20th Century

性行为的基本类型

1. 自我性刺激: 简史

20世纪对自我性刺激的认识

威廉·赖希
(1897-1957年) 一位激进的心理分析学家,他再一次把手淫推荐为一种治疗方法。

Wilhelm Reich
(1897-1957) a radical Austrian psychoanalyst, once again recommended masturbation as therapy

在逼近19世纪末,当大多数西方社会已经全面启动了工业化发展和开始享受工业化成果的时候,缓慢发展的性自由主义化(sexual liberalization)进程便开始降临,有关手淫的主流医学准则开始受到质疑。首先,一些精神病学家开始怀疑手淫是否就不是精神病的病因,而是精神病的症状。随后,有人认为手淫与精神病就根本没有任何联系。“自渎(self-abuse)”可能只是一种“坏习惯”或是一种“发育迟缓(arrested development)”的症状。尽管如此,一些医生仍旧坚持认为男青年适当的身体发育有赖于固精,还认为他们过早浪费精液可能因此而使身体虚弱。不过,因为缺乏证据,甚至这种理论不久也必须被废弃。因此,只是警告人们不要“过度”手淫就时兴起来,并且一度证明这是一种策略运用。因为,“过度”永远不会有确切的定义,不必要提出什么科学证据,然而人们依然阻止任何预期的手淫发生。另一方面,像威廉·赖希Wilhelm Reich, 1897-1957)这样的一些心理分析学者却把手淫作为一种治疗方法,至少对女性来说是这样的。最后需要指出,现代性研究成功地证实:手淫不可能导致任何的身体或精神损害,而手淫过度只是一个相对的条件。虽然有一些人在其一生中从未有过手淫,而另有一些人却在数十年里每日有数次,而且这两种行为方式都自然的正常的健康的

 

 

Basic Types of Sexual  Behavior
1. Sexual Self-stimulation: History

20th Century

Toward the end of the 19th century, when most Western societies had become fully industrialized and started to enjoy the fruits of their new affluence, a slow process of sexual liberalization began to set in, and the prevailing medical doctrine about masturbation began to be questioned. First, some psychiatrists began to wonder whether it might not be the effect rather than the cause of a person's insanity. Then it was doubted that any connection existed at all. "Self-abuse" was perhaps only a "bad habit" or a symptom of "arrested development". Still, some doctors continued to insist that a young man's proper physical growth depended on the preservation of his semen and that he could therefore weaken his body by wasting it prematurely. However, soon even this theory had to be abandoned for lack of evidence. It therefore became fashionable to warn only against "excessive" masturbation, and, for a while, this proved to be a comfortable fallback position. Since the "excess" was never clearly defined, no scientific proof had to be offered, and any prospective masturbator was nevertheless deterred. On the other hand, some psychoanalysts like Wilhelm Reich began to see masturbation as therapeutic, at least for females. Finally, modern sex research succeeded in demonstrating the obvious: Masturbation as such cannot do any physical or mental harm, and "excess" is a relative term. While some people never masturbate at all in their entire lives, others masturbate several times a day for decades, and the one behavior is just as "natural", "normal", or "healthy" as the other.

   

[Course 6] [Description] [How to use it] [Introduction] [Development] [Basic Types] [1. Self-stimulation] [2. Heterosexual] [3. Homosexual] [4. Contact with Animals] [Variations] [Prohibited Behavior] [Additional Reading] [Examination]