An Encyclopedia of Male Homosexual Poetry,
© Paul Knobel 2002
A'in i Akbari anthology
Anthology in Persian from India. Ca. 1600.
An anthology of the poems of fifty-nine poets which appears at the end of the A'in i Akbari (which is itself the third and last volume of the history of the reign of the Emperor Akbar, the Mughal Emperor of India who ruled 1556-1605, which history is called the Akbar Nama). The work was compiled by *Abu 'l-Fazl 'Allami, probably in Delhi. The A'in-i Akbari describes exhaustively the administration of Akbar, giving a vivid portrait of his court and is a coda to the history; the anthology is included at the end to show the poets popular at the time. (On the Akbar Nama see the entry "Akbar-Nama" in Encyclopedia Iranica.)
The anthology at the end of the A'in i Akbari consists only of poems by poets of the reign of Akbar, as the anthologist states at the beginning of the anthology "Poets of the Age". These poets seem to be all minor Persian poets of the time since no references to them have been found in the Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition, or Encyclopedia Iranica with the exception of one or two - such as the brother of the anthologist, *Abu'l-Fayz-i Fayzi; some poets are discussed in Rypka, History of Iranian Literature. The poets came from Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India and other countries adjacent to these.
The only complete English translation of the A'in i Akbari so far is by Heinrich Blochmann and *H. S. Jarrett and was published in three volumes. Heinrich Blochmann, who edited the text in Persian, translated the first volume, which was published in 1868 while the second and third volumes were translated by H. S. Jarrett with the final volume - with the anthology - being published in 1894 in Calcutta (see the entry Heinrich Blochmann in Encyclopedia Iranica on p. 314 and C. A. Storey, Persian Literature: A Bio-bibliographical Survey, Volume 1, Part 1, 1939, p. 550).
The poetry is uniformly love poetry and the beloved referred to in the poems is a youth. The homosexual context in many cases is plain and this is pointed out by the words "the lovely boy" and "the beautiful boy" added by H. S. Jarrett in square brackets in many poems; however, in those poets in which the beloved is not specifically equated to a male youth there is no suggestion he is female and the English translation is *non-gender specific.
Thus the whole work can be read as a homosexual anthology and H. S. Jarrett's notes in effect constitute a criticism of the work and make the homosexual interest clear. In the Blochmann and Jarrett translation, see pp. 627, 634, 636, 642 ("the lovely boy"), 643 ("the lovely boy"), 646, 648, 650-54, 657 ("the beautiful boy"), 658, 662, 664, 667 ("the lovely boy"), 669 ("the sweet boy"), 670 ("the beautiful boy"), 672 ("the beautiful boy"), 677 ("the beautiful boy") and 679 ("The beloved [boy] came") for explicit homosexual poems by the poets or stated to be so by H. S. Jarrett.
The anthologist gives brief information on the poet before his poems. It is unclear in many cases as to whether the poet is given under his real name or *takhallus. The poetry is conventinal Persian love poetry of the time strongly mystical and showing the influence of *Sufism. This is an outstanding homosexual anthology of love poems and the first gay anthology in English as such, though paradoxically a translation.
Editions of the text, manuscripts and commentaries of the A 'in-i Akbari. For editions, manuscripts and commentaries to 1939 see C. A. Storey, Persian Literature: A Bio-bibliographical Survey, Volume 1, Part 1, 1939, pp. 549-51; this includes an exhaustive listing of all known manuscripts in Europe, India and Pakistan to 1939, some of which appear to be illustrated. Pages 541 to 549 discuss the Akbar Nama overall and since many manuscripts and editions include the A'in i Akbari this should also be consulted.
Editions. Edited by S. Ahmad Khan (Delhi, 1855; volumes 1 and 3 only; with illustrations); edited by Heinrich Blochmann (Calcutta, 1867-77).
Translation. English. Francis Gladwin (Calcutta, 3 volumes 1783-86 - "an abridged and inaccurate paraphrase of Daftars i-iii" - Storey, Persian Literature, op. cit., p. 550) (reprinted). The British Library General Catalogue, under Abu 'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak, called 'Allami, lists an 81 page edition translated by Gladwin, London, 1777, and it is not known if either this edition or the Calcutta edition includes the poetry anthology. An edition of Francis Gladwin's translation was published in London in 1800 in 2 volumess (rare: a copy is in the Australian National Library, Canberra). *H. S. Jarrett's translation was published 1894 in volume 3 of the A'in i Akbari in the translation in 3 volumes started by H. Blochmann (Calcutta, 3 volumes, 1869-94; repr. Delhi, 1965 with introduction by S. L. Goomer).
On the work see Jan Rypka, History of Iranian Literature, pp. 722-25: "The Age of Akbar".
Poet from Great Britain writing in English. Active 1987.
Strong poems of black consciousness and the African heritage. A *black poet and activist at the London Black Lesbian and Gay Centre.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Tongues Untied, 11-22; biog., 2.
The Abbasid period of Arabic poetry refers to the period 750-945 when the capital of the Islamic empire was *Baghdad in Iraq.
The period lasted from 750 to the Mongol invasion in 1258 and followed the *Umayyad period. In the Abbasid period Islam expanded into Iran and, in the west, to Spain, where local dynasties took control. A large volume of sexual homopoetry was produced: see *Abu Nuwas, *Al-'Abbas, *Al-Bahili, *Dibil ibn 'Ali (pseud.), *Ibn al-Hadjdjadj, *Khamriyya (poems associated with *wine drinking), *Ibn Sukkara, *Mus'ab, Muti' ibn Iyas, *Sulami. Criticism: see *Muhammad Haddara and *Yusuf Bakkar for extended studies in Arabic.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopdia Britannica. Criticism. Wright, Homoeroticism in Classical Arabic Literature, 1-24 - discussion of *satire in early Abbasid poetry by J. W. Wright; 24-54 - articles by Franz Rosenthal.
Poet from the United States writing in English. Active from before 1982.
Latterly involved in the *men's movement, he has edited New Men, New Minds (1987) and Men and Intimacy (1991). Bibliographies. Young, The Male Homosexual in Literature, second edition, item 2: Changing Always, privately printed, no date.
Poet and critic from the United States writing in English. 1943-92.
The author of the books Wrecked Hearts, 1978 (review: Gay Sunshine no. 40/41, Summer/Fall 1977, 35) and Stretching the Agape Bra, 1980. From 1975 he was a well known poet in *San Francisco, also known for his comics. He wrote a major article on gay *West Coast poets.
He published the biographical work in prose, Lives of the Poets, in San Francisco, in 1986 (reviewed in James White Review, vol. 4 no. 2, Winter 1987, 16). This book examines the question of sensuality and *Romanticism in poets' lives and relates to a controversy with *Antler about the place of drugs and alcohol in poets' lives.
He wrote for *The Advocate, studied to be a Benedictine monk for two years and married. A biographical note in James White Review, vol. 3 no. 4, Summer 1986, 2, states he studied poetry under Karl Shapiro, John Berryman and *Robert Duncan and teaches at San Francisco State University. His death is recorded in the James White Review, vol. 10 no. 2 (Winter 1993), 2.
Interview: see James White Review vol.1 no. 4 (Summer 1984), 11; this contains very important comments on gay United States poetry from 1970 and states he is editor of the San Francisco journal Poetry Flash and the occasional literary magazine Soup (published in 1986).
Bibliographies. Young, The Male Homosexual in Literature, second edition, items 3-4: Wrecked Hearts and Transmuting Gold, both published by Dancing Rock Press, San Francisco, 1978. Gay Poetry Anthologies. We Bumped Off Your Friend the Poet, 10-11.
Son of the Male Muse, 11-12 (with photograph of the author p.11); biog., 186. "To A Soviet Artist in Prison", 11, is about the gay Soviet film maker *Sergei Parajanov.
Poet from Spain who wrote in Arabic. Active ca. 1150.
Not found in Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. In Praise of Boys, 22: poem about *wine and a friend.
Poet from Spain who wrote in Arabic. Active ca. 1050.
Not found in Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition.
Bibliographies. Bullough, Annotated Bibliography of Homosexuality, volume 2, item 10417: short *boy-love poem trans. into English by *Erskine Lane in Gay Sunshine no. 20 (January/February 1974), 13. Gay Poetry Anthologies. In Praise of Boys, 19: about a mole on Ahmad's neck which attracts men.
Poet from Spain who wrote in Arabic. Died 1024.
Many entries in Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition, are under this name. *Abu Zayd is possibly the same poet.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. In Praise of Boys, 25: *gazelle trope. Bellamy, Banners of the Champions, 190: gazelle trope (stated to be from *Cordova, died 1024).
Poet from Australia writing in English. Active 1991.
The name may be a pseudonym as there is no X in Arabic. Published in * Cargo. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Pink Ink, 146-47; biog., 293.
Poet from Spain who wrote in Arabic. Active before 1492.
'Abdallah is a common word in Arabic and means *slave of Allah. Almost certainly a pseudonym.
Criticism. See *Norman Roth, "'Deal Gently with the Young Man': Love of Boys in Medieval Hebrew Poetry of Spain", Speculum 57
(1982), 32: love poem about a male *fawn; said to be one of the sons of the *Cordoba caliph.
Poet from India who wrote in Urdu. Active ca. 1750.
Criticism. *C. M. Naim, "The Theme of Homosexual (Pederastic) Love in Pre-Modern Urdu Poetry", in Studies in the Urdu Gazal and Prose Fiction, edited by M. U. Memon, 1979, 124-25: states he was in love with another poet named Sulaiman (who seems to have formed attachments with at least two other poets). Rahman, "Boy love in the Urdu ghazal", Paidika vol. 2 no. 1 (1989), 15; called Taban; a poem which mentions his lover Sulaiman. Sadiq, History of Urdu LIterature, 107: re the poet Jan Janan Mazhar taking a fancy to him.
Poet from Egypt who wrote in Arabic. Died ca. 1965.
Manuscripts are known to exist which contain relevant poems (Dr Yousef Kholaif, University of Cairo to the author, February 1987). Compare two entries under the name "Abd al-Hamid" in Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition, one of which may be this poet.
Poet from Spain who wrote in Arabic. Active ca. 950.
No entry in Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition.
Criticism. Nykl, Hispano-Arabic Poetry, 63: states he "excelled in.. descriptions of... beautiful boys".
Pseudonym of a poet in English from Great Britain. 1875-1947.
Pseudonym of *Aleister Crowley. Abdullah means slave of Allah and *Shiraz is a town in Iran famously associated with poetry.
Poet from France who wrote in Latin. 1079-1142.
Abelard, a scholar at *Paris was famous for his love for the nun Eloise, for which he was castrated. He later retired to the monastery of Cluny. "David's Lament", his major gay poem, is a retelling of the Old Testament story of *David and Jonathan in Latin and shows strong homoerotic feeling; stronger even than the Hebrew original. *Hilary the Englishman was his pupil.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Eros: An Anthology of Friendship, 119: "David's Lament for Jonathan" (English trans. by *Helen Waddell). Hidden Heritage, 130. Penguin Book of Homosexual Verse, 116: "David's Lament for Jonathan" (trans. *Helen Waddell). Medieval Latin Poems of Male Love and Friendship, 62-67; biog., 152-53. Wilhelm, Gay and Lesbian Poetry, 159-63.
Poet from India who wrote in Persian. Active ca. 1630.
See *Sarmad, who wrote love poems to him. He was reputedly a Hindu boy when Sarmad wrote his poems and was also a poet who wrote a single couplet (reference cited in Sarmad entry).
Poet from Spain who wrote in Hebrew. 1092-1167.
Very little of his poetry exists. A philosopher, scientist and biblical commentator. Father of a large family; see also the entry for his son *Isaac ibn Ezra. Text. Diwan, edited by Dr Jakob Egers, Berlin, 1886.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Eliade, Encyclopedia of Religion. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Wilhelm, Gay and Lesbian Poetry, 257-58: two poems trans. into English. Criticism. *Jefrim Schirmann, "The Ephebe in Medieval Hebrew Poetry", Sefarad I5 (1955), 60: states he "left us some stanzas addressed to *boys" (poems 188 and 189). *Norman Roth, " 'Deal Gently with the Young Man': Love of Boys in Medieval Hebrew Poetry of Spain", Speculum 57 (1982), 48-49: trans. of poem into English.
Poet from the United States writing in English. Active ca. 1966.
A *black poet who is a graduate of *Yale.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Road Before Us, 1-3: a poem about *prostitution; biog., 172.
Poet from India who wrote in Urdu. 1692-1747.
He lived in *Delhi, wrote *ghazals and is a major Urdu poet. Biography: see Sadiq, History of Urdu Literature, 99-100 (also discusses homosexuality in his * masnavi). Not found in Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition.
Translation. English: see *C. M. Naim, "The Theme of Homosexual (Pederastic) Love in Pre-Modern Urdu Poetry", in Studies in the Urdu Gazal and Prose Fiction, edited by M. U. Memon, 1979, pp. 141-42.
Criticism. C. M. Naim, "The Theme of Homosexual (Pederastic) Love in Pre-Modern Urdu Poetry", in Studies in the Urdu Gazal and Prose Fiction, edited by M. U. Memon, 1979, 124-states his verse is full of *pederastic references and displays similarity to that of *Mir Taqi Mir; 130 - states Abru expresses contempt for heterosexual love; 125 - wrote an important homosexual * masnavi in which he lays down the ways in which a boy should dress to attract lovers. Rahman, "Boy love in the Urdu ghazal", Paidika vol. 2 no. 1
(1989), 14 - overt reference to homosex; two poems quoted; 17 - poem quoted; 18-19; 21.
Anthology in English from Great Britain. Peterborough: Poetry Now, 1993, 90 pages. Not sighted.
This work is not held in the *British Library. Compare * Poetry Now Book of Gay Verse (possibly the two are the same work).
Poet from Spain who wrote in Arabic. Active ca. 1150.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Orgasms of Light, 18: very fine gay love poem with *garden trope.
Editor from Iraq of works in Arabic. Active ca. 850.
The first manuscript editor of *Abu Nuwas and *Abu Tammam.
Poet from Spain who wrote in Arabic. 1059-1126.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. In Praise of Boys, 30: *non gender specific poem, "In Your Absence".
Poet from Spain who wrote in Arabic. 1076-1151.
No entry in Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition. (His dates are taken from Reid, * Eternal Flame.)
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Orgasms of Light, 13: fine homoerotic poem about a beautiful boy. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 1, 313.
Poet from Spain who wrote in Arabic. 1256-1344.
A commentator on the Koran, he travelled in Tunis, Egypt and Syria and wrote the first Turkish grammar and a grammar of Persian. Text: see *Arthur Wormhoudt, Arab Translation Series, no.120 (1989). Biography: see Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Wilhelm, Gay and Lesbian Poetry, 221-25.
Poet from Iraq who wrote in Arabic. 828-888.
In the Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition, volume 5, p. 778, in the *"Liwat" (sodomy) article, he is cited as author of a lost work on eroticism. A few poems survive which are licentious. Possible gay reference only. He was something of a buffoon in real life. Biography: see Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition, Supplement, pp. 16-17.
Poet from Spain who wrote in Arabic. Died 1372.
See Ian Gibson, Federico García Lorca (London, 1989), p. 467: a *non gender specific poem which could have been written about a man. From *Granada.
Abu 'l-Fayz-i Fayzi
Poet from India who wrote in Persian. 1547-1595.
The brother of 'Abu 'l-Fazl 'Allami who compiled the homosexual anthology in the 'A'in iAkbari. He had a large library of 4,6QQ volumes. He used the name Fayzi in his writing.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopædia of Islam, second edition: see "Faydi". Gay Poetry Anthologies. A'in i Akbari anthology, 61B-33 - 'cupbearer trope, see 627-2B for specific homopoems, 'hyacinth trope 62B (not directly gay); biog. note, 54B and 61B. Criticism. Rypka, History of Iranian Literature, 299 (where his name is spelt bu'l-Fayd Faydi) - stated to be a prominent Indo-Persian poet.
Anthologist from India of a work in Persian; letter writer in Persian; biographer and critic in Persian; translator from Sanskrit to Persian. 1551-1602.
He compiled the homosexual anthology of love poems addressed to beautiful youths in the * A 'in i Akbari (part of the Akbar Nama, an historical account of the reign of the Mughal Emperor of India, Akbar); he wrote biographical and critical notes on the poets. A courtier at the court of Akbar from 1574, he was born at Agra, India, was a liberal thinker who opposed the Muslim clerics and was informal secretary to Akbar. He was assassinated by the heir to the throne. His elder brother was the poet Faydi (see entry *Abu 'l-Fayz-i Fayzi) who is included in the anthology.
He translated the *Bhagavad Gita from Sanskrit to Persian and translated other works; numerous translations from Sanskrit to Persian were completed in the reign of Akbar (see Rypka, History of Iranian Literature, p. 724). He supposedly translated the Bible into Persian. Letters of his survive and an autobiographical account of his life is at the end of the A'in i Akbari (volume 3).
Biography. On his life see the Introduction to the *Heinrich Blochmann translation of the A'in i Akbari (Calcutta, 1867-77), volume 1, pp. i-xxxvi. There is an account of his life in the edition of the same work edited by S. L. Goomer (Delhi, 1965).
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopædia of Islam, first edition: see "Abu 'l Fadl" Encyclopædia of Islam, second edition: see "Abu 'l-Fadl 'Allami." Encyclopædia Iranica: see "Abu'l-Fazl 'Allami" - states "by the age of fifteen he had read widely in Arabic, Greek philosophy and *Sufism". Gay Poetry Anthologies. A'in i Akbari anthology, 617-70: critical and biographical notes on the poets. Criticism. Rypka, History of Iranian Literature, 434, 449, 724 (brief mentions of his literary work).
Poet from Egypt who wrote in Arabic. Ca. 1067-ca. 1133.
A scientist and philosopher who lived in Egypt.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition (see Abu 'l-Salt Umayya). Criticism. Woods, Articulate Flesh: Male Homo-eroticism and Modern Poetry, 25: Abu 's-Salt Omayya-trans. of homopoem into English.
Poet from Iraq who wrote in Arabic. 1054-1122.
Born in *Basra. Compare *Abul Qasim (possibly the same poet).
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Lieblingminne und Freundesliebe, 76-77: trans. into German by *Friedrich Rückert. Criticism. *Jefrim Schirmann, "The Ephebe in Medieval Hebrew Poetry", Sefarad I5 (1955), 61: regarding translation into Hebrew by *Alharizi of his Maqamat.
Poet from Iraq who wrote in Arabic. Ca. 756-810.
The author of many poems on *wine and homosexuality, he lived in *Baghdad in the *Abbasid period. He features in the * Arabian Nights as a libertine poet in connection with the *debate on love. Homosexual poems by him are cited (e.g., in the Arabian Nights translated by *Richard Burton, 1885 printing, see vol. 5, pp. 419-23; see also "Abu Nuwas and the Three Boys" in the same edition, vol. 5, pp. 64-68). It was from the European translations of the Arabian Nights that he became known in European languages.
His teacher *Waliba is believed by some to have had sexual relations with him. W. H. Ingrams, Abu Nuwas in Life and Legend (Port Louis, Mauritius, 1933), is a concise introduction. In Arabic the first reference to him is in *Ibn Khallikan's biographical dictionary. Ali Shalaq, La Poésie érotique dAbu Nuwas (Paris, 1952), is a study of his erotic poetry.
Text of the poems. His textual history is complicated. For the various editions, problems and manuscripts to date see the entry in Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition, cited below. For the most scholarly edition to date see *Ewald Wagner, Der Diwan des Abu Nuwas, in three volumes: vol. 1, Weisbaden and Cairo, 1958, vol. 2, Wiesbaden and Beirut, 1972, vol. 3, Stuttgart and Beirut, 1988 (this work, due to its being published in so many places is hard to find complete). He was first edited in printed form by W. Ahlwardt: Diwan des Abu Nuwas, vol. 1, Die Weinlieder (The Wine Songs), Greifswald, 1861. There is controversy about the corpus of his poems, which survive in two manuscript traditions, one tradition edited by *Abu Bakr al-Suli and one by *Hamza al-Isfahi (both active 850). Recent manuscript finds have given us more sources of texts. He did not make collections of his poems (compare *Omar Khayyam) and the corpus of his works (as with Omar Khayyam) may be an anthology of work by several poets.
Journal. Newsletter of the Abu Nuwas Society (Spring 1994+) is a somewhat satirical journal based on Abu Nuwas's approach to life with many gay articles. W. H. Ingrams (in the work cited above, ca. 1933) refers to a cycle of tales on him in Swahili in Zanzibar; this information is cited in O Tribe That Loves Boys by Hakim Bey (pseud.), 1993, [unpaginated], fifth page from the last. It is not known whether these tales are in poetry or prose. Other tales about him come from Morocco.
Translation. Dutch: Andreas Eppinkk and M. Perla ibn Yacub (before 1988) - listed as being in manuscript in the thesis of *Maarten Schild in his bibliography, p. 211; English: *Arthur Wormhoudt (1974) - two versions (or perhaps printings) exist - see the Wormhoudt entry; there is also a translation by Arthur Wormhoudt bearing the date 1989 (sighted in the *Library of Congress and with no pagination); *Hakim Bey (pseud.) (1993); French: *Vincent Monteil (1979); German: A. von Kremer (1855), Wilhelm Ahlwardt (1861; selection); Italian: Hammadi Jouini, Abu Nuwas poeta del vino e del'amore, Palermo (1989).
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopedia of Islam, first edition; written by *Carl Brockelmann (1913). Islam Ansiklopedisi; written by *Helmut Ritter (name spelt Ebu Nuwas). Encyclopedia of Islam, second edition; written by *Ewald Wagner (1960); with important bibliography. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 7-8 (by *Maarten Schild): notes he only wrote about women when they resembled *boys. Great Soviet Encyclopedia. Dictionnaire Gay: see "Nawas, Abou". Gay Histories and Cultures. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Men and Boys, 19. Orgasms of Light, 132 (poems about the *coming of the beard and wine linked with homosexuality); biog., 256. Gay Roots, 593-94. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 1, 296-98 - brilliant English translation (though not directly from the Arabic text); 300. Poems of Love and Liberation, 13. Criticism. Garde, Jonathan to Gide, 175. *Marc Daniel, "Arabic Civilization and Male Love" Gay Sunshine 32 (Spring 1977), 5, 10. *Norman Roth, "'Deal Gently with the Young Man': Love of Boys in Medieval Hebrew Poetry of Spain", Speculum 57 (1982), 26-27, 29: quotes poems. Woods, Articulate Flesh: Male Homo-eroticism and Modern Poetry, 25, 35. Wright, Homoeroticism in Classical Arabic Literature, 9-16; see also the index. Woods, History of Gay Literature, 5457.
Poet from Iran who wrote in Persian. 968-1049.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Dictionary of Oriental Literature: states he "formulated the first rule of *Sufi communities" but no quatrains authenticated to him exist. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 1, 329; biog., 327. Criticism. Levy, Persian Literature, 36-7; see especially poems on p. 37; states he introduced the * rubai into Persian.
