Pfeiffer (1963:p310): “Knaben und Mädchen haben, solange sie noch wirklich Kinder sind, freien Umgang, und es kommt häufig zu sexuellen Spielereien”.
about Pharaonic circumcision were documented in Boddy (1982, 1997, 2003).
A recent work is that by Almroth (2005;
cf. Almroth et al., 2001).
Though not mentioned in the Qur’an, and outlawed by both Islamic and Sudanese
law, Pharaonic type circumcision is
said to be practised, sometimes at an age of seven days, for the Islamic argument
of “protecting female modesty and chastity” (e.g., House, 1988:p299). It should nevertheless be
observed that medieval Muslims who practised female excision “perceived the
custom as one that had religious sanction” (Berkey, 1996). Female circumcision seems to be
declining slightly in some areas of
§ Al Azharia Jahn, Samia (1980) Zur Frage des Zahen Fortlebens der Beschneidung der Frauen mit Besonderer Berucksichtigung der Verhaltnisse im Sudan, Curare 3,1:23-30
Badri, A. E. (?) Female Circumcision in The Sudan, in Association of
African women for research and development, Women and reproduction in
Badri, Amna Elsadik (1984) Female Circumcision in the
Badri, Amna Elsadik (1992) Female Circumcision in the
Barclay, Harold P. Buurri al Lamaab (1964) A Suburban Village in the Sudan.
Boddy, Janice (1982) Parallel
Worlds: Humans, Spirits and Zar Possession in Rural
§ Chrisler, J. C. & Zittel, C. B. (1998) Menarche stories: reminiscences of college students from Lithuania, Malaysia, Sudan, and the United States, Health Care Women Int 19,4:303-12
§ El Dareer, A A. (1983) Attitudes of Sudanese people to the practice of female circumcision, Int J Epidemiol 12,2:138-44
Euler, M. (2002) Female Genital Mutilation A Report on
the Present Situation in
Gordon, D. (1991) Female circumcision and genital operations in
§ Gruenbaum, Ellen (1996) The Cultural Debate Over Female Circumcision: the Sudanese Are Arguing This One Out for Themselves, Med Anthropol Quart N.S. 10,4:455-75
Halim, Abdel & Asma Mohamed. (1995) Rituals and Angels: Female
Circumcision and the Case of
Huber, Yvonne (1992) Weibliche
Huddleston, C. E. (1949) Female genital mutilation in the
Kheir, E. et al. (nd) Female
circumcision: attitudes and practices in
Lightfoot-Klein, H. (1983) Pharaonic Circumcision of Females in the
Lightfoot-Klein, H. (1989a) The sexual experience and marital
adjustment of genitally circumcised and infibulated females in the
§ Lightfoot-Klein, H. (1989b) Über Radikale Beschneidung von Frauen im Sudan, Zeitschr f Sexualforsch 2,2:147-59
Mustafa, A. Z. (1966) Female circumcision and infibulation in the
Neven-Spence, B. (1949) Female circumcision in the
Otor, S. C. J. & Pandey, A. (1999) Adolescent
transition to coitus and premarital childbearing in
Parker, M. (1995) Rethinking Female Circumcision:
Circumcision in the
Pridie, E. D.
et al. (1945) Female Circumcision in
Rushwan, Hamid et al. (1983) Female Circumcision in the
Sami, I. R. (1986) Female circumcision with special reference to the
Mutilations. Case studies presented at the workshop: African women speak on
Shamma, A. O. A. et al. (1949) Female circumcision in the
§ Shandall, A. A. (1967) Circumcision and infibulation of females, Sudan Med J 5,4:178-212
Worsley, A. (1938) Infibulation and Female Circumcision: A Study of a
Little Known Custom (
§ Baseline Survey on Female Genital Mutilation Prevalence and Cohort Assemby in CFCI Three Focus States, Sudan. Assignment Report to UNICEF, Khartoum, Sudan. By Prof. Ahmed Bayoumi, November 2003
D. F., Growing Up Sexually.
Last revised: Sept 2005
 Elsarrag, M. E. (1968) Psychiatry
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1982) Womb as Oasis: The symbolic context of Pharaonic circumcision in rural
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(2005) Genital mutilation of girls in
 Almroth L, Almroth-Berggren V, Hassanein OM. A community-based study on the change of practice of female genital mutilation in a Sudanese village. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2001;74:179-185 http://www.intact-network.net/main2/document/articles/communityBased.pdf
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Women in the
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 Islam, M. M. & Uddin, M. M.
(2001) Female circumcision in
 Abusharaf, R. M. (Spring 2001) Virtuous cuts: female genital circumcision in an African ontology, Differences 12,1:112-40
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