's relationships with sugar daddies and sugar mummies: what do we know and what do we need to know? Afr J Reprod Health 8,2:13-37 [http://www.bioline.org.br/request?rh04023]
 Leshabari, M. T. & Kaaya, S. F. (1997) Bridging the information gap: sexual maturity and reproductive health problems among youth in Tanzania, Health Transition Rev, Suppl. 3 to 7:29-44: “ `Sugar daddies' have often been blamed for observed coital relationships between single girls and older men, where financial or material gain for the girls is implied (Lema and Kabeberi-Macharia 1992; Lwihula, Nyamuryekung'e and Hamelmann 1996). However, the `sugar daddy' phenomenon may be too simplistic an explanation for the dynamics of sexual relations in Africa, particularly with respect to the youth population. In a study conducted in Dar es Salaam for example, a large proportion of 200 teenagers with abortion complications, the majority of whom were single, reported their partners to be men above the age of 45 years (Mpangile, Leshabari and Kihwele 1993). Almost 40 per cent of these partners lived in the same poor neighbourhoods as the girls and were not perceived to be better-off financially. Thus financial and material benefit for the girls may not have been the only reason for their relationships with the older men. Often when the `sugar daddy' phenomenon is discussed, a shift from established cultural rules which governed sexual morality and sexual partnership in the African context is implied”.
 Silberschmidt, M. & Rasch, V. (2001) Adolescent girls, illegal abortions and “sugar-daddies” in Dar es Salaam: vulnerable victims and active social agents, Soc Sci Med 52,12:1815-26
 Davidson, J. O. (2001) The Sex Exploiter. Theme paper for the Second World Congress Against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children
 Ba, Y. (1981) Some elements for a debate on juvenile “prostitution” and its suppression, African Environm 114-15-16, ENDA Dakar, Senegal
 McGreal, C. (2001) AIDs myth drives South african baby rape crisis “due to AIDS myth”, The Guardian, Nov 3; Pitcher, G. J. & Bowley, D. M. (2002) Infant rape in South Africa, Lancet Jan 26; 359(9303):274-5
Jewkes, R., Martin, L. & Penn-Kekana, L. (2002) The virgin cleansing myth: cases of child rape are not exotic, Lancet Feb 23;359(9307):711. Reply by Bowley, D. M. & Pitcher, G. J. (2002) Motivation behind infant rape in South Africa, Lancet, 4/13/2002; 359,9314:1352
 Burton, R. F. (transl./annot.) The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night, Volume 1 [Gutenberg EBook]
 Lalla Diallo, S. (1980) Études pour un projet d’éducation sexuelle adaptée à la Republique du Mali, Rev Belge Psychol & Pedagog 42(170): 53-68
 Róheim lists the following works: Smith, E. W. & Dale, A. M. (1920) The Ila-Speaking Peoples of Nothern Rhodesia. Vol. II, p25; Kidd, D. (1904) The Essential Kaffir., p200; Roscoe (1911) The Baganda, p80; Werner, A. (1906) Natives of Central Africa, p126; Weiß, M. (1910) Die Völkerstamme im Norden Deutsch-Ostafrikas, p299, 300
 Luba, Nkundo, Kamba, Dogon, Ewe, Amhara, Valenge, Mbuti, Schwalbe Fulani, Ivory Coast, Sukuma, Tetela
 Mbuti, Nkoya, Makonde, Ndembu, Zulu,
 Kuranko, Mambwe, Maka, Nambyans, Zulu, Mbuti, Yoruba, Chewa, Ovimbundu, Tiv
 Kamba, Bemba, Shona, Makonde, Hambukushu, Hehe, Nambyans, Gusii, Meru, Luguru and Zaramo. African boys may be instructed by grandfathers (Nambyans, Shona, Kaguru, Mongo, Baluba, Bahungana). In the nonmaternal cases the generational gap (e.g., Xhosa, Hehe, Gusii, Zulu, Luguru, Bena, Gogo; provisionally for Mongo, Baluba and Bahungana; also Majuro [Marshall Islands]) is a moral obligation.
 Zimbabwe, Shona, Keffi Yegomawa Fulani, Alur, Baganda, Karanga
 E.g., Bemba, Chewa, Yao, Nambyans, Basoko, Tetela, Sukuma, Bantu (Tanzania), Karugu, Makonde, Tswana
 Bantu (clay or wood model), Makonde (clay figurines), Valenge (dolls), Luguru (chickens), Bena (sticks and stones)
 E.g., Yao, Nambyans, Basoko, Tetela, Sukuma, etc.
 Kikuyu, Zulu, Matabele, Makonde, Hehe, Kaguru, Bena, Subiya
 Ms Lilian Wamulume, “Some traditions corrupt” in Search News Magazine, Vol. 2(1), Jan. 1992
 E.g., Stewart, K. A. (2000) Toward a Historical Perspective on Sexuality in Uganda: The Reproductive Lifeline Technique for Grandmothers and their Daughters, Africa Today 47,3/4:124-48, at p136