Poet from Afghanistan. Active before 1900? His date is uncertain.
Herat, from where he takes his name, is in Afghanistan. He possibly wrote in Urdu, Pashto or Persian.
Criticism. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 17-18: *S. W. Foster states here that he was a poet "famous for his love for a Christian boy (presumably a *slave)".
Poet from Syria who wrote in Arabic; active also in Egypt. Ca. 804-845 (or 846).
One of the best known Arabic poets. He is equal in importance to *Abu Nuwas and was unmarried. From Syria he travelled to Egypt and then to Iraq and compiled several important poetry anthologies. His poetry was first collected by *Abu Bakr al-Suli. In the text and English translation by *Arthur Wormhoudt, 1974 (based on al-Tibrizi), see the section "Love", pp. 178-112, where almost all poems are to male beloveds or *non gender specific and the *fawn trope is much used.
Not all poems attributed to him are unequivocally by him. A gay poem attributed to him is in *Richard Burton's translation of the * Arabian Nights (1885), vol. 5, pp. 177-78 (trope of the *coming of beard); see also * Alf layla wa layla. There is a commentary on his poetry by al-Tibrizi (published in Cairo, ca. 1952) who also edited the text.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition: by *Helmut Ritter. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Delight of Hearts, 24. Criticism. *Arthur Wormhoudt, "Classic Arabic Poetry", *Gay Books Bulletin, no. 4 (Fall 1980), 24: states "his diwan has a whole section devoted to poems where the beloved is masculine"; translation of two homopoems.
Poet from Spain who wrote in Arabic. Active ca. 1250.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Orgasms of Light, 18: gay love poem.
Poet from Spain who wrote in Arabic. Active ca. 1150.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Orgasms of Light, 17: a gay love poem about parting; compare a similar one by *Abul Hasan.
Poet possibly from Spain who wrote in Arabic. Active before 1243.
See *Abd al-Rahman who is possibly the same poet. Also spelt Abu Zaid.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Orgasms of Light, 13: called Abu Zayd. Eros: An Anthology of Friendship, 133-4: the same poem and called Abu Zaid from *The Pennants (1243) and stated to be from Africa. Bellamy, Banners of the Champions, 190: *gazelle trope.
Poet from Spain, who wrote in Arabic. Active before 1243.
See *Abul Hasan al-Husri: possibly this is the same poet.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Eros: An Anthology of Friendship, 132: Abul Hasan, *Seville; no date but before 1243 as he is in the anthology * The Pennants. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 1, 310: fine poem. Criticism. Woods, Articulate Flesh: Male Homo-eroticism and Modern Poetry, 35: Abul Hasan Yafar.
Poet from Spain who wrote in Arabic. Active ca. 1050.
See *Abul Hasan: possibly the same poet.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. In Praise of Boys, 19: not an openly homosexual poem.
Anthologist and poet who wrote in Arabic. Active before 1500?
Author of The Encyclopedia of Pleasure, edited and annotated by Salah Addin Khawwam, Toronto: Aleppo Publications, 1977, 386 pages and translated into English by 'Adnan Jarkas and Sal Addin Khawwam; bibliography pp. 381-86. In this work see pp. 13 (*Abu Nuwas), 16-23 and Chapter Nine, "Of *Pederasty", 153-87.
The discussion in Chapter Nine cites many homopoems and homopoets and amounts to an anthology of homopoetry. The date is conservative based on the poets and poems (it could be earlier). This translation appears to be very rare (as is possibly the case with the manuscript on which it is based) and no information has been found on the author; the copy consulted was from the *Library of Congress. He could be from *Mamluk Egypt.
Poet from Egypt who wrote in Arabic. Active some time in the *Mamluk period (1250-1517).
He wrote homosexual poems (Dr. Abdul Jaleel, University of Cairo, to the author, 22 February, 1987). Not found in Encyclopedia of Islam, second edition.
Poet from Spain who wrote in Arabic. Active ca. 1150.
For possible indentification see Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition, under Abu'l Kasim. *Abu Mohammed El Kasim is possibly this poet.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Orgasms of Light, 16.
Poet from Spain who wrote in Arabic. Active ca. 1050.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. In Praise of Boys, 26: *wine drinking poem, *non gender specific.
Poet from Toledo in Spain who wrote in Hebrew. 1248-after 1295.
He was involved with the * Kabbala. Text: see the edition edited by D. Yellin, Jerusalem, 1932.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: see Encyclopedia Judaica under "Abulafia, Todros ben Judah ha-Levi". Criticism. *Jefrim Schirmann, "The Ephebe in Medieval Hebrew Poetry", Sefarad I5 (1955), 58 (spelt Todros Abulafya) - this mentions, in a collection of *epigrams, "love talks and beautiful lads" and, pp. 61-62, notes sentimental leanings for *boys (though he sings more of beautiful girls). Pagis, Hebrew Poetry, 65.
Anthology in German from Germany. 1997. 203 pages.
The title means " Ah, guy, I cannot get you out of my head: male homosexual love in German poetry of our century." Compiled by *Hans Stempel and *Martin Ripkens it consists of 133 poems of 65 twentieth century poets covering love, passion and departing with poems about such topics as sex and boys and covering all styles, themes and traditions. Not seen; description taken from the description in the *Prinze Eisenherz catalog.
Characters and trope in Greek from Turkey or Greece, later appearing in Latin, Italian and English. They date in literature from ca. 700 B.C.
Achilles is the main character in *Homer's *epic poem *The Iliad, which revolves round the grief and anger of Achilles at the death of his companion and close friend, Patroclus (see especially Achilles speech in Book 18). Discussion as to whether Achilles and Patroclus were lovers is first known from The Myrmidons (in fragment 135), a play by the fifth century B.C. Greek dramatist *Aeschylus. *Phaedrus, in his speech in Plato's Symposium, also refers to the relationship. Other Greek tragedians dealt repeatedly with the homosexual loves of Achilles (see *E. Beyer). The relationship appears in *Aeschines (at Timarchus 142) and in later authors such as *Theocritus ("Idyll 29", lines 31-34) and in the * Mousa Paidike (Palatine Anthology, xii 217). The Latin poet *Martial (ii 43, 9) also refers to it as does the English poet 'Christopher Marlowe. The Italian poet *Dante (in Inferno, Canto Five, lines 65-66), may refer to this subject; in Italian see also *Ficino.
*W. M. Clarke, "Achilles and Patroclus in Love", Hermes 106 (1978), 38-96, examines the issue of whether they were lovers, concluding that they were in love. A reply by D. S. Barrett, "The Friendship of Achilles and Patroclus", Classical Bulletin 57 (1981), 87-93, concludes they were just good friends. Much of the twentieth century debate rests on whether Homer needed to make the relationship overt. It should be pointed out that Aeschylus's speech in The Symposium turns not on friendship versus love but on who was the lover or senior partner (in Greek terms, *erastes) and who was the junior (or *eromenos): that is, it accepts that they were lovers. W. M. Clarke lists the ancient sources referring to the topic in full on page 25 of his article.
The editors of Homer's text are crucial to this issue: the text we have dates from 180 B.C. and a fifth century Athenian version may have been quite different (indeed, there may have been several fifth century written versions since the work emerged out of oral traditions). When recited orally, the personality of the *singer and the nature of the audience would have had a bearing on the relationship as presented in the poem and also on presentation (or suppression) of homoerotic elements. An interpretation based on *Sigmund Freud is provided by W. Thomas MacCary in Childlike Achilles: Ontogeny and Phylogeny in The Iliad (New York, 1982); he states "in a poem about a war fought for a woman the focus of attention is on the relationship between the hero and his dear male companion" (page xii). Certainly the relationship is strongly homoaffectional irrespective of whether they were lovers and, in The Iliad as we have the text, the relationship of Achilles and Patroclus is a stronger passion than the love of Helen and Paris, which provoked the Trojan war.
Mock epics satirizing The Iliad, which are known from ancient times, also bear on this topic; see *Mary Koukoules for modern gay parodies. For artistic representation see * Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae, volume 1, part 1, 466-505, and the plates in volume 1, part 2. Compare *Gilgamesh where the relationship of Gilgamesh and Enkidu has many similar elements and may come from a common stock of Middle Eastern myth: it has been claimed by M. L. West in The East Face of Helicon (Oxford, 1997) that the Akkadian version of Gilgamesh influenced Homer (see also Chapter 7, pp. 334-401, "The Iliad and Gilgamesh"). *Pobratim, a modern Balkans concept of blood brotherhood between men, appears in *oral epics from the Balkans; some of these epics may date back to Homer's time and relate to the Homeric tradition.
The possibility of Achilles and Patroclus being lovers was first raised in modern discourse by *E. F. M. Benecke. A *Byzantine epic poem called the Achilleis (circa fifteenth century) based on the deeds of Achilles exists: see Kindlers neues literatur Lexikon, vol. 18: "Byzantinische Achilleis". *Hubert Fichte is a modern gay critic who has discussed the relationship.
Bibliographies. Bullough, Annotated Bibliography of Homosexuality, volume 2, item 10734: cites *Homer's The Iliad re Achilles' *transvestite disguise and companionship with Patroclus. Dynes, Homosexuality: A Research Guide, item 481. Dictionaries. Howes, Broadcasting It. Anthologies. Iolaus (1902), 72-72 (quotes Iliad Book 23, lines 59 ff.) and 83-85 (from Theocritus, "Idyll 29"). Iolaus (1906), 68-73; 83-85 (same references as in 1902 edition). Eros: An Anthology of Friendship, 16-17. Columbia Anthology of Gay Literature, 16-22. Criticism. Symonds, Problem in Greek Ethics, 3. Licht, Sexual Life in Ancient Greece, 449: citing his article in Anthropophyteia no. 9, 291 ff. Dover, Greek Homosexuality, 41. Buffiere, Eros adolescent, 367-374. Sergent, Homosexuality in Greek Myth, 250-58. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 8-9: see the entry "Achilles"; see also 495-96.
Poet, editor, autobiographer, diarist and letter writer from Great Britain who wrote in English. 1876-1967.
J. R. Ackerley was best known as the editor of the British Broadcasting Commission's literary journal The Listener, which had a poetry page which he edited. He is mainly known for prose works. He is most famous for his autobiography, My Father and Myself (1968) published after his death; this disclosed that his father apparently had had a homosexual relationship and, as well, Ackerley is open about his own homosexuality. This was the first open gay autobiography in Great Britain of the *gay liberation period and was published one year after adult male homosexual acts were decriminalized. Hindu Holiday, London, 1932, details his experiences in India as secretary to the homosexual Maharajah of Chhokrapur and was daring for its time ("He wanted someone to love him... He wanted a friend" - see "Explanation" at the beginning.)
He published one book of poems in his lifetime, Poems by Four Authors (Cambridge, 1923). Micheldever and other Poems was published posthumously in 1972. Ackerley spent his life looking for the Ideal Friend whom he never found; after leaving the BBC he lived with his sister and his dog, Tulip, who was his closest companion.
My Dog Tulip, 1965, deals with his relationship with his dog and has some sexual undertones touching on *bestiality; see also, in this respect, his novel We Think The World of You (1960). He wrote a poem to his dog Queenie: "Piddle piddle and sign/ I'll smell your arse, you smell mine;/ Human beings are prudes and bores,/ You smell my arse, I'll smell yours." (quoted in The Listener, 21 September 1989, 30, in a review of the *Peter Parker biography cited below).
J. R. Ackerley was highly influential as editor of The Listener (published from 1929 to ca. 1990) which was one of the most important poetry outlets in Great Britain; but the word homosexual was not allowed to be mentioned in it, and a poem by James Kirkup mentioning toilet sex was censored in the early 1950s though other poems by Kirkup and by *Francis King, *E. M. Foster and *Christopher Isherwood were published. Ackerley's manuscripts are with his executor, Francis King, and not all his writings have been published. He is mentioned affectionately in James Kirkup's autobiographies as greatly helping the poet in his career.
Text of poems. Neville Braybrooke was said to be working on a complete poems on the inside flap of the United States edition of J. R.
Ackerley s Letters (New York, 1975). Diary: see My Sister and Myself: The Diaries of J R Ackerley, edited by Francis King (1982). Letters: see The Ackerley Letters, edited Neville Braybrooke, 1975 (only a selection but containing much gay material and shedding light on many English gay literary personalities). The biography of him by *Peter Parker (London, 1989), is one of the most important gay English language biographies published so far. Compare *Daryl Hine and *Howard Moss regarding editorship of journals and publication of poetry. *William Plomer was a lover.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Companion to English Literature. Dictionary of National Biography: Missing Persons; notes he was "energetically homosexual" (written by Peter Parker). Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 9. Howes, Broadcasting It. Malinowski, Gay and Lesbian Literature. Summers, Gay and Lesbian Literary Heritage, 1. Gay Histories and Cultures. Who's Who in Contemporary Gay and Lesbian History. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Penguin Book of Homosexual Verse, 307-08: "After the Blitz",
1941, a brilliant poem in the manner of *Cavafy about sex with a soldier. Powell, Gay Love Poetry, 107, 221. Columbia Anthology of Gay Literature, 379-86; extract from My Father and Myself.
Poet from Columbia who lives in the United States writing in English. Born 1954.
Born in Columbia, since 1989 he has lived in Philadelphia where he is a leader of the Latino cummunity. His poems have been published widely in gay periodicals. Books of poems: Grasping for Light (1989), Migrations to Solitude (1993) and Songs to Survive the Body (1993). Subjects include *Aids and loss.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Gay Histories and Cultures.
Poetic genre in Hebrew from Israel and later in English, Arabic, Persian. From ca. 150 B.C. (the date is very uncertain).
A poetic form where the first letter of each line spells a word or words. Sometimes, in love poetry, the name spelt is that of the *beloved; in homosexual love poems this can be a man (e. g., in an acrostic written by *Aleister Crowley). The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics traces the form from the Hebrew *"Psalm 119" onwards (ca. 150 B.C. in the present text). English. *Earl of Surrey (possible gay acrostic), *Aleister Crowley, *lvor Treby. In Arabic and Persian it is used in the *qasida. Greek. It was used from the *Hellenistic period, though gay examples have not come to light; see the Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium for use in the Byzantine period.
Poet, autobiographer, translator and historian from Great Britain who wrote in English; he also lived in China and Italy. 1904-1994.
He was educated at *Oxford where he was a noted *aesthete in the 1920s along with his gay friend *Brian Howard. He published two volumes of poems at Oxford: Aquarium (1923), and An Indian Ass (1925). After leaving Oxford he published two further volumes of poems, Five Saints and an Appendix (1927) and This Chaos (Paris: Hours Press,1930, 31 pages, edition of 150 copies). Rare. Copy sighted: *Library of Congress. He was friends with *Osbert Sitwell, and a supporter of *modernism but was not approved of by *F. R. Leavis. The aesthete Anthony Blanche in the novel Brideshead Revisited (1945) by *Evelyn Waugh is based partly on him but also on Brian Howard (see James Lord, Some Remarkable Men, New York, 1996, p. 27).
He lived in *Beijing 1932-39 and produced a book of Chinese translations, Modern Chinese Poetry (London, 1936). Later he settled at the family home, the villa La Pietra, near *Florence, in Italy, which, on his death, he left to New York University with an endowment of some twenty-five million United States dollars.
He was very guarded about his homosexuality while he was alive. *A. L. Rowse stated he was homosexual in a 1986 interview in The Advocate (no. 447, 27 May 1986, 122). Duncan Fallowell in To Noto, or London to Sicily in a Ford (London, 1989), pp. 108-112, makes clear in a description of a meeting that he was gay. James Lord, Some Remarkable Men, 1996, states that he threatened to sue people in the 1950s and 1960s for saying he was gay (see pp. 77-79); on page 8 it is stated his "favorite lover" during his Oxford years was Evelyn Waugh; pp. 12-15 deal with his openly gay life in *Peking as "a libertine lover of pretty young *boys" (p. 15) and with his fondness for *opium. James Lord, a handsome young man, was an intimate friend of Acton.
A *Catholic from a rich Anglo-United States family and something of a snob, he was close to the British Royal Family (Prince Charles, the present heir to the British throne, and Lady Diana, his wife, stayed with him at the villa). This may explain some of his reticence about being known as gay. Alexander Zielcke, born ca. 1945, a handsome man of Polish-German origin, lived with him for many years, on what appears to have been a non-sexual basis (see James Lord, Some Remarkable Men, pp. 64-68); he lived in a flat with a girlfriend (p. 68). Acton's life in James Lord's Some Remarkable Men, pp. 3-87, is the most candid life so far.
Autobiographies: see Memoirs of an Aesthete (1948), and later More Memoirs (1970); the first was translated into Italian as Memorie di un eteta, 1965. He also wrote a volume of history on the Bourbon rulers of *Naples.
A volume of essays Oxford, China and Italy was published in 1984 for his eightieth birthday by his friends Edward Chaney and Neil Ritchie. Tributes included poems and articles by *John Betjeman, *John Lehmann, *Peter Quennell and *A. L. Rowse and a select bibliography of his works by Neil Ritchie. There is an essay on his poetry by John A. Wood pages 25-33 (with quotations); many love poems quoted are *non gender specific and there are overtones of *sado-masochism. A major study of his influence and life is by *Martin Green (who implied he was homosexual). *Norman Douglas was a friend.
Bibliography: see Neil Ritchie, Harold Acton: A Bibliography, Florence, 1984 (500 copies printed). Obituaries: Guardian Weekly, 13 March 1994, 26 by Peter Quennell (no mention of his sexuality); Art Newspaper no. 37, April 1994, 5 (with reprint of extract from Duncan Fallowell's book To Noto, or London to Sicily in a Ford, cited above, making his homosexuality clear). See also the article in the New Yorker, 10 July 1995, "A Last Fantasy in Florence" by David Plante 40-55 (on his villa and lifestyle).
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Companion to English Literature. Who's Who in Gay and Lesbian History: From Antiquity. Criticism. Gay News 96 (June 3-16, 1976), 21: review of Christopher Hollis, Oxford in the Twenties by Peter Burton - states there seems "no doubt at all" about him being gay. Bronski, Culture Clash, 69: states he is homosexual.
Handsome and popular gay actors have been celebrated in poetry from circa 40 B.C. from the time of the Latin speaking 'Maecenas from Italy.
Some actors were the lovers of famous men (for example, the Chinese actor *Hsu Tzu-Yun, about whom a whole anthology of poems exists); others have been the butt of *satire because of their homosexuality, as in eighteenth century English poetry (e.g., *Samuel Foote). In *Shakespeare's plays, where female roles were acted by *boys and there was possible homosexual involvement, see Howes, Broadcasting It under "Boy players".
Male homosexuality has flourished in the theater in many cultures. In English. *Shakespeare, who was an actor, is the best example. Homosexuality in the English theater was especially prevalent in the *Elizabethan period (see *Robert M. Wren) though in the eighteenth century there were several poems accusing actors of homosexuality (e.g., * Love in the Suds). Other relevant English entries: *Charles Churchill, *David Garrick, *Ben Jonson, *D. S. Mitchell, *Adrian Rawlins, *William Shakespeare, * Sodom and Onan, *C. W. Stoddard. Chinese. *Zhou Xiaoshi (active 265-420), *Yuan Mei; see also "Theater - Chinese. *Chou En Lai, vice premier of China and a *scholar, is reputed to have been interested in drama and played female roles in the 1920s. German. *Karl Meier (founder of the Swiss gay journal * Der Kreis was an actor). Greek: see *"The Trojan War", *Yannis Ritsos. Japanese. *Soin, *Yukio Mishima. See the index of Leupp, Male Colors: The Construction of Homosexuality in Tokugawa Japan and throughout. Latin. 'Maecenas, *Propertius; see also *lnfibulation. Russian: see *Karatygin. Sanskrit: see "Theater and opera.
See Murray, Islamic Homosexualities, 256-66 regarding Indonesia (re Javanese. Bahasa Indonesia') and the Philippines (re Tagalog'): possible material only.
Poet who wrote in Greek. Active 359-336 B.C.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Not in Oxford Classical Dictionary. Der kleine Pauly, volume 1, 62: see "Adaios 1". Gay Poetry Anthologies. Les Amours masculines, 41: spelt Addee. Penguin Book of Homosexual Verse, 65: trans. *A. Elliot. Poems of Love and Liberation, 28; called Addeus of Macedon. Columbia Anthology of Gay Literature, 44: a poem from *Palatine Anthology Book 10, poem 20 (his name is spelt Addaeus).
Poet probably from the United States who wrote in English. Active before 1924. Not in the * National Union Catalog. Possibly a pseudonym.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Men and Boys, 69: a poem on a *pedophile theme.
Poet from France who wrote in French. Ca. 1250-ca. 1288.
*Troubadour poet who died in Italy. Referred to in *Herelle manuscript 3188, folio 357-58 (homosexual reference not stated). Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Cassell's Encyclopaedia of World Literature.
Poet and critic from Russia writing in Russian. 1884-1972.
An emigre writer who left Russia in 1922. He published two collections of verse in Russia: Clouds (1916) and Purgatory (1922).
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Terras, Dictionary of Russian Literature. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Out of the Blue, 25: states he was "openly gay".
Poet from Australia writing in English. Born 1943.
He was author of the first openly gay erotic poems published in Australia (in 1970). These two poems were the title poem of his books of poems Canticles On The Skin (Sydney, 1970), and the poem "Action would kill it/ a gamble", first published in Australia in * Poet's Choice (Sydney, 1971), edited and published by *Philip Roberts (also published in * The Male Muse, as cited below). "Action would kill it/ a gamble" has been frequently anthologized in general anthologies of Australian poetry. The poems at end of his novel Zimmer's Essay (Sydney, 1974), pp. 101-25 (especially "envoi", p. 110, "action would kill it", p. 19, "The Mark Up", p. 120, "Some More experiences", p. 125) are also relevant. Zimmer's Essay features a homosexual *rape scene. (On this novel see the entry in Hurley, Guide to Gay and Lesbian Writing in Australia: Zimmer's Essay.)
In his major volume Cross the Border (Sydney, 1977), see pp. 26-27 "Lovesong for *Robert Creeley", p. 53 "The Literary Life" (re Jack Kerouac), pp. 61-84 the sequence "The Glorious Lie" (dedicated "for Christopher Edwards" - on whom see *David Malouf), pp. 122-23 "Out of time and the self's dark ring in radiant twilight" ("my other sex"), and the sequence "The Grail Poems" pp. 125-42 (numerous homosexual references and the whole sequence is based on *King Arthur - e.g. see "*Fairy Tale from Across the Border", p. 127, "Gawain", p. 133-34, "Knight and Lady", pp. 135-36 and "Lancelot," p. 136, which is very strongly homosexual). The title of the book may refer, amongst other things, to crossing the border between homosexuality and heterosexuality or between heterosexuality and bisexuality. See in addition, "The Imitator" in Collected Poems (Sydney, 1977), pp. 17-24 (see *Austlit Record 91502 where the homosexuality is noted); "A Wind without Flags", pp. 50-51 (*Austlit Record 53957). Poems dealing with *lesbianism were published in Poetry Magazine no. 1, 1969.
