Girls are circumcised in what is called the Bondo Society, the traditional women’s secret society. A 1985 study of girl circumcision was offered by Koso-Thomas (1987). A good overview was recently provided by Berggren (2004:p24-39).
terms adolescence and youth refer mostly to boys in
mutilation (FGM), which is condemned by international health experts as
damaging to both physical and psychological health, is widely practiced on
young women and girls, especially in traditional ethnic groups and among the
less-educated. While UNICEF estimates the percentage of females who have undergone
this procedure may be as high as 90 percent, local groups believe this figure
is overstated [in 1997]”.
“A crudely performed operation to remove the clitoris from adolescent girls forms
a key part of the initiation ceremonies held by powerful, women-only secret
societies that prepare young girls for adult life, marriage and motherhood in
the West African country. […] The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
estimates that 90 percent of all women in
§ Sexual Mutilations. Case studies presented at the workshop: African women speak on female circumcision, Khartoum (October 21-25, 1984), Babiker Badri - Scientific Association for Women Studies, p62 [http://www.wluml.org/english/pubs/pdf/dossier3/D3-02-Africa.pdf]
§ Razor’s Edge - The Controversy of Female Genital Mutilation - IRIN Web Special, March 2005, p21-3 [http://www.irinnews.org/webspecials/FGM/FGM-webspecial.pdf]
Janssen, D. F., Growing Up Sexually. Volume I. World Reference Atlas. 0.2 ed. 2004. Berlin: Magnus Hirschfeld Archive for Sexology
Last revised: May 2005
 Sillah, Memuna M.. (1996) Bundu trap. (cover story), Natural History 105,8;42 et seq.
 Koso-Thomas, O. (1987) The Circumcision of Women: A Strategy for Eradication.
 Berggren, Tilde (Fall 2004) The Implementation of the Convention on the
Elimination of Discrimination against Women and the Convention on the Rights of
the Child Regarding Female Genital Cutting in
 Women's Commission for Refugee
Women and Children (2002) Precious
Resources. Participatory Research Study with Adolescents and Youth in
 Female circumcision is a vote
 Ban The Bondo Society,