In colonial rural
“In northern Mozambique as elsewhere in Southern Africa, the elongation of the small vaginal lips that used to make or break a girl’s initiation, was started when the girl was 8 or 9 years old (Geisler, 1997:p96). “[…] young people have no sex education, girls drop out of school when they become pregnant, girls marry at a age 10 or 11, and men believe that having sexual intercourse with a virgin will cure them of AIDS”.
“Adolescents commence sexarche early, between 14 - 16 years old, motivated by curiosity and pleasure seeking. For some, the initiation of sex comes not by choice but by the demands of their partner through emotional, physical, and economic coercion. Both pathways reflect hegemonic cultural themes of male dominance through sexual conquest and female acquiescence. In popular discourse, men conquer and women cede their sexual ‘parts’ ” (Karlyn, 2003).
D. F., Growing Up Sexually.
Last revised: Mar 2005
 Kruks, S. & Wisner, B. (1984)
The State, the Party and the Female Peasantry in
 Child marriage briefing:
Arnfred, S. (1989) Notes on Gender and Modernization. Paper presented at ROAPE conference, Warwick, p3. Cited by Geisler, G. (1997) Women are women or how to please your husband: initiation ceremonies and the politics of “tradition” in southern Africa, Afr Anthropol 4,1:92-128
 Owen, M. (1997) The bottom line: Mozambique, Plan Parent Chall (1-2):45-7
 Karlyn, A. (2003) Intimacy revealed: The language and context of adolescent sexual experimentation in Maputo, Mozambique. 4th Conference of the International Association for the Study of Sexuality, Culture and Society (IASSCS) ‘Sex and Secrecy’