He was strongly influenced by the United States poets *Robert Duncan (especially in Cross the Border, but see also "Sonnets for Robert Duncan 1919-1988" in The Clean Dark, Sydney, 1989, pp. 74-77). In Black Water, Sydney, 1999, the title poem is something of an *elegy for *Robert Duncan. He was part of the *Generation of 68 and was influential as editor of the journal New Poetry from 1971 (see his entry Oxford Companion to Australian Literature).
Criticism: see Martin Duwell in Australian Literary Studies 14 (1989), 232-33, and Martin Duwell's Ph. D. thesis, University of Queensland, English Department. Autobiography: see Outrider, Australian Writing 1988 issue, x-xii, where he states *Rimbaud was a major influence on him. He has had two long term female partners.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Companion to Australian Literature. Hurley, Guide to Gay and Lesbian Writing in Australia. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Male Muse, 11; biog.,118. Fra mann til mann, 94-95.
Poet and translator from Great Britain, born in New Zealand and writing in English. Born 1934.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Contemporary Poets, fourth edition. Oxford Companion to New Zealand Literature. Gay Poetry Anthologies.Penguin Book of Homosexual Verse, 64: trans. of Greek poem by *Marcus Argentarius into English.
Writer from Great Britain who wrote in English and also wrote poems in Latin. 1672-1719.
It is implied that he was homosexual in the poem The *He-Strumpets (1710). A minor poet best known as a prose writer, he was a member of the Kit Kat Club with *Sir Samuel Garth. He formed a close friendship with Sir Richard Steele and they published the journals The Tatler (1709-11) and The Spectator (1711-12) which they largely wrote; these journals set the pattern for many succeeding literary journals emanating from *London (their prose is somewhat *camp).
It was almost certainly implied they were homosexuals by *Alexander Pope (see *hermaphrodites). Joseph Addison was satirized as Atticus by Pope in Epistle to Dr Arbuthnot lines 193-214. See various editions of his works for his poems; his Latin poems are usually included in his works. No poems seem directly relevant.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Companion to English LIterature. Dictionary of National Biography: states he married at the age of fifty.
Poet from Great Britain who wrote in English. 1866-1916.
The * British Library General Catalogue reveals that he wrote a book on Exeter Cathedral. He used the pseudonym Percy Hemingway. Spelling is taken from Reade and the British Library General Catalogue entry; Young's spelling, Adelshaw, (see below) is wrong.
Bibliographies. Murray, Catalogue of Selected Books, items 1, 2 and 26 - Last Verses, 1920 and The Happy Warrior, 1896, published under the pseudonym of Percy Hemingway. Young, Male Homosexual in Literature, second edition, item 1756: The Happy Warrior and Other Verses, London, *Elkin Mathews, 1896, published under the pseudonym Percy Hemingway. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Reade, Sexual Heretics, 424-25: a poem from The Happy Wanderer and Other Verses (1896) on the *decadent model which is openly homosexual ("My lover's limbs are strong, his heart is light.") Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 2, 96.
Poet from Great Britain who wrote in English. Active 1894.
He used the pseudonym *Alan Stanley. Nothing is listed in the *National Union Catalog under Addleshaw.
Bibliographies. Murray, Catalogue of Selected Books, item 69: same book as Bullough. Bullough, Annotated Bibliography of Homosexuality, volume 2, item 11029: under Alan Stanley (pseud.), Love Lyrics, London: Gay and Bird, 1894. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Reade, Sexual Heretics, 347-48: poem "August Blue" from Love Lyrics (about the beauty of a youth while sailing with him); the poet longs "To *kiss with lips that burn." Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 2, 70-71; biog., 118. Criticism. Smith, Love in Earnest, 250 - bibliography listing only Love Lyrics, London, 54 pp.; pseudonym not noted.
Addressees refers to males to whom poets have written love poems or poems of sexual desire. Poems date from ancient Greece in Greek from 600 B.C. and later in other languages.
However, this does not mean that the sexual desire was necessarily consumated; compare *lovers (where sexual relations were consummated). The earliest addressee is *Lycus in poems in Greek from ca. 600 B.C. written by *Alcaeus of Mytilene.
Poems relating to addressees survive in Persian, English, German, Italian, Spanish, Russian and Chinese: see *Abnai Chand, *Bathyllus, *Cardenio, *Tommaso de' Cavalieri, *Loukas Chalandritsanos - the youth to whom Byron addressed his last poem, a love poem, *Cleobulus, *Dahoum. *Salvador Dali, *Karl Theodor German, *Sergei Gorodetsky, *Graf von Harrach, *Hsu Tzu-yun, Count von *Kaiserlink, *Myiscus. Compare *beloved.
City in Australia in which English is the main spoken language. Founded in 1836.
It is the capital of the state of South Australia. Gay poets include *C. R. Jury, John Bray and *Mikol Furneaux. Work on the city's gay history and culture was done by John Lee (ca. 1950 - 1991): see his essay "Male Homosexual Identity and Subculture in Adelaide Before World War II", in Garry Wotherspoon and *Robert Aldrich Essays in Australian Gay Culture (Sydney, 1992), pp. 95-112. There is a gay library in the Aids Council of South Australia, Norwood. The Dr. Duncan *Bookshop was an important *gay liberation bookshop in the 1980s which did much to promote gay culture.
Trope in Greek from Greece appearing later in Latin, Hebrew, Italian, French, and English. From 100 B.C.
The word has come to mean a beautiful, desirable male. See the volume Attis, Adonis, Osiris in James Frazer, The Golden Bough (London, 1903), for discussion of Adonis in the ancient world. In ancient Greek myth he was a beautiful youth killed by a boar who was loved by the goddess of love, Venus (also called Aphrodite). He is the archetype of a beautiful man and an excuse for poets to portray one. The word comes from the Hebrew word for *God and may also mean a beautiful male lover as in *lsaac Ibn Schaul (see Jefrim Schirmann, "The Ephebe in Medieval Hebrew Poetry", Sefarad I5 (1955), 58); see also *Song of Songs.
Greek: see *Bion (regarding his Lament for Adonis), *Anacreontea. Latin: see *Ovid, Metamorphoses x, 300-59,708-39, *Godfrey of Winchester, *Laevius, John Milton. For artistic depiction in classical art see * Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae, vol. 1, part 1, 222-29 and the plates in vol. 1 part 2. English. Great Britain: see *Marc Almond, *Shakespeare (re his long poem Venus and Adonis which is the best known English reference), *Shelley (who wrote Adonais, an *elegy for John Keats), *C. A. Trypanis, *Ted Hughes. Australia: see *Don Maynard. French: see *Ronsard in *Les Amours masculines, 86-87; Jacques d'Adelswärd Fersen, *Germain Nouveau. Italian: see *G. Marino. Arabic: see *Adonis (pseud.)
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Classical Dictionary, 8. Eliade, Encyclopedia of Religion. Gay Poetry Anthologies. L'amour bleu, 48.
Pseudonym of an Arabic poet from Syria. Born 1930.
His real name is Ali Ahmad Said. *Adonis means beautiful man. See his Songs of Mihyar the Damascene (1960). The poem is a hymn to Sufism and uses *Sufi language which is highly erotic (it has been translated into French). Born in Syria, he was exiled in Lebanon where he edited an influential poetry journal Mawaqif; from 1986 he has been resident in Paris. He has edited an anthology of classical Arabic poetry and has written studies of classical and modern poetry.
Editor from Spain of works in Greek; translator from Greek into Spanish; critic writing in Spanish. Active 1950-59.
He is the translator of the Greek poet *Theognis into Spanish: see Liricos griegos, Barcelona, 1959 (this work includes the Greek text). See also "Sobre el texto de Theognide" (On the text of Theognis) which is a review of the edition of J. Carrière, Emerita, vol. 18 (1950), 204-14 and 534 ff. See *Douglas Young, Theognis (Leipzig,1961), xxi: a list of articles on *Theognis of whom F. R. Adrados is an important commentator.
City in Turkey in which Greek was the main language. It flourished from at least 250 B.C.
The city from which *Diotimus (active 250 B.C.) and, it is thought, *Asclepiades (active 250 B.C.) came. The Adramyttium peninsula is south of the site of Troy.
References. Pauly, Wissowa, Paulys Real-Encyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, vol. i, 404: see "Adramytteion". Licht, Sexual Life in Ancient Greece, 464: re Diotemus (i.e. Diotimus).
Poet from Sweden who wrote in Swedish. 1884-1965.
Best known as a major Swedish painter known as GAN, he also wrote poems especially early in his career, influenced by *Oscar Wilde. A lover was Karl Edvard Holmstrom who died ca. 1914.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Who's Who in Gay and Lesbian History: From Antiquity.
Journal published in the United States from 1967 in English.
One of the longest running United States gay journals, founded just before the beginning of the *gay liberation period in *Los Angeles. Its coverage of literature has varied from the excellent to the mediocre. Many book reviews, interviews and articles have dealt with literary figures, including poets (for instance *Frank Golovitz). An occasional poem has been printed (e.g., by James Holmes). J. K. Simes Horvath and Dal McIntrye had poems published (Jim Kepner to the author, October 1988). An index compiled by *Robert Ridinger exists for the period 1967-1982 .
The Advocate was criticised in 1974 in * Gay Sunshine - when it had just been purchased by David Goodstein - for being too conservative: see Gay Sunshine no. 24, p. 9. Despite this, it is one of the most important journals for United States gay culture - and, indeed, world gay culture, since the United States has been so influential on gay culture from the beginning of the gay liberation period in 1968. The Advocate's owner from 1974-82, David Goodstein (1932-1982), was a wealthy Californian business man (obituary in The Advocate no. 425, July 23, 1985, 10-11; see also no. 430). He left his papers and an endowment to *Cornell University through the Mariposa Foundation, to be used for the study of sexuality. Under Goodstein, the journal changed from a small Los Angeles based paper to a national magazine appealing especially to the gay middle classes. After his death the paper went downhill becoming somewhat tawdry.
From the early 1990s, it has had a more cultural emphasis (e.g., *Camille Paglia has had a column) latterly with an emphasis also on gay rights. Its recent standard in respect of gay culture has been variable; in the late 1990s book reviews have again appeared. It includes a supplement for sexual advertisements which has formed over half the bulk of the paper at times. Overall, The Advocate is outstanding for its coverage of United States gay culture. The thesis of Alan D. Winter, The Gay Press (1976), discusses The Advocate in Chapter 2, pp. 42-51.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Gay Histories and Cultures.
Philosopher from Great Britain and France who wrote in English. Ca. 1110-1167.
His De spirituali amicitia (Spiritual friendship) is a Christian counterpart to *Cicero's Laelius de amicitia (Laelius on Friendship) which is referred to many times in the work and on which it relies as indeed on the teachings of Jesus Christ notably that "God is love" (Gospel of John Chapter 4, verse 16).
It was a highly influential work which forms the background to much Latin poetry written in monasteries in the *middle ages. It was translated into English as Spiritual Friendship, by M. E. Laker(Kalamazoo, Michigan: Cistercian Fathers, 1974); biography of Aelred, pp. 3-14. Brian Patrick McGuire, Brother and Lover - Aelred of Rievaulx, 1994, places Aelred in his twelfth century context. See also *Friendship - Latin.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Gay Histories and Cultures. Who's Who in Gay and Lesbian History: From Antiquity.
Pseudonym of 'Enea Silvio Piccolomini.
Poet and critic from Greece who wrote in Greek. 525 B.C.-456 B.C.
Aeschylus was a tragic dramatist who wrote in verse. In Plato's * Symposium, section 180, Phaedrus states that Aeschylus was mistaken in his assertion in his play, The Myrmidons, that *Achilles in *Homer's Iliad was the lover of Patroclus; according to Phaedrus, it was the other way round and Achilles was beardless and the younger man (Phaedrus is here referring to the concepts of *erastes and *eromenos). In The Symposium, section 179, Phaedrus uses the word erastes ("lover") to refer to Patroclus, thus making it clear he saw Achilles and Patroclus as lovers.
As an interpretation of the relationship of *Achilles and Patroclus in homosexual terms, these sections of The Symposium constitute the beginnings of gay poetry criticism. The part of The Myrmidons referred to has survived as fragment 135. Criticism: see *Paul Brandt.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Oxford Classical Dictionary, 17-19. Bibliographies: Welter, Bibliographie Freundschaftseros, 37: Die Myrmidonen. Gay Poetry Anthologies: Kupffer, Lieblingminne und Freundesliebe, 187. Criticism: Symonds, A Problem in Greek Ethics, 27-28. Courouve, Ces petits grecs, 19. Garde, Jonathan to Gide, 24-25. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, vol. 1, 16.
Poem from Great Britain written in English. Published in 1881.
A poem satirizing *Oscar Wilde acompanying a caricature in the journal Punch, 25 June 1881, (Punch's Fancy Portraits No. 37): "Aesthete of Aesthetes!/ What's in a name?/ The poet is WILDE/ But his poetry's tame." Reproduced in Robin Spencer, The Aesthetic Movement (1972), p. 99. The authorship is unknown. An accurate summary of Wilde's mediocre poetry.
Aesthetes (or esthetes in United States spelling) are men who are obsessed with beauty. They exist in relation to homosexuality and poetry from 206 B.C. in Chinese from China and later in other languages.
Poet esthetes who are linked to homosexuality have a long history, especially in East Asia and *Islamic countries. While aesthetes are not necessarily homosexuals *effeminacy linked with them usually gives them a homosexual connotation.*Oscar Wilde is the best example of a homosexual esthete and was perceived as such in the British press of the late *Victorian period.
Chinese. The tradition is very old, dating from at least the *Han dynasty (206 B.C.-220) and *T'ang dynasty (618-907); almost every poet is involved in it as the cult of beauty was intimately associated with the writing of Chinese poetry: see especially *Seven Sages, *Orchid Terrace Poets, *Yuan Mei (active ca. 1750 ). Chinese culture influenced Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese cultures and Chinese esthetic principles carried over into these cultures. For a study of the esthetics of homosexuality see *Mao-feng chu. Japanese: see *Yukio Mishima, *Yoshida Kenko. A cult of beauty was very strong, especially from the sixteenth century. "Iki" or "chic" - "a highly sophisticated sensibility, a way of feeling, thinking and behaving" - was a feature: see Shuzo Kuki, Reflections on Japanese Taste: The Structure of Iki (1930), translated by John Clark (Sydney, 1998); the author lived in Europe in the 1920s and was fluent in German, French and English. At the end of the nineteenth century, Japanese esthetic ideas were to influence the European *esthetic movement which arose from 1880. In this movement "the beautiful" was consciously offered as an aim in life. The English writer *Walter Pater was an influential thinker.
English. *Walter Hamilton wrote the first study. See *Harold Acton, *E. Briggs, John Betjeman, John Glassco, *A. D. Hope, *Brian Howard, *Lionel Johnson, *Oscar Wilde (recognized as an esthete from 1881). The opera Patience with libretto by *W S. Gilbert satirized esthetes. *Aubrey Beardsley was one, though whether homosexuallly active may never be known; he was certainly intimately linked to homosexual circles. For an Australian satire see *Clem Christesen. The MA Thesis of Jonathan Watkins,
University of Sydney, Department of Fine Arts, 1984, titled The Development of Art for Art's Sake in Australia: 1880-1915, on the influence of the aesthetic movement in Australia, is important for providing the background to this movement in Australia, 1880-1915; a copy is in the University of Sydney Library. French. French had a strong tradition of aesthetes: see *Huysmans (who wrote a novel which was highly influential), Jacques d'Adelsward Fersen, *Marcel Proust, *Montesquiou, *Cocteau. German: see *Stefan George, *Elisar von Kupffer. Italian: see *D'Annunzio, *Mario Praz. Portuguese: *Antonio Botto, *Fernando Pessoa.
Persian. Turkish, and Urdu: as paintings, especially *Persian paintings illustrating * Divan poets show, estheticism was a major feature of poetry readings and literary gatherings; in these languages see also *Wine, *Cupbearer. Bengali: see *Tagore.
See as well, *Dandy, *Decadent movement, *Effeminacy, *Eighteen-nineties, *Fop and *Gay sensibility.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Gay Histories and Cultures.
Movement in Europe in French in France, English in Great Britain and other *European languages and in east Asia in Chinese and Japanese from ca. 1880 to ca. 1910.
The aesthetic movement was a major literary movement involving homosexuality which arose in Europe from 1880 and spread to European colonies all over the world and as far as Japan. In origin, it goes back to 1850. (The *decadent movement and *symbolism are interrelated literary movements.) See *Richard Ellmann, The Modern Tradition (1965), pp. 101-228, "The Autonomy of Art", for documents. Though the aesthetic movement is usually taken to be a later nineteenth century European movement, in China and Japan aestheticism had a long history, especially in relation to poetry and painting (see below).
In English. *Rossetti, the *Pre-Raphaelite group, *Pater and the art critic John Ruskin were important forerunners and *W. S. Gilbert satirized the movement in the comic opera Patience (1881). One of the major tenets was *art for art's sake: the idea that art should exist solely for the sake of its beauty and should not serve any particular purpose - as *Marxism and *Socialism proposed. (The Socialist gay poet and writer, *Edward Carpenter, represents a contrary view though *Oscar Wilde was also influenced by Socialism.) Oscar Wilde was the key figure in Great Britain while *Walter Pater was highly influential (see *aesthetes for a list of poets who adopted the aesthetic movement pose). In French, the main initiator was *Huysmans, though in poetry the movement emerges from the work of *Baudelaire. *Verlaine was a major poet.
The first book on the movement was Walter Hamilton, The Aesthetic Movement in England (1882). On the English aesthetic movement in Great Britain, see also Alfred J. Farmer, Le Mouvement esthétique et décadent en Angleterre 1873-1900 (Paris, 1931). The homosexual poets of the *eighteen-nineties - e.g., *Theodore Wratislaw - were greatly influenced by and embody in their work, the tenets of aestheticism. In the United States, poets who went to *Harvard in the late nineteenth century show its influence. The American poet *Edgar Allen Poe was regarded as a precursor by some, especially in France.
The aesthetic movement is closely linked with the decadent model of literature and was highly influential in all the *European languages and in English as far away from Great Britain as Australia. In poetry it took the form of the expression of things beautiful and pleasurable - and especially beautiful men (the cult of *Antinous in its modern form dates from this time). *Eighteen nineties anthologies include aesthetic movement poets.
For German see the *Munich group of poets from which the movement emerged. *Richard Wagner's music was a focus. In Portuguese. *Antonio Botto and *Fernando Pessoa were major poets. All journals associated with the aesthetic movement need to be assessed (see, e. g., the English journal * Century Guild Hobby Horse). In Russian many poets around the turn of the century show its influence (e.g., *Kuzmin); the ballet impresario Sergei Diaghilev was a major figure. *Vladimir Nabokov's work, especially his parody novel Pale Fire, shows he works in the aesthetic tradition. A Russian emigré writer his works stand in opposition to the Soviet tradition of socialist realism which, following *Marx, became an orthodoxy.
Japanese. The European aesthetic movement reached and influenced Japan from ca. 1910, where it was on fertile ground, as Japan had a long tradition of aestheticism strongly inlfuenced by Chinese civilization (with which Japan's literati were closely linked since they all wrote Chinese characters and the Japanese system of writing was based on the Chinese). For Chinese aestheticism see *Han period, *Sung period, *Yuan Mei, *Orchid Pavilion. Japanese art reached Europe from the later nineteenth century and this in turn influenced the aesthetic movement, though Chinese and Japanese poetry was little known in Europe and its offshoot civilizations at this time; see Michael Sullivan, The Meeting of Eastern and Western Arf(London, 1973), 197-254. The "discovery" of Japanese prints by the artist Whistler at this time opened a new perspective on book illustration.
Persian. There is a strong aesthetic element in traditional Persian poetry and art especially in the *illustrations to Persian poetry. Compare *social constructionism, *Marxism. Contrast *Puritanism.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Summers, Gay and Lesbian Literary Heritage, 2-5.
Concept and philosophy in English, French, German, Chinese and Japanese in Great Britain, France, Germany and Japan dating from at least 1895 in English and French and probably earlier in Japanese and Chinese.
The idea that the expression of beauty in gay literary and artistic works is linked to homosexual sensibilities. The idea arose basically out of the *decadent movement. German. See *Hubert Fichte - the main person in European languages to recently raise this issue. English. *Oscar Wilde was a crucial person in the *Eighteen-nineties period. *Camp is a kind of parody of any serious view of gay aesthetics. Jacob Stockinger has tried to elaborate an aesthetic. The question of a black gay aesthetic is discussed in an essay in the black gay anthology * Brother to Brother by *Charles I. Nero, pp. 229-52. Japanese. The concept of iki in Japanese has homosexual undertones; iki means "smartness" or "style". See Kuki Shuzo, Reflections on Japanese Taste: The Structure of Iki, trans. by John Clark, Sydney, 1997. French. See *Dominique Fernandez. Chinese. This idea may go back to ancient China (e.g., the *Han Period). *See also Aesthetes.
Poet who possibly wrote in Turkish. Active before 1838.
Probably a poet from the *Ottoman period. Not found in Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Eros: Die Männerliebe der Griechen, 123-24.
Song from Afghanistan written in Pashto. Before 1962.
See *Allen Edwardes, The Cradle of Erotica, 1962, p. 200, the song is called "Zekhmi Dil" ("Wounded Heart") and is said to be a pederastic love song of the Pathans - "There's a girl across the river with a postern like a peach, but alas! I cannot swim"; Edwardes states the word *boy is altered to girl by the ist-zen (anus beater) of Kabul. It is not known how accurate this title "Zekhmi Dil" is or where it came from.
The poem has been "completed" by E. A. Lacey in Gay Roots (see reference below) but the work here is more a version based on the song (which is about a beautiful boy across the river whom the singer wants to penetrate). E. A. Lacey states it is a traditional Afghani folk song quoted by innumerable writers on India and the Pashtuns of the Northwest frontier. The language Pashto is sometimes called Afghan.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Gay Roots: An Anthology of Gay History, 363: trans. by *E. A. Lacey. Criticism. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 17: cites the two lines and calls the poem "Zekhmi Dil".
Languages spoken in the continent of Africa. Works of relevance date from 2,175 B.C.
Human habitation in Africa goes back 6 million years and human art in Africa is the earliest known art in the world, dating from some 3 million years ago (see the illustration of the so-called Makapansgat pebble from Transvaal, the first known work of human art on page 41 of Julian Bell, What is Painting?, London, 1999). Africa divides up into Northern Africa - where the Sahara Desert predominates and where Arabic is the main language and Egyptian (2,200 B.C.+) the most ancient language - and Sub-saharan Africa, all of Africa below the Sahara desert. The modern African states mainly date from European colonization and tribal groupings linked to language are more crucial. Maps of African tribes are in Tom Phillips, Africa: Art of A Continent, 1995; this work discusses Africa systematically and maps of tribes are before the commencement of the text for each section. A concise introduction to the languages of Africa is "Languages" in R. Oliver and others, editors, Cambridge Encyclopedia of Africa, 1991, 75-77; it is generally agreed that over 1,000 languages are spoken.
