赫希菲爾德性學資料庫

Archiv für Sexualwissenschaft

原著:[]歐文黑伯樂(Erwin Haeberle);譯者:[中國]彭曉輝;校對者:[]阮芳賦

Original: Erwin Haeberle [Germany];  Translator: Xiaohui Peng [China];  Reviser:  Fang-fu Ruan [USA]


I.先行者古代-1892

    4. 18世紀                                                                                                                 上一頁 下一頁 返回目錄 返回首頁
1735年,瑞典植物學家卡爾··林奈(Karl von Linné)引入了性分類方法(methodus sexualis)”,即按照植物的生殖結構特徵劃分植物的分類體系。這個植物分類體系(現已廢棄)給當時的大部分學者留下了非常深刻的印象,但是因為這個分類體系讓一種雄蕊在一朵花上或在同一種花上與數個雌蕊授粉,也遭到了當時的道德衛道士的抨擊。他們認為此乃對上帝的誹謗,上帝不可能創造如此墮落的事物。當時,他們煽動教師不要在學校堭訇穠L奈的植物分類體系。

 

 

 

林奈(1707-1778

洛桑(Lausanne,瑞士西部城市,在日內瓦湖北岸——譯者注)醫生撒母耳·逖索特通過其著作《論手淫》(Onanism1760),成了最富影響力的所謂手淫有害論的推行者。在往後的150,“手淫精神錯亂的恐懼一直是疾病預防和青少年性教育的主題。
日內瓦作家與作曲家傑恩-雅克·盧梭(Jean-Jacques Rousseau)在其著作《愛彌兒》(Émile1762)要求在兒童期和青春期保持清白

傑恩-雅克·盧梭(1712-1778)

德國教育家,像J.埃斯特(J. Oest)J. H.坎普(J. H. Campe)等,獻身於反對手淫的教育事業。
馬奎斯··薩德(Marquis de Sade法國作家,其著作多描寫性變態,法國普羅旺斯貴族出身,一生沉淪放蕩,1772年以性虐待,拉皮條,同性戀,散發春藥等罪被判死刑,後以精神病為由被送入精神病院,之後潛心于文學創作。後死於瘋人院。Sadism-性虐待狂一詞即出自於Sade——譯者注)因道德指控而被囚禁在巴斯德監獄,在哪里他秘密地寫了一本怪誕、無恥和褻瀆神明的手淫幻想書(索多瑪120)。這部書也嘲笑理智會使人類富有理性、高尚和仁慈的文明信仰。

 

 

 

馬奎斯··薩德(1740-1814)

英國作家瑪麗·沃爾斯通克拉夫特(Mary Wollstonecraft)1792年發表了《為女人權利辯護》(A Vindication of the Rights of Woman)一書,她在書中正式地要求女性在教育、私生活和公共生活、包括政治權利方面的平等。她撕下了她那個時代婦女天生性別角色的假面具,認為婦女的性別角色是父權制意識形態的產物。瑪麗·沃爾斯通克拉夫特(1759-1797)
這種女權主義的目標在早期也得到了馬奎斯··孔多塞(Marquis de Condorcet )的著作支持。可是,這種女權主義目標不久就在法國大革命的恐怖時期(1793-1794)和隨後的政治恢復期被拋棄了。
傑出醫生約翰·亨特(1728-1793, 英國解剖學家及外科醫生。他認為根據傳染的部位可決定性病的類型,例如淋病是發生在粘膜上,而梅毒硬下疳則發生在皮膚上。依照這種假想,他將一個淋病患者的膿液種植到自己身上;由於該患者還患有梅毒,因而約翰·亨特同時染上了淋病和梅毒,最後死於梅毒性主動脈炎。——譯者注)在其著作《性病論》(Treatise of the Venereal Disease)陽痿一章中清楚地闡述了性治療的基本原理。
到了18世紀末,英國教區牧師湯瑪斯·馬爾薩斯(Thomas Malthus)發表了《人口原理(Essay on the Principle of Population1798),他在書中抨擊了他那個時代的文明雅士墨客的樂觀主義思想,並對人口過剩發出了警告,認為過剩的人口會阻礙人類永久的幸福。

湯瑪斯·馬爾薩斯(1766-1834)

 

 

 

 

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請注意:本姓名位址目錄依賴於感興趣的讀者的錄入。如果需要校正、添加和提出建議,請聯繫:歐文 H. 黑伯勒(Erwin Haeberle) <haeberlee@web.de>

I.Predecessors(Antiquity-1892)

    4.The 18th Century

In 1735 the Swedish botanist Karl von Linné introduces his "methodus sexualis" i.e. a classification system in which plants a listed according to the character and number of their reproductive structures. This system (now obsolete) greatly impresses most contemporary scholars, but is also attacked as obscene by moralists, because it allows for the cohabitation of a male stamen with several female pistils in one and the same flower. This is considered a defamation of God who cannot possibly have created such depravity. Teachers are urged not to teach Linné's system in school.
The Lausanne physician Samuel Tissot, through his book "Onanism" (1760), becomes the most influential propagandist of the alleged dangers of masturbation. For the next 150 years, the fear of "masturbatory insanity" remains a dominant theme of disease prevention and adolescent sexual education.
The Genevan writer and composer Jean-Jacques Rousseau, in his influential book "Émile" (1762), demands the preservation of sexual 'innocence' in children and adolescents.
German educators like J. Oest and J. H. Campe devote themselves to the fight against masturbation.
The Marquis de Sade, imprisoned in the Bastille on a morals charge, secretly writes bizarre, outrageous and blasphemous masturbation phantasies ("The 120 Days of Sodom"), which also mock the "enlightened" belief that rational insight will make human beings reasonable, noble, and kind.
The English writer Mary Wollstonecraft, in 1792, publishes her "Vindication of the Rights of Woman", in which she demands female equality in education, private and public life, including politics. She unmasks the alleged 'natural' role of women in her time as the product of a patriarchal ideology.
The feminist goals had also earlier been supported by the Marquis de Condorcet in a publication of his own. However, they are soon abandoned by the reign of terror in the French Revolution and by the following political restoration.
The eminent physician John Hunter spells out the basic principles of sex therapy in the chapter 'Of Impotence' of his book "Treatise of the Venereal Disease".
Towards the end of the century, the English parson Thomas Malthus publishes his "Essay on the Principle of Population" (1798), in which he criticizes the optimism of the 'enlightened' writers of his time and warns against overpopulation, which will prevent mankind's lasting happiness.

 

 

 

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