Indigenous languages. The indigenous languages spoken in Africa divide into several language families: these include, as presently understood, Niger-Congo spoken in central Africa, the *Bantu languages spoken over almost the entire south of the continent (300 languages, all very close), and the Khoisan family (spoken in south western Africa). Several hundred languages are spoken, the Niger-Congo group being the largest language family.
There are vast oral literatures in African languages though only some languages have been translated into European languages (mainly into English and French) making assessment for homosexuality difficult. The Bantu language group, spoken across southern Africa, includes Xhosa, Shona (see *Overview - Shona), Sotho, Tswana and Zulu, all of whose oral literatures have been examined in some detail: see *praise poems. Somali is spoken in the horn of Africa and Swahili to the south of it. Hausa is spoken north of Nigeria in west Africa. Malagasy is spoken on the island of Madagascar and is an *Austronesian language.
For information on languages in the southern half of the continent, see John Middleton, Encyclopedia of Africa: South of the Sahara, 4 volumes, 1999.
*Afro-Asiatic languages. Arabic, ancient Egyptian and Ethiopic are major and ancient languages in this group which are probably indigenous, being spoken first in Egypt in the form of Egyptian from before 3,000 B.C.; Coptic is a modern descendent of ancient Egyptian. Arabic is now spoken across north Africa and throughout the Sahara where *Islam is the major religion. See *Overview - Egyptian, Overview, - *Arabic.
Introduced languages. European languages. These are principally English, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Flemish (a language of Belgium close to Dutch which controlled the Republic of the Congo; French is also spoken in Belgium) and Afrikaans. The Afro-Asiatic language Arabic, spoken in the northern half of the continent, was also introduced. See *Overview - English in South Africa, *Overview - Afrikaans. *Gregory Woods has written an article on gay English poems in Africa.
See overall Joseph Greenberg, The Languages of Africa (1963), and Michael Mann, editor, A Thesaurus of African Languages (1987).
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 22-24: "Africa, Sub-saharan". Kindlers neues Literatur Lexikon vol. 20, 747: books listing African languages. Katzner, Languages of the World, 6-7: list of languages. Summers, Gay and Lesbian Literary Heritage, 5-8: "African Literatures" - mostly deals with contemporary material. Criticism. Woods, History of Gay Literature, 302-312: a survey of poets writing in English who mention homosexuality.
Poet from Romania writing in Romanian. Born ca. 1970.
In Index on Censorship no.1 of 1995, p. 50, two poems are translated into English with a photo of the handsome young poet. Apparently he is the first openly gay poet in Romania.
Homopoetry associated with Afro-Americans in English in the United States, also sometimes called blacks and people of color and formerly Negroes, may go back at least to *minstrel songs (from 1854), though - so far - minstrel material is homosexual by context only and then only by implication.
*Paul Laurence Dunbar, usually seen as the first notable black poet, reputedly had some homosexual experience. The *Harlem Renaissance was a great revival of Negro culture in *New York beginning in the 1920s; *Countee Cullen, *Langston Hughes and *Claude McKay were the main gay poets. The first gay article on the Harlem Renaissance was written by *Eric Garber who has compiled a detailed bibliography. There is a strong tradition of black *bawdry - see *toasts. For oral *songs, which constitute a rich Afro-American tradition, see *Bessie Smith and *Ma Rainey. Very little homobawdry is known so far; references to homosexuality are mainly negative.
*Leroi Jones published the first openly gay poem of the contemporary period., while *Adrian Stanford was the first openly gay poet to publish a volume. The gay novelist James Baldwin wrote some poetry.
There has been a great outpouring of openly gay poetry by black poets from 1983 onwards. At least two United States published journals *Blackheart (ca. 1982-86, three issues), edited by *Isaac Jackson, and Other Countries (1988+) have come into being (see The Advocate no. 518, 14 February 1989, 51-54). For anthologies see *Anthologies - Black. * In the Life, edited by Joseph Beam, was the first anthology to reach a wide audience and * The Road Before Us is outstanding; * Milking Black Bull (1995) is an anthology of the second wave of black gay poets. * Voices Against the Wilderness (1983), was the first black gay poetry anthology.
The cities of *New York, *Philadelphia and *Washington have large black populations and have produced black gay poets and writers. Poets of note include *O. A. Ajanaku, *Assotto Saint (pseud. of Ives Lupin), Jim Beam, *Blackberri, *Richard Bruce (pseud. of *Richard Bruce Nugent), *Ernest Clay (partner of *Louie Crew), *Melvin Dixon, *Salih Michael Fisher, *Craig G. Harris, *Essex Hemphill, *Craig Hickman, *Isaac Jackson, *Stephen Jonas (pseud.), *Brad Johnson, *Steve Langley, *Craig Reynolds, *D. A. Richards, *Marlon Riggs, *Philip Robinson, *Shahid (pseud. of *Roosevelt Williamson), *Reginald Shepherd, *Sidney Smith (*pederasty activist), Jerry Thompson, *Derek Walcott (not from the United States but lives there for much of the year), *Donald W. Woods. Of *nineteen nineties poets *Thomas Glave is outstanding. See Emmanuel S. Nelson, "Towards a Transgressive Aesthetic; Gay Readings of Black Writing", James White Review, spring 1994, vol. 11. no 3, 17-18.
The Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, New York, is a special black library attached to *New York Public Library which may have relevant material. See also *Negritude. Debbie Douglas and others, Ma-ka: diasporic juks: contemporary writing by queers of African descent, Toronto, 1997, is an anthology of writings.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopaedia of Sexual Behaviour: see "Negro". Summers, Gay and Lesbian Literary Heritage. Gay Histories and Cultures: see "African American Gay Culture"; see also "Black Power Movement" and "Black and White Men Together". Criticism. Brother to Brother, xxi-xxxi: gives the background to contemporary gay writing.
Language family spoken in west Asia and north Africa from the Sahara to the Mediterranean. Material dates from ca. 2,175 B.C., the earliest gay poetry being in Egyptian.
The languages are sometimes called Hamito Semitic languages (or Semitic) though this term is now not used; they include ancient Egyptian and modern Coptic (descended from ancient Egyptian and spoken by Christians in Egypt; Muslims speak Arabic), Akkadian (the ancient language of Iraq), Aramaic (the language of Christ which replaced Akkadian as a lingua franca and gradually became the modern Syriac), Berber (spoken in Morocco; though there has been some doubt that the language is afro-Asiatic), Hebrew, and - the most widely spoken of the group - Arabic, the language of the * Koran.
Canaanite languages (see *Kadesh) are, with Egyptian, the most ancient of the languages. They are a group of the northern central or northwestern Afro-Asiatic group spoken in ancient Lebanon and Syria and include Phoenician (a dialect of Hebrew, sometimes called Punic, which is related to Ugaritic; on this language see the entry in the Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics), Moabite, Hebrew and recently discovered languages such as Eblaic. They were written in cuneiform and date to the third millenium B.C. Much literary material in these ancient languages remains unanalysed (see e. g., F. Fonzarelli, The Ebla Language and Semitic Linguistics, Florence, 1984). Other languages in the Northwestern group (from the Syrian area) include Amorite; all are close to Akkadian. All the Afro-Asiatic languages, both ancient and modern, are very close. Whether they were first spoken in north Africa in Egypt or in west Asia is disputed.
Syrian was an important language of transmission of Greek culture to the Arabic world. Through Syrian culture too, cultures to the east of it were transmitted to Mediterranean cultures and beyond. Hebrew, the language of the * Old Testament (or Tanach as its is known to Jews) is known by Jews around the world, especially since its revival in the late nineteenth century. It is the national language of Israel. Aramaic, the language of Jesus Christ, is close to extinction; one homopoem survives in the language (see *Overview - Hebrew, Aramaic). Ethiopic, spoken in Ethiopia, has two dialects: Ge'ez is the literary language, Amharic is the main modern vernacular.
The Afroasiatic language group has the oldest recorded tradition of homosexual poetry: see *Overview - Egyptian; see also * Gilgamesh. For information on the literatures of these languages see Queneau, Histoire des littératures, volume one.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopedia Britannica: "Semitic Languages". See also Encyclopedia Britannica, eleventh edition, "Semitic Languages": fine overview by Theodore Noldeke. Parlett, Languages of the World, 110-11: "Semitic".
Poet and anthologist from Turkey who wrote in Greek. Ca. 531-ca.580.
One of the rare *Byzantine poets to mention homosexuality (though negatively: Agathias repudiates it). See R. C. McCail, "The Erotic and Ascetic Poetry of Agathias Scholasticus", Byzantion vol. 41 (1971), 205-67, especially 212-15. He compiled an anthology of epigrams, the *Circle, many of which entered the * Palatine Anthology. His name means Agathias the scholar. See also *Eratosthenes Scholasticus.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Classical Dictionary, 25. Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Eros: An Anthology of Friendship, 59-60. Palatine Anthology, v 278 and x 68.
Poet and lover fom Greece who wrote in Greek; trope in Greek, English, German. Ca. 416 B.C.-401B.C.
Agathon was a tragic dramatist who wrote in poetry, who was famed for his beauty and loved by *Euripides. Fewer than forty lines of his work survive (for sources see the Oxford Classical Dictionary entry). He is accepted as being homosexual in ancient Greek literature: see Dover, Greek Homosexuality (e.g., pp. 140-42). It is at his house that the famous dialogue by *Plato, The *Symposium, takes place. Agathon is one of the five speakers, speaking before Socrates who is the last speaker. As a trope of gay love see in English. *Julian Sturgis, *S. E. Cottam, in German *Wieland, in Greek *Aristophanes, *Euripides, in Italian. *Ficino.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Classical Dictionary, 25. Dictionnaire Gay. Who's Who in Gay and Lesbian History: From Antiquity. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Lieblingminne und Freundesliebe, 193. Ioläus (1902), 79. Eros: An Anthology of Friendship, 6871: re appearance in *Aristophanes' play Thesmophoriazusae. Orgasms of Light, 100. Garde, Jonathan to Gide, 37.
Laws in English relating to adulthood and sexuality in Great Britain, the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, India, South Africa and other English speaking countries and in other countries and relating to other languages date from before 1500.
Laws relating to the age of sexual consent are the main laws since they define the age at which a person can be legally gay. The age of sexual consent is the age at which a person is legally deemed to be capable of giving consent to a sexual act. It varies around the world for homosexuals from twelve to twenty-one (in the state of Western Australia in Australia). (Compare the age of majority, the age at which a person is legally deemed to be an adult; this age is usually higher than the age of consent, frequently by several years). The age of consent is important for the content of gay poetry. Poems referring to sex below the age of consent are unlikely to be written and, if written, to be published.
There appears to have been no age of consent in many ancient cultures (such as ancient Greece, Rome, Egypt and China). In European culture and its offshoots the age of consent was formerly the age of entrance to monasteries which was twelve; this age dates from the *middle ages (see Patricia Quinn, Better than the Sons of Kings: Boys and Monks in the early Middle Ages, 1989, for further information). The age of consent was twelve until 1875 in Great Britain for heterosexuals becoming thirteen in 1875, due to feminist agitation against teenage prostitutes, and sixteen, it's present age for heterosexual sex, in 1885; by contrast, when male homosexual acts were decriminalized in Great Britain the age of consent for homosexuals was set at 21 (the age was lowered to 18 in 1991). On the raising of the age of consent in 1875 see Ann Stafford, The Age of Consent(London, 1875). Some sample ages of homosexual consent in 1999: Spain 12, *Vatican City 12, Japan 13, Denmark 15 and Ireland 17. In Canada it is 14 after a court case finding the age of consent at 18 for homosexuals versus 14 for heterosexuals was discriminatory. The United States has many different ages of consent for heterosexuals and homosexuals according to the state in which a person lives: for instance it is 13 in New Mexico, 15 In Colorado and 16 in Indiana, Washington and Maine for homosexuals and in all these states the ages of consent for homosexuals and heterosexuals are the same. In some 18 US states male homosexual acts are illegal (see *Law - English).
The latest information on the age of consent worldwide can be found on the *Internet. Very detailed information on European countries is in the articles by Helmut Graupner, "Sexual Consent: The Criminal Law in Europe and Overseas" in Archives of Sexual Behavior vol. 29 no. 5 (2000), in the section "Homosexual Relations", 425-433.
The age of death has increased throughout history (e. g. in Australia it was 47 for males in 1900 and is over 79 in the 1990s). This factor needs to be taken into account in any discussion of homosexuality - and in reading homosexual poetry: for instance the poems of the ancient Greek anthology, the *Mousa Paidike were probably composed by males close in age to the addressees, since the age of death was much lower.
With the age of death much being lower in earlier centuries there must have been more *pederasty and less *androphilia. Consequently homosexual poetry in earlier periods had a higher pederastic content and should not in many cases be read as being androphilic. With the age of death rising from the 1950s there has been an increase in androphilia. The age of death is much lower in many African countries, in Asia and IN South America than in developed countries with efficient medical services. Even in developed countries some sections of the population have a lower age of death (e.g. Australian Aborigines in Australia).
See G. Acsadi and J. Nemeskeri, History of Human Life Span and Mortality (Budapest, 1970) ; there are many tables in this book - for instance the table on page 224 shows that in ancient *Rome the life span of slaves was 17 and for professionals 36, while the table on page 222 shows the average age of death overall in Rome in the Roman era was 22.6 years.
Historian and critic from Portugal who wrote in Portuguese. 1883-1961.
A doctor at the Institute of Legal Medicine, *Lisbon, who is the author of a huge survey of homosexuality in Europe: Evolucao da pederastia e do lesbiamo na Europa (The evolution of homosexuality and lesbianism in Europe), first printed in Arquivo da universidade do Lisboa vol. 11 (1926), 336-620. It was published as a book of 292 pages in 1926, with a second edition with additional material in 1934 (with the footnotes deleted but a bibliography added, pp. 359-74). His bibliographies contain many little known items. (Copies sighted: National Library of Lisbon, *Lisbon.) This work consists mostly of discussion of the laws of homosexuality in various European countries: however, there is discussion of literature, including of poetry, throughout. It is one of the most detailed presentations of the various European laws ever. The work contains the first discusssion of homosexuality in relation to Portuguese literature.
After opening with consideration of the present extent of homosexuality there are four sections: Section A (pp. 377+), the ancient world (that is, Greece and Rome - with a detailed survey of Latin literature including liberal reference to poetry pp. 390-438), B, the *Middle Ages (pp. 457+), C, 'Renaissance and early modern (1453-1789), pp. 483+, and D, Modern Europe (1789+), pp. 540+. He relies on *Magnus Hirschfeld and gives references. He wrote the article "Crimes e delitos sexuais em Portugal na Epoca das Ordenagoes (Sexualidade anormal)", Archivo de medicina legal, vol. 3 (1930), 118-44, which deals with homosexual crimes in Portugal and is a source of many cases of sodomy.
Biography: see his entry in Grande enciclopedia Portuguese e Brasil vol. 1 (1945). A Curriculum Vitae, Lisbon, 1944, 86 pp., exists in the National Library, Lisbon. His papers are with his family. Compare *Monteiro, his colleague at the Institute of Legal Medicine.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Who's Who in Gay and Lesbian History: From Antiquity.
Poet from the United States who wrote in English. Born ca. 1930.
He was imprisoned for a period from 16 to 48 years for sex with a 15 year old male. For a photo of Ahlers and his lover Harold Baker see [no author], A Witchhunt Foiled: The FBI vs. NAMBLA, New York: North American Man Boy Love Association, 1985, p. 11.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Poems of Love and Liberation, 49.
Poet possibly from Iran who wrote in Persian. Died 1123.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition: see the *Kirmani article - states that, with *'Iraki and *Kirmani, he contemplated "divine beauty in earthly forms, preferably in beautiful boys". No separate entry exists on him in Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition. Criticism. Rypka, History of Iranian Literature, 220, 254 (brief mention).
Poet from Spain who wrote in Arabic. Ca. 1030-1035.
See Adam Mez, The Renaissance of Islam (Patna, 1937), pp. 359-60: a grammarian who wrote love poems about Aslam, the son of a Qadhi (with whom he studied), and which were sung at weddings.
Criticism. Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition, vol. 5, 779: a poet and grammarian of *Cordoba who died of grief for the love of another man.
Poet who was possibly from Iran and possibly wrote in Persian. Active before 1838.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Eros: Die Männerliebe der Griechen, 141; possibly trans. by *von Hammer Purgstall. His country is given here as Kermjan. Compare Kerman, the capital of Kerman Province, East Central Iran. Possibly the Turkish poet *Ahmedi could be meant.
Poet from Turkey who wrote in Turkish. 1334-1413.
He was a *court poet at Adrianople (now called Edirne). The language of his * divan became the standard Turkish poetic language for centuries. He wrote *mesnevi. On him see Mitler, Ottoman Turkish Writers.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopaedia of Islam, first edition: see "Ahmedi". Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition: called "Ahmadi" (stated to be "the greatest Ottoman poet of the fourteenth century" who "first introduced profane subjects"). Criticism. Penguin Book of Turkish Verse, 64: a love poem to a masculine beloved. Gibb, History of Ottoman Poetry, volume 1, 260 ff.
Poet from Turkey who wrote in Turkish. Died 1497.
He wrote a poem about Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror's infatuation with a youth (Dr Chris Murphy, Turcologist, Harvard to me, 1989). He was tutor and companion to Mehmed II (the Conqueror of Constantinople).
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Penguin Book of Turkish Verse, 68: *non gender specific love poem ; biog., 8. Eros: Die Männerliebe der Griechen, 125-26: spelt Ahmed Pascha. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 1, 365: poems *"Ghazel" and "Fair Friend" (openly homosexual poem).
Editor of works in Greek from Germany; critic in Latin. Active 1855.
Editor of the Greek poet *Theocritus: Bucolicorum Reliquiae, 2 volumes (Leipzig, 1855) with Latin notes and lengthy introduction dealing with the manuscripts, early printed editions and versions.
Poet from China writing in Chinese. Born 1910.
A Chinese poet who lived in France and returned to China in 1932; his poetry was influenced by the dictates of *Mao and is weaker after the 1942 Yenan declaration (see *Communism). He was influenced by *Shakespeare, *Whitman (especially in his writing of free verse) and *Esenin. His name is spelt Ai Ch'ing (pseud.) (in Wade Giles) and Ai Qing (pseud.) (in Pinyin). Real name: Chiang Hai Ch'eng.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Dictionary of Oriental Literatures, vol. 1, 1-2.
A viral disease especially transmitted in the blood by *anal sex. Contact with the virus, leading to infection, makes a person HIV positive. Aids is the name of the disease in its full blown state and is, in almost all cases, fatal, but may not result in death for up to ten years or longer after initial infection; only a few persons are known to have survived beyond ten years. Drugs are increasingly enabling persons to control HIV and Aids.
There has been an enormous literature on Aids. Overall the predominant emotion expressed in poetry occasioned by Aids has been loss; the *elegy has been a favorite form for these poets. It was first known as Aids in 1983 and from this year its impact on gay poetry has been enormous. Initially it led to a marked diminishment in writing on sex. *Denis Altman in prose and *Paul Monette in poetry have written eloquently on it.
Aids is a disease affecting both homosexuals and heterosexuals but in developed countries most cases have been homosexual.
There are signs the rate of infection amongst homosexuals is declining but Aids is likely to affect gay poetry for years to come. Raymond A. Smith, Encyclopaedia of Aids, 1999, covers all aspects of the subject. Compare *syphilis.
English. The first Aids literary anthology (featuring both prose and poetry) was the Australian anthology * Love and Death (Sydney,
1987). In the United States the first anthology featuring Aids, * Poets for Life (1989), contains the work of heterosexual as well as gay poets. *Unending Dialogue (1991) is a collection based on an Aids poetry workshop.
A poetry masterpiece about losing a lover has been written by the United States poet *Paul Monette about his lover *Roger Horwitz. Other moving and influential poems are by the United States poets *Michael Lassell, *Rafael Campo and *Mark Doty. The black United States gay poet *Jim Beam, editor of the first black gay anthology, died of Aids. *Gil Cuadros has written memorably from a *Chicano point of view and *Juan David Acosta-Posada from a Latino. *Walt Whitman's civil war poems, inspired by his nursing of wounded soldiers, have been enlisted in the expression of sentiment about the subject. The journal * James White Review (1983+) frequently carries poetry on Aids.
As pointed out, Aids has resulted in a lessening of writing on *sex, especially *anal sex, and poetry which is more caring and thoughtful (as distinct from writing about sexual experiences being the norm of gay poetry). It has tended to give a philosophical dimension to the poetry it has inspired, but it has unfortunately led to more poets using *pseudonyms, thus concealing their real identity. *City Lights Review number 2 of 1988, has a forum on "Aids, Cultural Life and the Arts", pp. 8-56.
*Thom Gunn has recently written some of the most significant poems in English on Aids and The Poetry Society of America published an anthology of children's responses, Listening to Young Voices, edited by Sandra Isham Vreeland, 32 pages, in 1995: about fifteen children write poems about Aids (this book is not specifically a gay book). Blood Whispers (1991) and Blood Whispers, Volume 2 (1994), edited by Terry Wolverton, are selections of poetry and prose from the United States on Aids (a review of Blood Whispers, Volume 2 is in James White Review, vol. 13 no. 3, Summer 1996, 21). The anthology edited by Carlos A. Rodriquez is a general anthology, not specifically gay, titled POESIdA: An Anthologgy of Aids Poetry from the United States, Latin America and Spain, 1997 (143 poems from 73 poets); review: Lambda Book Report, April 1997, 11-12 - states "perhaps the best poems belong to Cuban authors *Reinaldo Arenas and Severo Sarduy." An anthology, Aids Poetry Project, was announced wih a deadline of December 1 1992, James White Review vol.10 no.1 p. 2; but no record of this work has been found. See *Anthologies - English for poetry anthologies dealing with the subject.
Criticism: see Timothy F. Murphy and Suzanne Poirier, Writing Aids: gay literature, language, and analysis (New York, 1993); bibliography of Aids related material 1982-1991, pp. 321-339. Australia: Hurley, Guide to Lesbian and Gay Writing in Australia: see entries under Aids and HIV/AIDS. Aids: the Literary Response edited by Emmanuel S. Nelson, New York, 1992, is a series of essays; only one essay, on the *elegy genre by *Gregory Woods is on poetry: "AIDS to Remembrance: The Uses of Elegy", pp. 155-66. See also *plagues.
For English, see, for Australia .Javant Biarujia, *Patrick Gleeson, *Jim Legasse, *Love and Death (and the poets listed), *Les Murray, *Paul Knobel *Alan Wearne, *Stephen J. Williams. United States: see *Greg Baysans, *Ed Drucker (pseud.), *James S. Holmes, *Assotto Saint (pseud.), *Ron Schreiber. Great Britain: see *Pat O'brien.
Many *gay liberation poets have died of Aids. See also entries for *Nineteen-eighties and *Nineteen-nineties. On the publishing response to Aids see Michael Denneny, "On Publishing Aids Books: Where we've been, where we're going", Lambda Book Report, February 1999, 21. Raymond A. Smith, Encyclopedia of AIDS, 1999, covers all aspects of the subject.
French. See *George Stambolian. The philosophers *Michel Foucault and *Guy Hocquenghem died of Aids. See "Sida" in Dictionnaire Gay and "AIDS Writing in France" in Gay Histories and Cultures. German: see *Jürgen Baldiga, *Horst Bienek, *Stefan Richert, *Manfred Semmelbrauer, *Mario Wirz, *Detlev Meyer. The journal Die Palette vol. 8 no. 16 (Herbst [Autumn] 1992) is a special issue devoted to Aids; it includes poems by *Mario Wirz and a bibliography of literature on Aids p. 94. See also Goodbye to Berlin, pp. 327-40. Greek: see *Andreas Angelakes, *Yannis Ritsos. Spanish: see *Jaime Gil de Biedma, *Xavier Villaurrutia, *Reinaldo Arenas, *Ernesto Banuelos Enriquez, *Manuel Ramos Otero. *Carlos A. Rodriguez-Matos has written a critical article on the subject.
Aids has had a devastating impact in Africa where little money is available for treatment. Poetry in *African languages on the subject, if it exists, has not come to light. The South African poet *Stephen Gray has written a moving poem in English. The impact of Aids in India and China is likely to be large.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 29-32. Howes, Broadcasting It. Dictionnaire Gay: see "Sida". Summers, Gay and Lesbian Literary Heritage, 16-20. Gay Histories and Cultures: see "AIDS", "AIDS Literature", "AIDS in the U.S. media"; see also "ACT UP". Criticism. Woods, History of Gay Literature, 359-74: mainly discussion of Aids poetry.
Anthology in English from the United States. 1992.
It was conceived by William Parker (1943-1993) as a singer's response to *Aids. Review: Gay and Lesbian Study Group Newsletter vol. 5 no. 2 (October 1995), 20-24. Eighteen songs were originally recorded and the scores have been published by Boosey and Hawkes (#VAB-303). The texts were by the composers (Fred Hirsch Richard Thomas) and by poets (such as James Merrill, *Kabir, translated by *Robert Bly, *David Bergman and others). Composers have continued to add to the songbook. Eight new songs and seven from the original work are included in Heartbeats: New Songs from Minnesota for the AIDS Quilt Songbook (recorded as Innova 500). Not sighted.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Gay Histories and Cultures.
Poet from the United States who wrote in English. 1889-1973.
In his Collected Poems, second edition, New York, 1970, see the *sequence "Turns and Movies", pp. 3-18 (especially the section "The *Apollo Trio" pp. 4-5), "Gabriel de Ford" pp. 6-7, "Aerial Dodds" pp. 13-14 (portraits of homosexuals.) He was a graduate of *Harvard influenced by *symbolism. His novel Great Circle (1933) is an analysis of an *Oedipal breakdown of a marriage.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Reader's Encyclopedia of American Literature.
Poet from Canada writing in English. Active 1977. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Larkspur and Lad's Love.
Poet from the United States writing in English. Born ca. 1943.
An Afro-American poet born in Memphis, Tennessee in the United States *south, he now lives in *Chicago where he is a gay activist.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. In the Life, 114-15 (a moving poem dealing with his expulsion from the United States navy in 1963 and black gay brotherhood); biog., 250 (stating he is 43 years old). Road Before Us, 5-6; biog., 172.
Journal from France written in French. Published in 1909.
Akadémos was a monthly journal founded and published by Jacques d'Adelswärd Fersen apparently in *Paris with a * fin de siècle tone. It was artistically produced to a very high standard. There were twelve issues and it was the first gay journal in French. It featured much poetry with gay themes (by, for instance, *Baron de Bideran). It is suspected that poems in the journal are written under pseudonyms and possibly some (or even most) are by Fersen, who wrote poetry. There were reviews of books of poetry as well. It cannot be assumed that because a poem was published or a book reviewed in the journal the author was gay.
It had many homoerotic illustrations of nude male sculptures - e.g. of *Antinous in no. 9, September 1909. Number 7 had an article on the French law in relation to male homosexuality. The journal is discussed in Will H. Ogrinc, "A Shrine to Love and Sorrow: Jacques d'Adelswärd Fersen (1880-1923)", in Paidika vol. 3 no. 2 (Issue 10), 46-47; he states a number of contributions under the pseudonym Sonyeuse are by Fersen. See also *Raymond Laurent.
Very rare. Copy used: *Harvard University, Widener Library. Review: Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen vol. 10 no. 4 (1909-10), 433-37.
Poet from Great Britain who wrote in English. 1721-1778.
Akenside, a doctor from *Edinburgh, was set up in a house in London by his friend, and probable lover, the lawyer Jeremiah Dyson, who left his wife and family to live with Akenside. He is the author of The Pleasures of the Imagination (1744, revised version 1757), a poem famous in its time and showing the influence of *Plato.
A homosexual relationship with Dyson has been alleged by *G. S. Rousseau in Eighteenth Century Life vol. 9 (1985), p. 145: "Dyson was at least homoerotic although the extant evidence suggests that Akenside was exclusively homosexual." Text: Poetical Works, Edinburgh, 1867 (repr.), with biography by Rev. George Gilfillan.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Companion to English Literature; notes "his haughty and pedantic manner" was satirized in *Smollett's Peregrine Pickle. Dictionary of National Biography.
Poet and pharaoh from Egypt who wrote in Egyptian. Active ca. 1,362 B.C.
A ruler of ancient Egypt 1397-1362 B.C. credited with bringing *monotheism to the country, in the form of the god Aton; the pharoah was in effect the *king. He was credited with a homosexual relationship with his favorite and son-in-law Smenkhare, also his co-ruler (however this remains controversial as with much about him, even whether he fathered children). His reputed possible homosexuality is discussed by *Winston Leyland in Gay Roots: Twenty Years of Gay Sunshine, 77-80; no sources are cited here.
He wrote the famous "Hymn to the Sun", which, like all religious *hymns of men to a male god, may reveal repressed homosexual feelings (it has often been compared to *David's *"Psalm 104"); for English translations see Adolf Erman, The Ancient Egyptians (New York, 1966), 288-91 (note that on page 289 the words "Thou [that is, the sun] who createst.. in women and makest seed in men" link the sun with semen). Another translation is in James B. Britchard, editor, The Ancient Near East (Princeton, 1958), volume 1, 226230.
He reigned as Pharaoh 1373-1362 B.C. and transferred his capital from Thebes, to a new town at Amarna named after himself. He was married to Nefertiti and reputedly had six children. For the text of "Hymn to Sun", see J. B. Pritchard, Ancient Near East Texts Relating to the Old Testament, 1969. For another translation into English: see *Terence Deakin.
*Dorothy Porter wrote homosexual poems based on his relationship with Smenkhare. On his life see Cyril Aldred, Akhenaton: Pharaoh of Egypt (1968). The theory of Akhenaton's homosexuality is no longer accepted by most modern Egyptologists. *Akhenaton (pseud.)'s name is based on him.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopedia Britannica. Eliade, Encyclopedia of Religion. Dictionnaire Gay. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 2, 434.
Poet from the United States writing in English. Born 1961.
A *black poet who lives in *New York. His name is taken from the ancient see his entry.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Road Before Us, 7: poem "Cool Waves"; biog.,
Egyptian pharaoh, homosexual according to some views: 172.
Pseudonym of a poet from Russia who wrote in Russian. 1889-1966.
A Russian poet who suffered though the Stalinist terror and lived to write about it, becoming in the 1960s and 1970s something of a cult figure because of this.
See the "First Dedication" to Poem without a Hero (first published in New York in 1960 but worked on by the poet until her death) in The Complete Poems, 1989, trans. Judith Hemschemeyer, volume 2, pp. 402-03: reference to *Antinous (said to be referring to *Vsevolod Knyazev who was bisexual - though it could refer also to *Mikhail Kuzmin: see John Malmstad, Kuzmin's biographer). The reference was glossed by Akhmatova as "ancient handsome man" (ibid., vol. 2, p. 469). Another possible reference could be to the poet Osip Mandelstam (ibid., vol. 2, p. 771). Knyazev appears in the poem as Dapertutto, a pseudonym he used (ibid., vol. 2, p. 413 line 28). The epigraph contains a line from the homosexual poet *Nikolai Klyuev whom *Simon Karlinsky states "lost his freedom and eventually his life because of a poem he wrote in defence of Akhmatova (Slavic Review vol. 28, 1979, 93).
There were homosexual poets in the bohemian circles in *St Petersburg in which Akhmatova moved (e.g. Kuzmin who wrote the introduction to her 1910 volume - see Amanda Haight, Akhmatova, 1977, p. 20). Some are portrayed in the poem: see also the reference to "some Lots from *Sodom'" line 188 vol. 2, p. 423 of the above edition of Poem without a Hero. Akhmatova was the wife of the poet *Nikolai Gumilev.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Terras, Handbook of Russian Literature.
Poet from Iraq who wrote in Arabic. Ca. 750-after 808.
*'Abbasid poet who wrote love poems. See Abdullah al-Udhari and G. B. H. Wightman, Birds Through a Ceiling: Three Abbasid Poets (1975), pp. 35-64: English translation with many love poems adressed to women, some *non gender specific (pp. 36, 52, 54, 58) and one fine homopoem p. 57; biog. note 21-23.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition, volume 1, 9-10: al-'Abbas b. al-Ahnaf. Criticism. *Arthur Wormhoudt, "Classic Arabic Poetry", *Gay Books Bulletin, no. 4 (Fall 1980), 24: states he "wrote some love poems addressed to male lovers'".
Poet possibly from Spain who wrote in Arabic. Active before 1211.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Dar al-Tiraz: several fine gay love poems (some only ascribed to him).
Poet from Iraq who wrote in Arabic. 925-1009.
*Abbasid poet who wrote love poem 24 in the anthology of *al-Tha'alibi. His pseudonym means The Parrot because of his stammering. He settled in *Baghdad where he died. Only the poetry extracts by him in al-Tha'alibi (which the Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition, entry describes as elegaic and bacchic) are known.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition, volume 1, 845-46. Criticism. *Arthur Wormhoudt, "Classic Arabic Poetry", * Gay Books Bulletin, no. 4 (Fall 1980), 24: "wrote some love poems addressed to male lovers".
Poet from Iraq who wrote in Arabic. Ca. 778-864.
From *Basra, he lived in *Baghdad and is regarded as a minor poet. *Bisexual interest. Called "the libertine" or "the debauched" he spent much time with the frivolous Caliph al-Amin.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopaedia of Islam, first edition, volume 1, 576: "al-Bahili" (second entry). Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition: "al-Husayn b. al-Dahhak" (states that "dallying with young men" was how he spent much of his time and his *ghazals are written as much to men as women). Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition, vol. 5, 778 (in the *"Liwat " [*sodomy] article): a homosexual *libertine poet of the *Abbasid period.
Poet from Spain who wrote in Arabic. 1134-1199.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 1, 319: fine love poem; *wine trope.
Philosopher from Iraq who wrote in Arabic. Ca. 776-868.
His *nisba means goggle-eyed. His works show Greek influence and he read Greek works in translation; of 200 known works, only a few survive. See *Charles Pellat, The Life and Work of Jahiz, London, 1969, p. 27: states he wrote three texts on homosexuality.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition: see "al-Djahiz". Dictionary of Oriental Literatures: see "al-Jahiz". Criticism. Boswell, Christianity, Social Tolerance and Homosexuality, 19. *Norman Roth, "'Deal Gently with the Young Man': Love of Boys in Medieval Hebrew Poetry of Spain", Speculum 57 (1982), 27: re *debate on love.
Poet from Iraq who wrote in Arabic. Ca. 650-ca. 730.
*Umayyad poet who lived in *Basra and whose * divan consists of over 7,000 verses and is the largest in Arabic. A poetic battle with Jarir with accusations of homosexuality was a famous *satirical poetry battle.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition, volume 1, 788: "al-Farazdak" by *R. Blachère. Criticism. *Arthur Wormhoudt, "Classic Arabic Poetry", *Gay Books Bulletin, no. 4 (Fall 1980), 24: wrote poems accusing Jarir of homosexuality in "explicit, almost pornographic detail".
Poet from Spain who wrote in Arabic. Died ca. 1134.
He travelled widely in Spain and was assassinated between 1134 and ca. 1160 in Marrakesh, Morocco. A commentary on this work, Kalaidal-Ikayn, has also been written. Compare *Ibn Sa'id.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition, volume 2, 838. Criticism. *Marc Daniel, "Arab Civilization and Male Love", Gay Sunshine 32 (Spring 1977), 5: collected an anthology with homopoems Kalaid al-Ikayn (The Golden Collar).
Philosopher and poet from Iraq who wrote in Arabic. 1058-1111.
The foremost mystic, theologian and religious philosopher of medieval Islam; he taught in *Baghdad. He became a *Sufi and was influenced by the Arabic *Neo-Platonism of *al-Farabi and *Ibn Sina. He also wrote in Persian and his works were translated into Urdu. English translation by Madelaine Farah: Marriage and Sexuality in Islam, Salt Lake City, 1984. De Bary, Guide to Oriental Classics, pp. 37-39, lists works by and on him. See also *Philosophers - Arabic on his brother who appears to have been gay.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition, vol. 2, 1038-41. Dictionary of Oriental Literatures. Dictionary of Literary Biography. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Orgasms of Light, 133: fine gay love poem trans. by *Winston Leyland. Criticism. *Marc Daniel, "Arab Civilization and Male Love", Gay Sunshine 32 (Spring 1977), 7-8: "author of a number of mystical boy-love poems".
Arabic philosopher from Iraq who wrote in Araric. Died 1126.
He is the brother of the more renowned *Sufi *al-Ghazali who took his place in *Baghdad when al-Ghazali retired from teaching. He wrote a prose treatise in an epigrammatical style, Sawaneh, on the *Beloved, Lover and Love. This work also had currency in Persian.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition; by *Helmut Ritter. See also the entry "*Kirmani, Awhad al-din" in Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition: at p.166 the author states he was a mystic who contemplated "divine beauty in earthly forms, preferably in beautiful boys".
Poet who wrote in Arabic. Active before 1200.
A poet of the Arabic middle ages. Not found in Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition. See *Marc Daniel, "Arab Civilization and Male Love", Gay Sunshine 32 (Spring 1977), 6: very fine poem about a wine pourer or *saki and *kissing.
Poet from Iraq who wrote in Arabic. 857-922.
A poet who was an early *Sufi mystic: see *Louis Massignon who wrote a huge study of his life (see the Louis Massignon entry for possible gay reference). He strongly influenced the Persian poet *'Attar.
Poet and historian from Iraq who wrote in Arabic. 1054-1122.
Author of The Maqamat (Assemblies), a series of poems in the maqama genre which is in rhymed prose (see Dictionary of Oriental Literatures, vol. 3: "Maqama"); in this work the protagonist Abu Zayd of Suraj tells a series of stories. See *Allen Edwardes and R. E.
L. Masters, The Cradle of Erotica (New York, 1962), page v (not paginated; the page before the Contents page) for a quotation from a poem, "The Threnody of Abu Zayd" (English translator not given), from The Maqamat (The Assemblies). The poem is about a young man of strong sexuality who has sex with both men and women. The genre of maqama was popular in Persian, Turkish, Syriac and Hebrew.
See also the gay poem in *Richard Burton's translation of the * Arabian Nights (1885), vol. 5, 158, about the *coming of beard. Originally from *Basra, al-Hariri died in *Baghdad.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Dictionary of Oriental Literatures, vol. 3, 70-71. Cassell's Encyclopaedia of World Literature. Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 1, 299: re *slave boys from Assemblies 34.
Poet from Spain who wrote in Arabic. Active before 1243.
He lived in *Seville.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Eros: An Anthology of Friendship, 137: a poem about the *coming of the beard (from *The Pennants). Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 1, 321 (poem about *coming of beard).
Poet from Spain who wrote in Arabic. Active ca. 1050.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 1, 315: fine homoerotic poem.
Singer from Israel who sings in Arabic. Active 1988.
He has set poems of on the theme of boy love to music and performed them and has stated "it's just tradition" (*Arno Schmitt, Berlin, 1989, to the author). A tape is in the possession of Arno Schmitt.
Poet from Spain who wrote in Arabic. 1108-1182.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 1, 319: *non gender specific love poem.
Poet and philosopher from Syria writing in Arabic. 973-1058.
A blind poet from Aleppo who later lived in *Baghdad, he retired to live an ascetic life. He was also a noted thinker.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopedia of Islam, first edition. Dictionary of Oriental Literature, vol. 3. Criticism. Wright, Homoeroticism in Classical Arabic Literature, 210-32 - article on *wine and associated imagery by Suzanne Pinckney Stetkevych.
Poet from Spain who wrote in Arabic. 1040-1095.
Ruler of *Seville 1069-90. Translation. German: trans. by *A. F. Graf von Schack.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopaedia of Islam, first edition. Bibliographies. Welter, Bibliographie Freundschaftseros, 82: Verschiedene Gedichte ["Several poems"; no other details given]. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Lieblingminne und Freundesliebe, 75 (name given as al Motamid). Orgasms of Light, 12: called al-Mutamid Allah Muhammad. Criticism. Boswell, Christianity, Social Tolerance and Homosexuality, 196.
Poet from Spain who wrote in Arabic. Active ca. 1050.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 1, 317: love poem about a mole on a man's cheek.
Poet from Syria who wrote in Arabic. 915-955.
Little is known of his life, but he was a wandering singer who lived in Syria, was killed by brigands, never married, and had attachments to rulers for political reasons (e.g., to *Saif al-Daula); he wrote some homosexual poems. See his entry in Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium for his influence on Byzantine Greek. See also Judah Halevi.
Text. First printed in Cairo in 1815; there have been many editions and commentaries.
Translation. English: *A. J. Arberry (1967) - a selection with little gay interest in the translated poems though some poems do have homosexual undertones, e.g., no. 9. German: *Hammer-Purgstall (1824), O. Rescher (1940).
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Dictionary of Oriental Literatures, vol. 3, 128. Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition. Criticism. In Praise of Boys, 5: sang the praises of boys. *Arthur Wormhoudt, "Classic Arabic Poetry", * Gay Books Bulletin, no. 4 (Fall 1980), 24: stated to be the greatest Arab poet who "has a few poems in his divan which take the theme of homo love and treat them in a profound way" and he wrote about homosexuality in connection with his imprisonment.
Sexologist, possibly from Tunisia, who wrote in Arabic. Active 1410.
His works include homosexual poems cited within the text. He is the author of The Scented Garden, a *manual of sex, first translated into English by *Richard Burton, though this is not a complete translation (published 1886). The work is a * prosimetrum. See The Glory of the Perfumed Garden: The Missing Flowers, trans. by H. E. J., London: *Neville Spearman, 1975, especially Chapters 2, "On Sodomy", and 3, "Pretty Girls are Superior to Boys" (re *debate on love). Both chapters include homosexual poems.
For his life see pp. 10-11 of H. E. J.'s edition which has a valuable introduction; he was possibly from Tunis as the work was originally written for a Tunisian patron around 1410. Compare *al-Nawadji. He is called Shayk Nefzawi in the Richard Burton translation and is also called Nefzawi.
Text. There are many manuscripts and the text exists in several versions which have many additions and embroiderings. There are a number of published Arabic texts (Fez, Tunis, Cairo etc.). See the introduction to the 1963 edition The Perfumed Garden of Shaykh Nefzawi, trans. by Richard Burton, London, written by *Alan Hull Walton, for further information on him.
Translation. English: The Perfumed Garden by *Richard Burton (1886; not complete and omitting the homosexual chapters; this translation is from *Lisieux's 1876 French translation; a complete translation from an Arabic manuscript started by Burton was destroyed by Burton's wife after his death); *H. E. J. (pseud.) (1975); French: M. le Baron R..., titled Le Livre d'amour de l'Orient (ca.1850), published Paris: Bibliothèque des Curieux, 1922; Trans. not known (1876 - published by Lisieux; reprinted 1906, omitting the homosexual chapters); Trans. not known (Paris: Léopold Blondeau, 1960: titled Le Jardin enchanté), *René Khawam (before
1989). Note: it is possible the first three French translations may be the same. See also Bibliographies below. German: H. Conrad
(1905), F. Leiter and Hans H. Thai (1929).
Bibliographies. Pia, Les Livres de l'Enfer, vol. 1, column 632-37: Cheikh Nefzaoui, trans. into French by Monsieur le baron R***, no place or publisher, 1850 (edition used for the Lisieux edition), Le Jardin parfumé du cheikh Nefzaoui, translated into French but translator not known, Paris: *Lisieux, 1886 (repr. 1904); Le Parfum des prairies, trans. into French, trans. not known but from a manuscript stated on the title page to have been made in 1860, Paris: Jean Fort, 1935; Le Jardin enchanté, Paris: Léopold Blondeau, 1960.
Poet from Egypt who wrote in Arabic. 1383-1455.
*Cairo writer who wrote a treatise on male homosexual love with extensive quotation of poems including poems written by himself. There are four chapters: Chapter 1, "On the names of boys", Chapter 2, "On the different categories of boys", Chapter 3, "Boys who exercise art on men", Chapters 4 and 5, "On the qualities proper to boys".
Translation. French: *René Khawam (1989).
Poet from Spain who wrote in Arabic. Active ca. 1150.
He was the twentieth caliph - mam (or religious leader) of the Muslim community - which title was abolished in 1924.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition. Gay Poetry Anthologies. In Praise of Boys, 27: *non gender specific poem.
Poet from Spain who wrote in Arabic; he also lived in Iraq. Died 1013.
His poems have not been collected. He appears in the anthology of *Ibn Hazm. He became laureate to the Umayyad caliph al-Hakim in Iraq but later was forced to return to Spain. He was famous for his chaste love of the enigmatic woman Khalwa.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopaedia of Islam, first edition, 1113-14: refers to boy love poems and to passion for a Mozarab boy Yahya (i.e. John) or Nusair (Victor?); article written by *Henri Peres. Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition: in the *Liwat article see p.779. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Eros: An Anthology of Friendship, 137: from *The Pennants and from *Cordoba. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 1, 312. Criticism. *Marc Daniel, "Arab Civilization and Male Love", Gay Sunshine 32 (Spring 1977), 8. *Norman Roth, "'Deal Gently with the Young Man': Love of Boys in Medieval Hebrew Poetry of Spain", Speculum 57 (1982), 29: states he was in love with a Christian boy.
Poet from Spain who wrote in Arabic. Ca. 1120-1177.
He lived in Valencia. Not found in the index of Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition.
Translation. Spanish: Poemas, trans. Teresa Garulo (Madrid, 1980).
Bibliographies. Bullough, Annotated Bibliography of Homosexuality, item 10428: re a poem "The Weaver Boy" in Gay Sunshine 10 (January 1974), 13 (trans. *Erskine Lane). Cuaderno bibliográfico gay, 13: Poemas, Madrid: Peralta, 1980 (Spanish translation). Gay Poetry Anthologies. In Praise of Boys, 12, 18: fine gay love poems. Bellamy, Banners of the Champions, 189: very fine homosexual love poem. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 1, 318. Criticism. *Norman Roth, "'Deal Gently with the Young Man': Love of Boys in Medieval Hebrew Poetry of Spain", Speculum 57 (1982), 28: pun on *gazelle and *ghazal.
Poet who wrote in Arabic. Active ca. 95Q.
Not found in Encyclopaedia of Islam, first edition.
Criticism. 'Arthur Wormhoudt, "Classic Arabic Poetry", 'Gay Books Bulletin, no. 4 (Fall 19BQ), 24: "wrote poems which refer to homosexual lovers in a lighter vein".
Poet possibly from Syria who wrote in Arabic. Active 1000.
His date is very uncertain. In the Index to Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition, there is a brief reference which seems to indicate he was alive in 1000. Consult *Brockelmann for manuscripts.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition: see *"Liwat" article, 779, which states that in his Diyarat monasteries are regarded as places of debauchery.
Historian from Egypt who wrote in Arabic. 1445-1505.
A manuscript by him dealing withh homosexuality is in the Princeton University Library - see Mach, Catalogue of Arabic Manuscripts in Princeton University Library (1988), item no. 2063.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopaedia of Islam, first edition, volume 1, 573-75 by *Carl Brockelmann: stated to be "the most prolific writer of the *Mamluk period and perhaps in Arabic literature" who "did not hesitate to treat sexual and pornographic subjects" (p. 574).
Poet from Spain who wrote in Arabic. Ca. 961-ca. 1009.
The *nisba al-Taliq means the freed one. He lived in *Cordova. Not found in Encyclopaedia of Islam, first edition or second edition, under al-Taliq. His full name is al-Sharif al-Taliq: see Monroe, Hispano-Arabic Poetry, p. xiii.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Eros: An Anthology of Friendship, 133 (trans. by *A. J. Arberry from * The Pennants). Penguin Book of Homosexual Verse, 115 (trans. by *A. R. Nykl): fine gay love poem with *garden trope. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 1, 310: fine *saki poem. Wilhelm, Gay and Lesbian Poetry, 195-98: called Al-Sharif al-Taliq. Nykl, Hispano-Arabic Poetry, 61-64. Monroe, Hispano-Arabic Poetry, 154. Criticism. Wright, Homoeroticism in Classical Arabic Literature, 140-57; article by Richard Serrano.
Poet from Egypt who wrote in Arabic. Active ca. 950.
No reference found in Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition.
Criticism. *Arthur Wormhoudt, "Classic Arabic Poetry", *Gay Books Bulletin, no. 4 (Fall 1980), 24: states he has "a number of poems about male lovers" in *al-Tha'alabi's anthology; translation of a poem into English, 24-25.
Poet and anthologist from Iran who wrote in Arabic. 961-1038.
Compiler of an anthology with many homosexual poems. The Encyclopaedia of Islam, first edition, cited below states the anthology is "of his own and the preceding generation" (pp. 730-31). He compiled other anthologies and many other literary works. He was born in Nishapur, Iran, and has an entry in *Ibn Khallikan's biographical dictionary.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopaedia of Islam, first edition, volume 4, 730-732: the first al-Tha'alabi entry by *Carl Brockelmann, al-Tha'alibi being the *nisba of Ali Mansur 'Abd al-Malik. Criticism. *Arthur Wormhoudt, "Classic Arabic Poetry", *Gay Books Bulletin, no. 4 (Fall 1980), 24: states he made an anthology Yatimat al-dahr (The Pearl or Orphan of the Age) of several hundred Arabic poets who were contemporaries of al-Mutannabi and "many of the poems in the four volumes which run to over a thousand pages have homoerotic content".
Poet and anthologist from Tunisia who wrote in Arabic. 1184-1253.
Born in Tunis he was the author of a *treatise on love, containing detailed discussion of homosexuality with many poetry quotations. This is a *prosimetrum. Compare *Al-Nawadji.
Translation. English: translated by *E. A. Lacey (1988) titled Delight of Hearts, San Francisco: *Gay Sunshine Press, from the French translation of *René R. Khawam, La Prairie des gazelles: Eloge des beaux adolescents (Paris, 1989). E. A. Lacey's English translation also contains a fine introduction by both E. A. Lacey and René Khawam. It consists of the homosexual chapters in his work only. Al-Tifashi is stated to be "an 'active' bisexual" on page 8 of Lacey's translation. Italian: translated from the French translation of René Khawam by Basilio Luoni (Parma, 1981).
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopaedia of Islam, first edition, vol. 4, 751. Gay Roots: Twenty Years of Gay Sunshine, 38793. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 1, 300-303: selection of poems from Heart's Delight, section 8 (name spelt Al-Tifachi). Criticism. *Marc Daniel, "Arab Civilization and Male Love", Gay Sunshine 32 (Spring 1977), 5: spelt Ahmed al-Tifachi and he states "homosexuality occupies the highest place" in its account; on p. 9 he states it "contains an entire chapter devoted to homosexuality".
Poet from Spain who wrote in Arabic. Died 1126.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 1, 316: love poems.
Poet from Spain who wrote in Arabic. 1017-1096. Not found in Encyclopaedia of Islam, first edition. Criticism. Woods, Articulate Flesh: Male Homo-eroticism and Modern Poetry, 25: author of a homopoem.
Poet from Syria who wrote in Arabic. Active ca. 950.
Criticism. *Arthur Wormhoudt, "Classic Arabic Poetry", *Gay Books Bulletin, no. 4 (Fall 1980), 24 states he is in the anthology of *al-Tha'alabi, has several "long poems describing a house of male *prostitution in Aleppo" and states they are "*pornographic."
Poet who wrote in Arabic. Active before 1282.
Criticism. Reade, Sexual Heretics, 165: a gay poem by this poet is referred to in Richard Burton's essay; cites *Ibn Khallikan (famous historian who lived 1211-82), iii 720.
Poet and philosopher who wrote in Latin. Active 1182-died 1202.
See also Alexandre Leupin, Barbarolexis (1989), pp. 59-78.
Translation. English: J. J. Sheridan (Toronto, 1970).
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Cassell's Encyclopaedia of World Literature : stated to be a *Humanist and *Platonist whose poem De planctu Naturae contains detailed reference to homosexuality. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 32-33. Gay Histories and Cultures. Who's Who in Gay and Lesbian History: From Antiquity. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Wilhelm, Gay and Lesbian Poetry, 16970. Criticism. Goodich, The Unmentionable Vice, 33-35: noting that in De planctu Naturae (The Complaint of Nature, written 116582) "sodomy becomes in this poem an extended form of vice" (p. 34). Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 32-33.
Poet from the United States writing in Spanish. Born 1954.
Book of poems: De Amor Oscuro/ Of Dark Love (San Francisco, 1991): fine poems based on *García Lorca's homosexual sequence of the same title. It has abstract illustrations.
A Chicano poet who is president of El Centro Chicano/ Latino de Escritores and was poetry editor of Out/Look journal. Born in *Los Angeles he grew up in Guadalajara, Mexico, and now teaches at the University of California in Santa Cruz. The author of nine books of poems. * James White Review vol. 8 no. 3 (Spring 1991), 20 (biog. note) states Body in Flames/Cuerpo en Llamas is his most recent book and he lives in *San Francisco.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Foster, Latin American Writers on Gay and Lesbian Themes. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Name of Love, 13; biog. 69: stated to be one of the few openly gay Chicano poets in the United States.
Alba and alborada
Poetic genre from Spain existing initially in Arabic and later in English. From ca. 1050.
Alba ("dawn") means "dawn poem". The form emerged in Spain out of Arabic poetic traditions. An alba refers to lovers parting at dawn; an alborada to them meeting at dawn. A critical work is Jonathan Salville, The medieval erotic alba: structure as meaning, New York, 1972.
Arabic: see *Ben Muqana, *Ben Abi Ruh. See *Arthur T. Hatto, Eos: an enquiry into the theme of lovers' meetings and partings at dawn, The Hague, 1965, pp. 236-37: a very fine homosexual love poem; see also the poems in the Arabic section of this work as some of these poems have gay reference e.g., no. 17 by *Ibn al-Mu'tazz, no. 18 by Abu Firas, no. 21 by Al-Sharif Mas'ud al-Bayadi, no. 22 by Abu 'Amir *Ibn Shuhayd, no. 23 by *Ibn Zaydun; others are *non gender specific. Arthur T. Hatto's work is a definitive study of the theme in several languages. English: "My Alba" is a poem written by *Allen Ginsberg.
References. Oxford Companion to Spanish Literature. New Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics.
Architect and poet from Italy who wrote in Italian. 1404-1472.
A famous architect who was also a typical *Renaissance man.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Cassell's Encyclopaedia of World Literature. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 173: states he wrote *Burchiellesque poetry (possible gay reference only).
Poet from Spain writing in Spanish; translator from English to Spanish. 1902-1999.
See his *"Ode a Platzyko" (source: *Nin Frias, Alexis, p. 181). He was a member of the *Communist Party and lived much of his life in exile from 1939, initially in Argentina in *Buenos Aires and from 1963 in Italy, in *Rome. He was a member of the *generation of 27.
He translated *Langston Hughes from English to Spanish.
Obituary: Independent International, 3-9 November, 1999, 18 by James Kirkup.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Companion to Spanish Literature. Encyclopedia of World Literature in the 20th-Century: Supplement.
Poet from the Netherlands writing in Dutch. 1893-1967.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Naar vriendscaap zulk een mateloos verlangen, 48-51: a poem on *pederasty and a poem, "Homosexappeal" (both 1933), from his book Nitsjewo, Amsterdam: C. A. Spin & zioon, 1933 and a poem "Neger" from Verzen voor vrienden, Amsterdam: De Beuk, 1954 (books cited p. 115). Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 2, 288: poem "Negro".
Poet from Italy who wrote in Italian. Active from 1980.
Book of poems: Poesie, Torino, Centro Kuliscioff, 1989.
Bibliographies. Bibliographies. Leggere omosessuale, item 339: Figli ribelli. Poesie per un diverso in Nuovi poeti italiani no. 1, Einaudi, Torino, 1980, pp. 7-11.
Poet from Italy who wrote in Greek. Active 200 B.C.
He has some fifteen epigrams in the * Palatine Anthology and also wrote *drinking songs. See *Alcaeus of Mytilene as the problems associated with *homonyms and *ethnics arise with Alcaeus of Messina. (The correct author of certain poems by "Alcaeus" will never be known.) Some entries in the * Palatine Anthology are simply "Alcaeus" so this further complicates the problem.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Classical Dictionary, 35: see Alcaeus (3). Palatine Anthology xii 29-30, 64 (all by Alcaeus)? Bibliographies. Bullough, Annotated Bibliography of Homosexuality, volume 2, item 10419-20 (cited as Alcaeus): item 10420 cites works in *Musa Puerilis, London: Heinemann, 1918, Book 12, poems 29-30. Criticism. Brandt, "Der paidon eros in der griechischen Dichtung", Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen 9 (1908), 269: states the three epigrams in Book 12 of the *Mousa Paidike are by Alcaeus of Messina. Brandt, Sittengeschichte griechenlands, volume 2, 200. Licht, Sexual Life in Ancient Greece, 486. Buffiere, Eros adolescent, 300-301.
Poet from Greece who wrote in Greek. Born ca. 620 B.C.
A poet from the island of Mytilene. His work has only survived in fragments for the most part. Dover, Greek Homosexuality, 195, notes that *Cicero, in Tusculan Disputations iv, 71, writes of Alcaeus "singing of the love of youths", and *Horace in Odes i, 32: 9-11, says that he "sang of Lykos [see *Lycus], beautiful with his dark eyes and dark hair", so he was known in the ancient world as a gay poet. But, as Dover notes (Greek Homosexuality, 195), no fragments have been found to support these remarks.
Hubert Martin, Alcaeus, New York, 1972, 114, says that "part - perhaps the bulk - of Alcaeus' poetry was *pederastic rather than heterosexual": this statement is about as far as we can go on present evidence. See also *Alcaeus of Messina, as the problems associated with *homonyms and *ethnics arise with Alcaeus of Mytilene (some poets in the * Palatine Anthology are simply called "Alcaeus", further complicating the problem).
Four Greek words from the opening of a poem indicate that Alcaeus was pederastic, if the attribution is correct: "Wine, dear boy, and truth" (fragment 366). These words survive only in a * scholium and could, however, be just a scribe's witty comment added to an existing manuscript when copying it.
Text. For the latest edition of his poems see Greek Lyric volume 1 (Cambridge, US, and London, 1988), edited by *D. A. Campbell, pp. 206-455. Criticism: see *Massimo Vetta, "Il P. OXY. 2506 fr. 77 e le poesia pederotica di Alceo", Quaderni Urninati di Cultura Classica, 39 (1982), 7-20. The *Alcaic meter derived from the poet was used by later poets in other European languages. Sometimes his name is spelt Alcaios or Alkaios.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Classical Dictionary, 35: Alcaeus (1) by *C. M. Bowra (notes "his ambitious marriage" in fragment 69). Bibliographies. Welter, Bibliographie Freundschaftseros, 37: cites his drama *Ganymedes. Bullough, Annotated Bibliography of Homosexuality, volume 2, items 10419-20 (cited as Alcaeus; see entry *Alcaeus of Messina for details). Gay Poetry Anthologies. Garland of Meleager: he is only possibly the poet in this work. Palatine Anthology xii 29-30, 64 (his name given as Alcaeus, therefore he is only possibly this poet). Lieblingminne und Freundesliebe, 185. Penguin Book of Homosexual Verse, 58 (the poem in the Palatine Anthology xii 30). Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 1, 121. Powell, Gay Love Poetry, 88; trans. Mark Beech. Criticism. Symonds, A Problem in Greek Ethics, 26: stating his "love for black-eyed Lycus was remembered by *Cicero and *Horace" but "little, however is left of his erotic poems." Brandt, "Der paidon eros in der griechischen Dichtung", Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen 8 (1906), 637-38. Brandt, Sittengeschichte griechenlands, volume 2, 185. Licht, Sexual Life in Ancient Greece, 433, 469-70: re his lovers Lycus (possible suspect reading) and possibly Menon. Garde, Jonathan to Gide, 9-10. Dover, Greek Homosexuality, 195. Buffiere, Eros adolescent, 246-49. Courouve, Ces petits grecs, 5: citing fragments 92, 102. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 496: stating (incorrectly) that his "surviving corpus takes pederasty as its major theme."
Poetic meter in Greek from Greece, also existing in Latin, English, German and Italian. From ca. 620 B.C.
A four line stanza, following meters first used by the Greek poet *Alcaeus of Mytilene (active ca. 620 B.C.). It was used by the Latin poet *Horace (37 times), in Italian in the 'Renaissance, and also by English and German poets. English: *Tennyson (see his "O mighty inventor of harmonics"), *A. H. Clough, and *Swinburne. The Oxford English Dictionary entry cites the English poet *Ben Jonson using the phrase, in 1637, in "To Himself " ("take th' Alcaick lute") and lists *Southey in 1793 referring to sapphics and alcaics. German: see *F. G. Klopstock (he composed 17 *odes), *Hölderlin, *Platen, Italian. G. Chiabrera (1552-1638), P. Rolli (1687-1765) and G. Fantoni (1755-1807) wrote in the meter. Compare also *anacreontics, *sapphic.
Translator from Latin to Greek from Italy. 1492-1550.
His Selecta epigrammata graeca latine versa (Selected Greek Epigrams in Latin Verse) is the first translation of the Greek *Planudean Anthology into Latin: 1529, 217 sheets (trans. with O. Luscinius and I. C. Zuiccauiensus: see the * National Union Catalog entry under *Anthologia Graeca). This includes a poem in Latin on *Ganymede: "Extra Helenam, Iliacique doces raptum Ganymedis,/ Plurimus est intra Iuppiter atque Paris."
He also compiled the first emblem book, Emblematorum liber, 1531, Augsburg, using motifs based on the anthology, including the Ganymede motif, and including the Latin poem on Ganymede (see Andreas Alciatus, The Latin Emblems, Toronto, 1985, vol. 1, Emblem 4, for Ganymede). This is the earliest example of a mechanically printed book with poetry featuring a homosexual motif with an accompanying illustration; it ran to many editions: see Encyclopedia of World Art, vol. 4, p. 727.
Alciati is sometimes cited as Alciato; the spelling has been taken from Thieme, Becker, Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler. Alison Saunders, "Alciati and the Greek Anthology", Journal of Medieval and Ranaissance Studies, vol. 12 no. 1 (Spring 1982), 1-18, discusses poems from the *Planudean Anthology which Alciati used as the basis for emblems. The above Latin poem on Ganymede is cited in this article on p. 7 where the Ganymede emblem poem is also shown.
Novel from Italy in Italian. First published in 1652.
A famous novel, Alcibiade fanciullo a scola, is about a schoolmaster in Athens, Philotim, who falls in love with his pupil Alcibiades. It was first published in 1562. It is now ascribed to *Antonio Rocco. The title means "Alcibiades the schoolboy at school" and the book consists mainly of a *Platonic dialogue modelled on Plato's * Symposium, with vivid sexual scenes at the end. The 1562 printing contains 4 sonnets by M. V. See also Gustav Brunet, Dissertation sur l'Alcibiade fanciullo a scola, Paris: Jules Gay, 1861.
Translation. French: a trans. appeared in Brussels, 1866. English: a trans. by Brian Williams, New York, Global Academic Publishers, was announced for 1988 (not sighted); this publisher ceased publishing.
Bibliographies. Pia, Les Livres de l'Enfer, vol. 1, column 9-11: early editions. Gay Poetry Anthologies. L'amour bleu, 124-26. Criticism. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 34.
Poet from Greece who wrote in Greek. Active 654-611 B.C.
Only *fragments survive. He was associated with the city of *Sparta.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Classical Dictionary, 38-39. Criticism. Brandt, "Der paidon eros in der griechischen Dichtung", Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen 8 (1906), 637; name spelt Alkman.
Poet and philosopher from the United States who wrote in English. 1799-1888.
One of the most important figures of *T ranscendentalism who lived in Concord where he set up a school of philosophy. He was a radical and independent thinker, noted for his individualism. Poems: Sonnets and Canzonets (1882). His poems are *mystical like *Emerson's and influenced by Persian poetry: see, for example, "Approaching *God". He was strongly influenced by *Plato and *Neo-Platonism. Not all his works are published. As a teacher he was branded obscene introducing sexuality into his subject matter.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Dictionary of American Biography. Reader's Encyclopedia of American Literature. Katz, Gay American History, 491 : visits *Whitman with *Thoreau; states Thoreau had "no temptations" p. 653, note 114.
Poet from Great Britain who wrote in Latin. Ca. 735-804.
Strong sexual tones appear in his poem to Arno of Salzburg who may have been his *lover (* Medieval Latin Poems of Male Love and Friendship, no. 26, p. 15).
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Penguin Book of Homosexual Verse, 112-13. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Medieval Latin Poems of Male Love and Friendship, 14-17; biog., 145. Wilhelm, Gay and Lesbian Poetry, 142-45.
Translator from Greek into English and biographer in English from Great Britain. 1892-1962.
An author who wrote on many gay figures and moved in bohemian and gay circles while marrying a lesbian. He is notable as a biographer who discussed homosexuality in his subjects. He translated Greek poets: e. g. *Meleager, The Poems of Meleager of Gadara (1920), and *Anacreon, Medallions in Clay (New York, 1921). He married the poet H. D., *Hilda Doolittle (cited in Grier, The Lesbian in LIterature, p. 38) in 1913; they divorced in 1937.
Biographies written by him are: Portrait of a Genius But... The Life of *D. H. Lawrence, 1950; * Lawrence of Arabia, A Biographical Enquiry, 1955, an important work raising the issue of Lawrence's homosexuality (see Chapter 6, pp. 325-33, which presents considerable evidence for homosexuality and concludes: "the trend of his sexual preferences was anti-female and pro-male").
The * British LIbrary General Catalogue lists a large number of books by him including Poems (1934) and a translation of the Boccaccio's ribald Decameron. *Alister Kershaw has compiled A Bibliography... from 1915 to 1945 (1950) and Richard Aldington (with a checklist), 1965.
Pinorman (1954) is subtitled "Personal Recollections of *Norman Douglas, *Pino Orioli and Charles Prentice" and is a memorable work of reminiscence which also refers to Douglas's homosexuality (see p. 117, where Douglas's change from heterosexuality to homosexuality is dated from 1897 when a boy in Naples fell in love with him); it also gives details of Douglas's intimate friendship with Orioli, who lived in London as a bookseller from 1913 (see p. 37). Though he states the book is not a biography, it must be regarded as such. There have, however, been some negative views of his opinions expressed here (e.g. by Mark Holloway in his biography of *Norman Douglas and by John Davenport who also wrote on Douglas.) The first twenty pages of his 1929 novel Death of a Soldier are rabidly anti-gay. See also *comradeship. Not in Oxford Companion to English Literature.
Bibliographies. Bullough, Annotated Bibliography of Homosexuality, volume 2, item 10422: The Love of Myrrhine and Konallis, Chicago: Pascal Corvici, 1926. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Eros: An Anthology of Friendship, 46-47: trans. of *Anacreontea. Lads: Love Poetry of the Trenches, 98, 149, 154, 197, 216-17; biog., 229.
Historian and critic writing in English and translator from German to English from the United States; he lives in Australia. Born 1954.
Author of "Homosexuality in France", a concise survey of homosexuality in France expecially good on the *gay liberation period from
1968, published in Contemporary French Civilization vol. 7 no.1 (Fall 1982), 1-19. An academic at the University of *Sydney and one of the founders of the Gay History Seminars and the Lesbian and Gay Research Foundation, University of Sydney.
As translator from German to English, see his discussion of *Platen in his The Seduction of the Mediterranean (1993), pp. 57-68 and footnotes on p.238, with translation of the important homopoems "Warm and clear falls the winter's night in Rome", p. 67, and "To Winckelmann", pp. 57-58.
He is the co-editor with Garry Wotherspoon of Who's Who in Gay and Lesbian History: From Antiquity to World War II (London, 2001) and Who's Who in Contemporary Gay and Lesbian History(London, 2001)
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Gay Histories and Cultures: see "Mediterranean".
Poet and critic from Chile writing in Spanish. Born 1918.
A Chilean left-wing poet who has studied and taught in the US. As a critic see his * Walt Whitman en Hispanoamerica (1945).
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Companion to Spanish Literature. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Orgasms of Light, 19-22: trans. of his poem about the impalement of the Chilean Araucanian leader Caupolican by the Spaniards (trans. by *Erskine Lane) - the Araucano Indians live between Chile and Argentina; biog., 248.
Poet from Spain who wrote in Spanish. 1898-1984.
Influenced by *Surrealism, he won the *Nobel Prize in 1977 and was one of the *Generation of 1927.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Cassell's Encyclopaedia of World Literature. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, vol. 2, 1240: implies he might have been gay. Who's Who in Contemporary Gay and Lesbian History. Criticism. Gibson, Federico García Lorca, 420: states he knows the identity of the addressee of *Lorca's eleven Sonnets to an Obscure Love which Lorca read to him.
Biographer and critic from South Africa who writes in English; he lives in Australia. Born ca. 1945.
A biographer of * William Plomer (London, 1989), and *Roy Campbell (London, 1982), both of which biographies deal candidly with homosexuality in the poets' lives. In Roy Campbell, p. 21, he states, regarding Campbell's time at *Oxford, "Campbell seems also at this period to have had at least two short-lived homosexual affairs. His *bisexuality was yet another facet of his divided nature..." ; on pp. 87-99 he discusses Campbell's rambling *satire of the *Bloomsbury group, The Georgiad, 1929. The main character Androgyno (see *Androgyne) in The Georgiad is linked to Vita Sackville-West and the work was provoked by Mary Campbell, Campbell's wife, having a lesbian affair with her. This is the most important critique of the work to date. The Afrikaans satirical journal Voorslag, 1924
26, edited by Campbell and Plomer is discussed pp. 42-55.
The Plomer biography openly discusses Plomer's homosexuality throughout; bibliography of Plomer's work, pp. 331-343; other works consulted, pp. 334-37. Review: Christopher Street no. 133, 42-44.
He works at the University of New South Wales, *Sydney, in the English Department, having emigrated to Australia from South Africa.
Trope in Persian from Persian and other languages including Hungarian from ca. 1200 or earlier.
Alexander the Great, sometimes called Alexander of Macedon (356 B.C.-323 B.C.), was probably a Greek ruler of Turkey and Persia who conquered large parts of west Asia as far as India. However, even his country of birth is problematical; one literary work has him coming from Egypt. Macedonia is between Greece and Albania. Coins survive with his portrait.
Though Alexander is reported to have married and had a female harem, there is an ancient tradition, repeated in the literature, that he had sexual relations with a male, Hephaestion, and possibly a eunuch Bagoas: see his entry in Tyrkus, Gay and Lesbian Biography. The city of *Alexandria in Egypt was named after him. Rypka, History of Iranian Literature, pp. 25 -26 and 628- 630, states there were a number of romances and folk *epics based on his life (some in *European languages). It is possible some of these may allude to his supposed homosexuality. Rypka records works in Greek, Persian, Syriac, Coptic, Ethiopic and Armenian. In the oriental Alexander romances he had the character of being the ideal ruler. A cult dedicated to Alexander was established in Rome by the Emperors Caracella and Alexander Severus. *Roger Peyrefitte wrote a study on his life entitled Alexandre. Michael Hattersley's article "The Greatness of Alexander" appeared in The Harvard Gay and Lesbian Review vol. 7 no. 2 (Spring 2000). A major biography has been written by Peter Green; biographies exist in French and German. See also A. B. Bosworth and E. J. Baynham, editors,
Alexander the Great in Fact and Fiction (2000).
Hungarian. See *George Faludy.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopedia Iranica. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 39-40. Tyrkus, Gay and Lesbian Biography; with bibl. and citing sources for his life. Dictionnaire Gay. Gay Histories and Cultures. Who's Who in Gay and Lesbian History: From Antiquity.
City in Egypt where Egyptian, Greek and Latin were spoken and Arabic is the main contemporary language. From 331 B.C.
The city was founded by Alexander the Great in 331 B.C. (he is reputed to have had a homosexual lover: see Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, pp. 39-40). It was later occupied by the Latin speaking Romans. It has a rich documented history of male homosexual love poetry, possibly the richest surviving of all Mediterranean cities.
The *Alexandrian poets were a major school of early Greek poets. Even as late as the fourth century A.D., when the Greek poet *Nonnus lived there, it seems to have had a rich homosexual culture.
Greek. The high point of the city under Greek rule was in the Alexandrian period (323-146 B. C.) when the city was famous for its library, the largest in the ancient world (but later destroyed) and where ancient Greek writers such as *Homer were edited, as well as collected: see *Editors - Greek, *Libraries and archives - Greek. The library, which dated from Ptolemy II Philadelphus (308-246 B.
C.), had about 700,000 volumes and covered the four main literatures of the then known world. The library was partly destroyed by a fire during the burning of Alexandria in the course of civil war 88-89 B.C. and possibly further damage occurred in 47 B.C. again by fire when Julius Caesar was conquering Egypt. After the fire the rest of the collection was kept in the temple of Jupiter Serapis and a mob of fanatic Christians led by Archbishop Theophilus stormed and destroyed the temple with the great part of its literary treasures in 391. Orosius records visiting the library after the destruction of the temple and seeing only empty shelves.
In 645 the Moslem conqueror Omar used what remained of the papyrus and vellum rolls to provide hot water for the soldiers' baths. Thus a major part of ancient Greek literature was destroyed and undoubtedly much gay material. In 1517 Alexandria fell to the Ottoman Turks.
In the twentieth century *Alexandria was the home of the major Greek homosexual poet, *Constantine Cavafy. *Edmund Keeley has made a study of the city in Cavafy's work.
Very little remains physically of Alexandria's Greek past due to it being pillaged so many times. On it's history see J. L. Pinchin, Alexandria Still: Forster, Durrell and Cavafy (Princeton, 1977), pp. 3-33. See also *Aristarchus, *Asclepiades, *Apollonius Rhodius, *Callimachus, *Clement of Alexandria, 'Hellenistic poets, *Nonnus, *Plotinus, *Posidippus, *Theocritus. Latin: see *Claudian. No gay poets or poems from Arabic have come to light so far. English: see *Mark Doty.
*E. M. Forster's Pharos andPharillon (1923), describes the city. *Lawrence Durrell wrote a novel based on the city in the twentieth century.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 40-41. Gay Histories and Cultures.
Poets who lived and wrote in the Egyptian city of *Alexandria. The term usually refers to Greek poets of the *Hellenistic period who wrote 323-146 B.C.
Greek poets. By far the majority of the surviving homopoems of ancient Greek are the work of'Hellenistic poets (323-146 B.C.), a term loosely used to refer to poets from *Alexandria at the time when Alexandria was the dominant Greek city. A famous controversy between *Callimachus and *Apollonius Rhodius occurred in this period about whether it was better to write *long or short poems. See *Aristarchus, *Apollonius Rhodius (both of whom were librarians at Alexandria's famous library), *Asclepiades, *Callimachus and *Theocritus.
Most of the surviving epigrammatists of the * Palatine Anthology, which contains the earliest corpus of surviving Greek homosexual poetry, wrote in the Hellenistic period. Later, *Pancrates was active in the time of *Hadrian. Alexandria, which had a large Jewish population in the ancient world, was the city in which the Greek translation of the * Old Testament from the original Hebrew was made ca. 250 B.C.; this was because the Jews of the city spoke Greek as their native tongue.
The twentieth century Greek poet *Constantine Cavafy thus looked back to a great tradition of gay poetry in his city. This tradition undoubtedly sustained him in a time hostile to homosexand raised in a religion - Greek 'Orthodoxy - also hostile. Latin: see *Claudian.
References. Queneau, Histoire des littératures, volume one, 446-578.
Critic possibly from the United States writing in English. Active 1983.
Author of a study of the Greek poet *Cavafy which surveys his homosexuality in sixty-three poems: "Eroticism and Poetry", Journal of the Hellenic Diaspora 10 (1983), 45-65.
Lover and trope in Greek from Lebanon, Latin and other languages. From 40 B.C.
Greek. In *Meleager (active 100 B.C.) he is named as a lover of the poet. Latin. A character in *Virgil's "Second Eclogue" (composed ca. 40 B.C.) who is loved by *Corydon; this seems to be the main source of later usage with homosexual meaning.
The name occurs in 'Renaissance *pastoral poetry and becomes a trope of gay love from this time. Italian: see *Francesco Beccuti. English: see John Dryden, *A. C. Benson (translation of Meleager). Spanish. The name was used by *Nin Frias as the title of his major book on gay culture, Alexis o el significado del temperamento uraño (Alexis, or the significance of the uranian temperament) published in 1932.
Poet from Italy who wrote in Italian; he also lived in Great Britain. 1712-1764.
He was a beautiful and charming man from *Venice who was a guest at the court of *Frederick the Great and later lived in Great Britain where he was the lover of *Lord Hervey. See Robert Halsbrand, Lord Hervey (Oxford, 1974), pp. viii and 272. His oeuvre is huge and includes poetry and prose.
*Voltaire wrote a poem about Algarotti having sex with a man. Text: see Opera, edited by F. Algarotti, 1791-94. Selection: Opere, edited with bibliography by E. Bonora, 1969.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Cassell's Encyclopaedia of World Literature. Who's Who in Gay and Lesbian History: From Antiquity.
Poet from Spain who wrote in Hebrew. Ca. 1200-ca. 1235.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopedia Judaica. Criticism. Jefrim Schirmann, "The Ephebe in Medieval Hebrew Poetry", Sefarad I5 (1955), 61: re a series of beautiful *epigrams about a youthful lad; p. 65 has a homosexual poem. Pagis, Hebrew Poetry, 65: re an *Anonymous Hebrew gay poem of a man cited in the last chapter of his Tahkemoni recited to him in *Baghdad (translation into English occurs here) but stated to have been written by Alharizi.
Poet from Great Britain who writes in English. Active 1990.
See his poem "I hate sex" (later called "I love sex") about a heterosexual going to a *gay bar and putting his hand on a man's erect penis. The poem appears in the author's book Solo Programme (ca. 1990). It is about experimentation with homosexuality and implies *bisexuality is natural to people: "a fuck is a fuck is a fuck" it states. He is from Great Britain but visits Australia once a year. His real name is David Allen. (David Hallett to the author, 3 March, 1991.)
Poet from the United States who writes in English. Active before 1982.
Bibliographies. Young, Male Homosexual in Literature, second edition, item 34: Queers in Revolt. A Poem for America. Privately printed, no date (*broadside).
Poet from Spain who wrote in Arabic. Active ca. 1150.
No entry found in Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Orgasms of Light, 14: a poem about unhappiness in love. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 1, 321: see "Ibn Iyad".
Poet from the Netherlands writing in Dutch. Born 1920.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Naar vriendscaap zulk een mateloos verlangen, 72-73: two poems from Cantus firmus, Amsterdam: De Beuk, 1954 (book cited p. 115). Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 2, 300.
Allegory and allegorical poetry
Genre in Greek from Egypt and later in other languages. From 200 B.C.
Allegory is defined by the Oxford Companion to English Literature as "a figurative narrative or description, conveying a moral meaning". In allegory, the surface meaning of a work is not the complete meaning and an underlying meaning must be taken into account to give the full meaning intended. There may be more than one meaning in an allegorical work. As a poetic genre it is documented in gay poetry from interpretations of the Hebrew * Song of Songs (in existence in Greek translation in Egypt by 200 B.C.) where the love poems have been interpreted as being about the relationship between God and humankind and in other ways, such as being about homosexual love.
Allegory, by the fact that no sure correspondence is given for the meaning of a literary work, may allow for a gay interpretation of a work in certain cases (e.g. in *Spenser's Book Four of the Faerie Queene, 1596, titled Of *Friendship). Since in allegory there is a hidden meaning to a work, it can also disguise the presence of homosexuality in a work and could be used deliberately for this purpose. Allegorical interpretations may this operate in poems without the homosexual meaning being immediately apparent. They can constitute a secret tradition of interpretation not apparent to ordinary readers. Compare *hermetic readings, *symbolism.
Chinese. Allegorical interpretations of poetry are common, especially from the *T'ang period (see Hinsch, Passions of the Cut Sleeve). These render apparently simple Chinese poems works of great complexity. *Indirect language adds to the allegorical dimension in Chinese poetry. Such interpretations were provoked by the absolute power of successive Chinese *emperors and rigid orthodoxy as to what was suitable subject matter for poetry (nothing critical of the state could be published).
English: see *Herman Melville, *Edmund Spenser (the best known poet in English to use allegory), *Edward Fitzgerald, *Patrick White. Greek: see *Ganymede, *Plato, *V. Kornaros. Hebrew: see *Song of Songs, *Kabbala. *Norman Roth has discussed allegorical aspects of medieval Hebrew poetry. Italian: see *Burchiellesque and *Bernesque poetry. Latin: see *Petrus Berchorius, *Marsilio Ficino. Persian: see *Rumi, *Sufism, *Edward Fitzgerald. Sanskrit: see *Upanishads.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Companion to English Literature. New Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics.
Poet from the United States writing in English. Active 1977.
Bibliographies. Young, Male Homosexual in Literature, second edition, item 37: Wings of Live Children/Kinderlebenlieder, San Francisco, Ironwood Press and Stonewall Press West, 1977.
Anthologist and editor from the United States of works in English. Born 1912.
He was the compiler of the seminal *postmodernist poetry anthology New American Poetry (1960). A number of the poets were homosexual or otherwise relevant in relation to homosexual poetry. In the introduction the poets are grouped into five groups: the *Black Mountain group around *Charles Olson, the *San Francisco renaissance, the *Beat poets, the *New York school and a fifth group of no geographical significance.
See, in the section Black Mountain group, *Charles Olson ("The Distances", pp. 38-9), *Robert Duncan ("This place rumor'd to have been *Sodom"), *Larry Eigner, *Ed Dorn, Jonathan Williams, James Broughton; in the section San Francisco group - Jack Spicer, *Robin Blase; in the *Beat group section - Jack Kerouac, *Allen Ginsberg ("Malest Cornifici Tuo Catullo", p. 179, Howl, Parts One and Two - see p. 185, fourth line), *Peter Orlovsky; in the section *New York group - James Schuyler ("The Elizabathans Call It Dying", pp. 222-23, "Freely Espousing" pp. 223-24), *Edward Field, *Frank O'Hara (the whole section for his *camp style but especially For "James Dean", the gay actor, pp. 239-42, and "The Day Lady Died", pp. 264-65), John Ashbery; in the section Other Poets - *Michael McClure, *Leroi Jones ("One Night Stand", pp. 360-61 - the phrase "our beards" makes this gay), John Weiners, *David Meltzer. There are important biographical notes pp. 427-45 and statements on poetics pp. 386-426 (especially *"Projective verse" by Charles Olson pp. 386-97) and a bibliography pp. 447-52.
His anthology compiled with George Butterick, The Postmoderns: The New American Poetry Revisited (1982), considerably downplays the gay element of the original anthology and omits Leroi Jones's gay poem (29 poets were retained with 9 new poets added). He was editor of the Collected Poems of Frank O'hara (1972), and a posthumous volume of Jack Spicer: One Night Stand and other poems (1980).
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Contemporary Authors New Revision Series, vol. 10.
Biographer, bibliographer and editor from the United States writing in English. Born 1903.
A major authority on *Walt Whitman. In the period after 1945, he was the first important contemporary biographer of Whitman and wrote The Solitary Singer: A Critical Biography of Walt Whitman (Chicago, 1955). The book is a detailed study of Whitman's life which has been widely regarded as the "definitive" biography but is cautious on Whitman's homosexuality and must now be regarded as unsatisfactory from this crucial point of view: see, for example, the discussion of *Peter Doyle pp. 398-99. The 1985 reprint has an important "Preface, 1984", in which the author defends his characterization of Whitman as "homoerotic" as distinct from homosexual (page xi). The author states in response to criticism, page xi, "I did not say he was not homosexual". Compare Justin Kaplan, *Paul Zweig and *Charley Shively.
His edition of Whitman's Poems (1955), has now been superceded by the New York University edition. The Walt Whitman Handbook,
1946 (repr.) includes Chapter 1, "The Growth of Walt Whitman Biography", pp. 1-103, annotated bibliography, pp. 95-103, and a section on Whitman as a world poet. A revised edition called New Walt Whitman Handbook was published in 1975.
He also published Twenty-Five Years of Walt Whitman Bibliography 1918-1942, Boston, 1943, and was editor with *Sculley Bradley of the New York University edition of Whitman, 22 volumes, 1961-84; this is the best text and perhaps his major achievement in relation to Whitman. His "History of My Whitman Studies", Walt Whitman Quarterly vol. 9 no. 2 (Fall 1991), 91-100, details his lifelong achievement in Whitman studies and editing of the poet's text.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Reader's Encyclopedia of American Literature.
Poet from the United States who wrote in English. 1889-1943.
See Foster, "Beauty's Purple Flame: Some Minor American Gay Poets'" 17, 18 (re the poem *"Hylas" in North American Review 212 [October 1920], 542, and in his book New Legends, New York, 1929). Foster states Allen was involved in a scandal at a boys' school which resulted in his dismissal in 1923. The source is letters to Foster from Foster's students. Allen wrote many novels and a biography of *Edgar Allan Poe: Israfel (1926); revised edition, 1934.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Reader's Encyclopedia of American Literature. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Poems of Love and Liberation, Gay Books Bulletin no. 7 (1982), 12: from "Hylas".
Poet from the United States writing in English. Active 1946-55.
Bibliographies. Bullough, Annotated Bibliography of Homosexuality, volume 2, items 10424-26: the book A Gift of Poems, 1946, 40 pp., and two poems "New Eden, Melanesia" and "Praises for Melanesia" in * Der Kreis 23: 9, 45-48, September 1955 and 23:5, 30, 1955. Young, Male Homosexual in Literature, second edition, item 41: A Gift of Poems, privately printed, 1945.
Songwriter and singer from Australia who wrote in English; he lived in the United States for much of his life. 1944-1992.
He has an entry in Jay McClaren, The Encyclopedia of Lesbian and Gay Music, vol. 1 (Amsterdam 1989), which lists relevant songs; he was active as a songwriter and singer from 1979 and Jay McClaren cites the records "I could have been a sailor" and "Bi-coastal" and others.
He was formerly married to Liza Minelli, the daughter of the gay icon Judy Garland, and died of *Aids. A television documentary was made on his life in Australia in 1996 and a musical was based on his life performed in 1998 The Boy from Oz. Biography: see Stephen Maclean, Peter Allen: The Boy from Oz (Sydney, 1997).
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Howes, Broadcasting It. Guinness Encyclopedia of Popular Music; includes bibliography. Who's Who in Contemporary Gay and Lesbian History.
Poet from the United States who wrote in English. Born 1880.
Not in Reader's Encyclopedia of American Literature.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 2, 497: poem "Hyacinthus". Criticism. Foster, "Beauty's Purple Flame: Some Minor American Gay Poets", Gay Books Bulletin no. 7 (1982), 16, 18 (re the poem *"Hyacinthus" in Monographs, Boston, 1919); p. 16 quotes from the poem.
Poet from New Zealand who wrote in English; translator from Chinese to English; he lived in China from 1927. 1897-1987.
A *Communist poet he supported the Revolution and lived in China until his death. He learnt Chinese by translating *Tang poetry and translated *Po Chu-i (also spelt Bai Juyi) and *Li Pai. Poems: see "In Memoriam - *Chou En Lai" in The Freshening Breeze, Beijing, 1977. On the poet, see the "Foreword" by Joseph Needham, in Rewi Alley, Yo Banfa, Auckland, 1976. His poems, like much Chinese poetry celebrate *friendship and *comradeship. His first published poem was "Lines to my Mother".
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Companion to New Zealand Literature.
Poet and artist from the United States who wrote in German. 1779-1843.
He was a noted American painter from South Carolina in the *south and is regarded as the first important United States *Romantic painter. Poems: The Sylphs of the Seasons and Other Poems (1813; reprinted). See Phoebe Lloyd, "Washington Allston: American Martyr", Art in America, March 1984, 145-55, 177-79, which is the seminal article on his homosexuality (see especially p. 154).
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 43-45 by Phoebe Lloyd (of *Philadelphia; see Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, vol i, xxxvii regarding Phoebe Lloyd; the name is possibly a pseudonym): stated to have been a closeted homosexual who twice married and who was possibly the victim of blackmail.
Poet from the United States who wrote in English. Active 1983.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Voices Against the Wilderness, 37-47; a *black poet from *San Francisco.
Poet and songwriter from Great Britain writing in English. Born ca. 1955.
Book of poems: The Angel of Death in the *Adonis Lounge, London: *Gay Men's Press, 1988, 64 pages. The poems were written from
1980 to 87 by a poet who is also a singer: see "Saint Judy" (re the gay icon Judy Garland), "The Hustler" (*prostitution) pp. 47-52.
He states "I remain a sensualist and adventurer" (Preface). Overall his poems are wild *free verse poems in the *decadent manner featuring prostitution, *drugs and love; the book concludes "I will never love again./ I will never ever/ Love Again." The "New York Poems" sequence, pp. 27-38, powerfully evokes the seediness of gay life in *New York before *Aids.
As a singer his recordings with Soft Cell include "Tainted Love" (1980). See Gay Times no. 89 (February 1986), 19: photo and article. Interview: Gay Times, April 1999, 30, 32 and 34. He has an *Internet homepage.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Powell, Gay Love Poetry, 71-72.
Poet from Greece who wrote in Greek. Active ca. 30.
No entry in Oxford Classical Dictionary. The spelling has been taken from the *Loeb edition of the * Palatine Anthology.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Der kleine Pauly, volume 1, 278 (spelt Alpheios). Gay Poetry Anthologies. Palatine Anthology xii
18. Criticism. Brandt, "Der paidon eros in der griechischen Dichtung" Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen 9 (1908), 270. Brandt, Sittengeschichte griechenlands, volume 2, 200. Licht, Sexual Life in Ancient Greece, 486.
Language family existing across Asia from Turkey to China. There are three branches: *Turkic (recorded from 1320), Mongolian (see *Overview - Mongolian) and Tungusic (including Manchu, the language of the rulers of China 1644-1908 - see *Overview - Manchu).
Turkic is the branch with the largest number of speakers and also has a large number of languages (e.g., Uzbek, Azeri, Tatar, Khazakh, Kirghiz, and Turkmen). The Mongolian languages, spoken in the republic of Mongolia and surrounding countries, form a sub-branch (see entry in Encyclopædia Britannica). They are sometimes linked with the *Uralian languages. Manchu was the language of the last dynasty ruling China and is now nearly extinct (see the entry "Manchu" in the Great Soviet Encyclopedia and the Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics). Japanese is now thought to be an Altaic language: see Roy Andrew Miller, Japanese and other Altaic Languages, Chicago, 1971.
*Singing and dancing boy songs have been recorded and are likely in all these languages. In the Turkic group written material is strongly influenced by Persian and *Iranian material; through *Islam Arabic traditions have been influential. For the Mongolian and Tungusic group Chinese and Tibetan literature has been influential.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopædia Britannica. Parlett, Languages of the World, 14-15. International Encyclopedia of Linguistics. Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics.
Poem in Latin recorded in Germany, France, Great Britain and Italy from ca. 1225.
The poem consists of a debate between *Ganymede and Helen, the woman over whom the Trojan war was fought (see *Homer). It concerns the relative merits of homosexual versus heterosexual love. A critical edition based on the Berlin manuscript exists: see Rolf Lenz, "'Altercatio Ganimedis et Helene' Kritische Edition mit Kommentar", Mittellateinisches Jahrbuch 7 (1972), 161-86. It may owe something to Arabic debates and ultimately to Greek works: see *Debate on love - Arabic, - Greek, - Latin. Compare the poem *"O admirabile Veneris idolum".
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Boswell, Christianity, Social Tolerance and Homosexuality, 281-89: translation of the Harvard manuscript into English. Medieval Latin Poems of Male Love and Friendship, 104-21; notes p. 159, that the poem was widely known in the middle ages and that there are eight surviving manuscripts. Wilhelm, Gay and Lesbian Poetry, 176-85.
Critic and historian from Australia writing in English; he has lived in the United States and France for periods of his life. Born 1943.
An important gay cultural critic of Jewish background who has done much to encourage the emergence of an open gay culture. He was one of the founders of *gay liberation in Australia, after returning from study in the United States. He taught political science at the University of *Sydney and now teaches at Latrobe University, *Melbourne. His books include discussion of contemporary gay literature and culture: see Homosexual: Oppression and Liberation (New York, 1971 Sydney, 1972) especially Chapter 7, "The End of the Homosexual", and the bibliography pp. 231-34 for Novels, Poetry, Essays (though very little poetry is included).
The Homosexualization of America: the Americanization of the Homosexual (New York, 1982) is also relevant: see especially Chapter 5, "The Birth of a Gay Culture". Aids in the Mind of America (New York, 1986) deals with *Aids. He edited Homosexuality, Which Homosexuality? (London, 1989), papers from the 1987 gay culture conference in *Amsterdam (see also *Wolfgang Popp).
Articles of relevance: "The new fag lit establishment", Campaign no. 58 (October, 1980), 17-18, is an important discussion of literary trends in United States. "Porn Star Poet", Outrage no. 62 (July, 1988), 28-29, is on the poet *Gavin Dillard and includes three of his poems.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Howes, Broadcasting It. Malinowski, Gay and Lesbian Literature. Hurley, Guide to Gay and Lesbian Writing in Australia. Tyrkus, Gay and Lesbian Biography. Gay Histories and Cultures. Who's Who in Contemporary Gay and Lesbian History.
Poet from Spain who wrote in Spanish. 1906-1959.
He supported the Republican cause and married. One of the *generation of 1927.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Cassell's Encyclopaedia of World Literature. Dictionary of Literary Biography vol.108. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, vol.2, 1240: stated to be *bisexual and also to have been a printer.
Editor from Spain, with *Luis A. Cuenca, of a Latin anthology. Active 1986.
This anthology, Antología de la poesía latina, must contain some gay poems, apparently from ancient Latin; it is, from its title, not a gay anthology.
Bibliographies. Cuaderno bibliográfico gay, 14: Madrid: Alianza Editorial, 1985.
Poet from the United States writing in English. Born 1952.
A *New York poet who is also a painter and is of Puerto Rican background. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Angels of the Lyre, 13-14; biog., 237.
Poet from Germany who wrote in German. 1897-1922.
Poems: Die Nordlichen (1922); these emerged out of his experience as a soldier in World War I. He has a long entry in the * National Union Catalog.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Companion to German Literature. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 2, 231.
Publisher from the United States who publishes in English. Active from 1986.
A publisher from New York of gay books, actively publishing gay poetry from 1986. Alyson have published the anthology * In the Life and *Michael Lassell. James White Review vol.9 no. 4, p. 2, notes plans by the owner Sasha Alyson to sell the press and work full time on *Aids concerns.
Poet who wrote in Urdu. Active ca. 1850?; the date is uncertain.
Criticism. Rahman, "Boy love in the Urdu ghazal", Paidika vol. 2 no. 1 (1989), 15: "composed a poem, or collection of poems, which were sung and recited by very pretty boys".
Poet and journalist from Brazil writing in Portuguese. Active from 1945. He used the pseudonym *Van Jaffa
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Poemas do amor maldito, 123; biog., 122.
Translator from Arabic to Italian and historian writing in Italian from Italy. 1806-1889.
The author of Storia dei Musulmani di Sicilia, Florence, 1854-58, 3 volumes (reprinted 1936). See also the *Elisar von Kupffer entry.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Lieblingminne und Freundesliebe, 74: translator of the Arabic poet *Ibn at Tubi into Italian, which translation is apparently in Biblioteca arabo-sicula, Turin and Rome, 1881 (cited in Lieblingminne und Freundesliebe, 217).
Book of poems with poems assumed to be on gay themes: After the Howl and other Poems, 1989 - on sale in the gay bookshop Giovanni's Room Bookshop, *Phildelphia, in 1989. The title comes from *Allen Ginsberg.
Poet from the United States writing in English. Born 1958.
His first book was A Circle of Sirens (Sea Horse Press, 1985). The Buried Body; A Trilogy (1990), 212 pp., contains a slightly different version of A Circle of Sirens plus two other collections including poems about *Aids. He has been involved in theater. One of the *Three New York Poets (London, Gay Men's Press, 1987), pp. 9-36; biography opposite title.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Gay and Lesbian Poetry in Our Time, 9-22; biog., 9.
Anthology in Greek from Greece. Published in Athens: Odusseas, 1982, 79 pages.
The first contemporary Greek gay anthology, edited by *Andreas Angelakes. The title means "American homophile poetry". Paradoxically in a country with such a long gay tradition of poetry writing as Greece, it is a translation of an excellent selection of contemporary United States gay poets. All the poets are from the United States, except for the British poet James Kirkup and the Canadian poet Ian Young; the title is thus, strictly speaking, not accurate.
Contributors (see entries): William Barber, Perry Brass, Dennis Cooper, Gavin Dillard, Jim Eggeling, Kenward Elmslie, Allen Ginsberg, Will Inman, Tom Kennedy, James Kirkup, Erskine Lane, Thomas Meyer, Harold Norse, Robert Peters, Ron Schreiber, Robert Sellman, Ian Young.
No copy was in the Library of Congress or any major United States research library in 1989. The title and editor's name have been transliterated according to the Library of Congress system of transliterating modern Greek, with the assistance of Ann Stanley, Greek cataloguer at the University of Sydney, from a copy in the author's possession (purchased from *Elysian Fields bookshop, New York,
1989). Very rare.
Anthology in Italian from Italy. Milan: Gammalibri, 295 pages, 1982.
The first and only Italian gay poetry anthology so far. It was compiled by *Renzo Paris and *Antonio Veneziani. It is organized on historical lines and covers the period from 1200 to 1980 with an introduction, pp. 9-32 by *Renzo Paris. It is in two sections, poets to
1970, pp. 33-209, and poets 1970-1980, pp. 211-284. There is an introduction to the poets of the 1970s, pp. 213-219, by *Antonio Veneziani and an Index pp. 287-88. Brief biographical and critical notes for each poet precede each poet's poems for the poets to 1970 and follow for those of the 1970s (pp. 283-84).
Poets to 1970 (see entries): Dante Alighieri, Cecco Angiolieri, Ludovico Ariosto, Giorgio Baffo, Antonio Beccadelli, Francesco Berni, Arrigo Boito, Michelangelo Buonarroti, Burchiello (pseud.), Giovanni Camerana, Sergio Corazzini, Gabriele D'Annunzio, Giovanni Della Casa, Filippo De Pisis, Ludovico Dolce, Brunetto Latini, Gilio Lelli, Giacomo Leopardi, Niccolo Macchiavelli, Celio Magno, Trebaldino Manfredini, Giambattista Marino, Cecco Nuccoli, Aldo Palazzeschi, Pier Paolo Pasolini, Nanni Pegolotti, Silvio Pellico, Sandro Penna, Angelo Poliziano, Emilio Praga, Rosello Roselli, Filippo Scarlatti, Camillo Scroffa, Umberto Saba, Torquato Tasso, Giovanni Testori (this poet refused permission to publish so his "entry" consists of a blank page), Benedetto Varchi.
Poets of the 1970s chosen are (see entries): Biagio Arixi, Dario Bellezza, Gianpiero/ Giampiero Bona, Luciano Massimo Consoli, Giovanni Corsico, Attilio Lolini, Mario Mieli, Stefano Moretti, Pier Giorgio (also spelt Piergiorgio) Paterlini, Elio Pecora, Riccardo Reim, Piero Santi, Gino Scartaghiande, Leonardo Treviglio, Antonio Veneziani. Two poets in the 1970s section are confused; their pages were interchanged (*Giovanni Dall'Orto to the author). A fine historical survey of Italian gay poetry with emphasis on the *gay liberation period.
Translation. English: poets and poems included in the anthology are translated in *Anthony Reid's anthology The *Eternal Flame, volume one.
Poet from Iran who wrote in Persian. Active ca. 1450.
Not found in Rypka, History of Iranian Literature.
Criticism. *Ehsan Yarshater, "Persian Poetry in the Timurid and Safavid Periods", in Peter Jackson, editor, Cambridge History of Iran, volume 6, The Timurid and Safavid Periods, 1976, 974, gives a possibly homosexual poem trans. into English.
Poet from India who wrote in Persian and Hindi; he is also claimed by Urdu speakers (Urdu and Hindi were virtually the one language when he wrote). 1253-1325.
He was a *Sufi writer who wrote in Persian, lived in India in *Delhi and was called the Parrot of India. He was immensely learned and had a *disciple relationship with Nezam-al-din Awlia in Delhi. The Encyclopedia Iranica entry for him reveals he wrote a number of poems to Nezam, that he died shortly after him and his tomb is near Nezam's. He is widely regarded as the greatest Indo-Persian writer and is revered by Urdu poets.
Schimmel in the Encyclopaedia Iranica entry calls him "the greatest Persian-writing poet of medieval India" (p. 963), notes he wrote *epics and especially a new genre historical epic, "is praised as having invented Hindustani music" (p. 964) and states, p. 964, his "knowledge of Arabic, Persian, Turkish and Hindi enabled him to produce exotic puns, word plays, and stunning literary tricks" and his output was huge. *lsma'il I shows his influence. Hindi: some works were written but Schimmel states in the Encyclopaedia Iranica entry p. 964 that discussion continues about their authenticity. His name is also variously spelt Khusrau, Khusraw and Khusrow.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Dictionary of Oriental Literatures. Encyclopedia Iranica: see "Amir Khosrow" (by *A. Schimmel). Eliade, Encyclopedia of Religion: see "Khusraw, Amir". Gay Poetry Anthologies. Yaraana: Gay Writing from India, xii (poem titled "Bandhish"). Criticism. Arberry, Sufism, 115. Rypka, History of Iranian Literature, 257-59: see "Amir Khusrau". Yarshater, Persian Literature, 407-412.
Poem from the *Middle Ages surviving in Latin from France and in French, Spanish, Italian, Welsh, Norse, Dutch, German, Danish and Swedish versions and dating initially from ca. 1100; versions from other languages also exist.
Amis and Amiloun is a *long poem, originally in Latin and dating in a Latin version by Raoul le Tourtier from ca. 1100 (see the Hibbard reference below for all sources). Twenty-three versions in French, including modern French versions, four in English and versions in the other languages listed exist. The poem is about the virtue of *friendship which Amis and Amile (two foster brothers bound together closely) exemplify.
It may be read as an *allegory of a homosexual relationship. By some accounts the friends were regarded as *saints. *Walter Pater tells the story in Studies in the *Renaissance (1873), from which work it was taken up by gay readers. The four English versions are apparently from the French. Over one hundred manuscript versions indicate the popularity of the work. Translation. English: translated from French into English by *William Morris as Old French Romances (*Vale Press, 1896).
Text. The standard English edition is by MacEdward Leach, Early English Text Society O.S. 203, 1937; four manuscripts exist (see J. Burke Severs, A Manual of the Writings in Middle English, vol.1, 1967, pp. 167-69). For the sources of texts in other languages see Laura A. Hibbard, Mediaeval Romance in England (New York, 1924, reprinted 1969), 65-72. There are many manuscripts which have not been collated. Compare *Castor and Pollux, *Boris and Gleb, *David and Jonathan, *Orestes and Pylades. See also *Chaucer.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Companion to English Literature. Kindlers neues Literatur Lexikon, vol.18. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Iolaus, 106-08: a precis of the story from *William Morris's translation and calling them "the David and Jonathan, the Orestes and Pylades of the mediaeval world" (p. 108). Hidden Heritage, 134-35: the same extract. Columbia Anthology of Gay Literature, 122-24. Criticism. *Herelle manuscript 3188, folio 358, mentions a French version in a homosexual context.
Poet and novelist from Great Britain writing in English. 1922-95.
He is best known for his novel Lucky Jim (1954) and being an angry young man (i.e., deeply critical of society). In Collected Poems 1944-79 (London, 1979), see "To *Eros", p. 52. See also *Stanley J. Sharpless. Obituary: Guardian Weekly, 29 October, 1995, 10.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Companion to English Literature. Gay Poetry Anthologies Penguin Book of Homosexual Verse, 332-33: about sex in boys schools. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 2, 173: same poem.
Poet from the United States writing in English. Born 1926.
See the poem Harold Bloom, The Best of the Best American Poetry, 1988-1997, "Garbage", pp. 33-53 at p. 51 - "a closet/ queen". He is regarded as a major United States poet.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Contemporary Authors New Revision Series, volume 51.
Myth and trope in Latin appearing also in Italian and English. From ca. 40.
Amor is the Latin word for love and the Latin name for the Greek god of love, *Eros, invariably personified as a young boy and thus with homosexual implications when in the company of men; it is also the word for love in general in Latin. The Oxford Latin Dictionary, p. 120, cites various Latin poets, including *Virgil. See also *George Buchanan, *Cupid.
English: see *C. E. Sayle, *Love in Idleness, *Robin Blaser. More frequently the name *Cupid is used in English instead of Eros or Amor. Italian: see *Petrarch.
Latin concept for *Platonic love, dating from *Ficino's Latin commentary of the * Symposium (1469); sometimes called *Amor socraticus.
Latin concept for *Socratic love, current from *Ficino's commentary on *Plato's * Symposium (1469); see also *Platonic love.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Columbia Anthology of Gay Literature, 131-36.
Anthology in English and German translated from the French anthology * Beau petit ami compiled by *Cecile Beurdeley. The German translation by *Doris Plattner and *Michael Lim was published in 1977 and the English by *Michael Taylor was published in 1978.
This has been possibly the most widely disseminated of all comprehensive gay anthologies apart from * The Penguin Book of Homosexual Verse.
Translation. English. New York, Rizzoli, 1978, 304 pages. It has the same title.
Lavishly illustrated, this anthology of gay poetry and prose contains the finest illustrations of all illustrated gay anthologies. It consists of material from *European languages. The English and German editions have the same title L'amour bleu - meaning "Blue love" (that is, sexually illicit love). The original French title Beau petit ami means "Beautiful boy friend". On pp. 300 to 304, "Acknowledgements", there is a list of translators used (apart from *Michael Taylor who did about half of the translations). *Steward Lindh helped with some translations. Beau Petit Ami is identical in illustration, layout and choice of authors with the English edition; the English text seems to have simply been substituted for the French.
The phrase "l'amour bleu" was used in Paris in gay circles in the 1970s to mean the love of an older homosexual man for a younger man, that is *pederasty, in contrast to "l'amour rose" (pink love) which conveyed the same idea for heterosexuals (that is, the love of an older male for a younger woman). *Blue has connotations of homosexuality going back to the 1890s and still has erotic connotations in English (e.g. the phrase "blue [i.e., erotic] movies"). This English usage may be related to French usage. Blue may have general bohemian connotations in French; in the artist and poet *Pablo Picasso's "Blue period" (ca. 1900), in which blue is the predominant color of the works, which were all done in Paris, bohemian subject matter and erotic subjects predominated.
The anthology consists of poetry combined with prose with lavish illustrations and line drawings by gay artists. The illustrations (which were not done for the volume but cover the whole history of western art) effectively make it a history of gay art. There are 290 illustrations including forty color illustrations. Only European (including Russian) and United States poets are included and the arrangement is chronological, from the Greeks and Romans to James Baldwin.
Contributors (see entries): Achilles Tatius, Aeschines, Anacreon, Guillaume Apollinaire, Aretino, Aristophanes, Artemon, James Baldwin, Honoré de Balzac, Matteo Bandello, Richard Barnfield, William S. Burroughs, Catullus, C. P. Cavafy, Jean Cocteau, René Crevel, Aleister Crowley, Robert Desnos, Lord Alfred Douglas, Georges Eekhoud, Charles Henri Ford and Parker Tyler, E. M. Forster, André Gide, Paul Gauguin, Jean Genet, Stefan George, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Count Giuseppe Gorani, Julian Green, Vsevolod V. Ivanov, Henry James, Marcel Jouhandeau, Juvenal, Mikhail Kuzmin, Lautreamont (pseud.), T. E. Lawrence, Paul Leautaud, Federico García Lorca, Jean Lorrain, Lucian, Kurt Malaparte, Thomas Mann, Christopher Marlowe, Martial, Michelangelo, Gerolamo Morlino, Robert Musil, Petronius, Roger Peyrefitte, Charles-Louis Philippe, Philostratus, Pindar, Plato, Politian, Marcel Proust, Rhianos, Arthur Rimbaud, Frederick Rolfe, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Umberto Saba, Maurice Sachs, Marquis de Sade, Denys de Saint Pavin, William Shakespeare, Strato of Sardis, Suetonius, Theocritus, Paul Verlaine, Gore Vidal, Theophile de Viau, Voltaire, Walt Whitman, Tennessee Williams, John Wilmot the Earl of Rochester, Johann von Winckelmann, Xenophon.
Bibliographies. Young, Male Homosexual in Literature, second edition, item 278: New York, Rizzoli, 1978.
Translation. German. Jointly published by Office du Livre, Fribourg, Switzerland, and DuMont Buchverlag, Cologne, and printed in Switzerland, 1977, 307 pages, 47 color plates, 245 black and white illustrations; text pp. 11-303; list of translators in the copyright acknowledgements, pp. 304-06; list of illustrations, p. 307. It has the same title as the French and English versions.
Translated from the French *Beau petit ami this translation is identical in text and illustration with the English translation L'amour bleu up to page 273. Marcel Jouhandeau (who appears on pages 274-75 of the English edition) is omitted in the German edition and page 274 is left blank but has the Cocteau illustration of page 276 of the English edition.
Pages 299-303 contain a selection of poems of English and French gay poets in German published in English and French in the body of the text, including a poem by the French poet *Papillon (p. 299) not in the English translation. Poets in this extra section: English poets - *Christopher Marlowe, *Lord Alfred Douglas, *Aleister Crowley, *Walt Whitman; French poets - *Papillon, *Ronsard, *Agrippa d'Aubigné, *Claude le Petit, *Théophile de Viau, *Voltaire, *Verlaine, *René Crevel
Since the English translation uses the same layout and substitutes English text in the place of the German the same plates may have been used. It was translated into German by *Doris Plattner and *Michael Lim.
Amour en... vers et contre tout, L'
Anthology in French from France. Paris: Editions Walter Rauschenbusch, 1989, 265 pages.
An anthology of twentieth century poets giving different views of love - * eros (erotic love), agape (spiritual love) and philia (brotherly love). It was compiled by Dominique Nidas and Jean-Marie Olinque; it is not a specifically gay anthology. The poetry chosen is vague and nebulous. Fifty-seven poets are included, both male and female. List of poets, pp. 261-62. The title is a pun on the French phrase L'amour en face (homosexual love). The work was published by Pastor Joseph Douce and Guy Bondar who seem to have been responsible for its genesis (see the introduction pp. 9-11); Pastor Douce, the pastor of a French gay Christian congregation, was later abducted and killed in mysterious circumstances by the French secret service (see *pedophilia for more information on him).
Anthology in French from France. Paris: Lieu Commun, 1984, 545 pages.
It was compiled by *Michel Larivière with a preface by *Dominique Fernandez. Pp. 31-48 refer to ancient homopoetry and contain a brief discussion of * Gilgamesh, the * Bible and ancient Greek and Latin poetry. The body of the text, pp. 53 to 528, is from the *Middle Ages onwards. It is arranged as follows: *Middle Ages, then by century (sixteenth, seventeenth, eighteenth, ninetenth and twentieth), followed by a contemporary section. Each section has an introduction.
Predominance in the selection is given to French writers. Index pages at the end include a list of writers, pp 531-36 and a list of writers arranged chronologically pp. 537-42. There is a list of French gay words by century pp. 523-28. A large proportion of entries are prose writers. The selection is excellent in respect of European language writers but non-European material is neglected. This is the most comprehensive gay poetry and prose anthology in French including the later far ranging anthology * Pour tout l'amour des hommes which was also compiled by *Michel Larivière (compare * L'amour bleu). The work remains overall one of the finest gay anthologies. Review: Guardian Weekly, 2 September 1984, 13.
Poets and entries relating to poetry (see entries): Apollinaire (pseud.), Aragon, Aubigné, W. H. Auden, Bachaumont, Béranger, Berthelot, Byron, Carco (pseud.), Casement, Cavafy, Cernuda, Claude Chapelle, Cocteau, Charles Collé, Hart Crane, René Crevel, Dante, Robert Desnos, Words - French, Alfred Douglas, Du Bellay, Antoine Ferrand, Théophile Gautier, Jean Genet, Stefan George, Allen Ginsberg, Glatigny, Goethe, Guillaume de Lorris, Guillaume IX of Aquitaine, Ivanov, Max Jacob, Alfred Jarry, Jean de Meung, L'Estoile, La Fontaine, Lautreamont (pseud.), T. E. Lawrence, Claude Le Petit, Jean Lorrain (pseud.), Pierre Louys (pseud.), Marlowe, François Maynard, Michelangelo, Montesquiou, Marc de Papillon, Wilfred Owen, Pasolini, Louis Perceau, Pessoa, Piron, Platen, Poliziano, Ponchon, Proust, Rilke, Rimbaud, Roman de la Rose, Ronsard, Maurice Sachs, Saint-Amant, Saint-Just, Saint-Pavin, Albert Samain, Surrealism, Tailhade, Verlaine, Viau, Villon, Voltaire, Whitman. A list of writers who refused permission to print poems appears on p. 521 ; permission was refused for publication of poems by *Claudel, *Valery and *Garcia Lorca.
The above list does not include prose writers who were not poets or whose prose selection in the anthology does not relate to gay poetry or its background.
Character and mythical figure from Greece relating to works in Greek. From ca. 400.
A youth with whom *Dionysus fell in love: he appears in the poetry of *Nonnus. Ampelus was killed and turned into the grapevine, a suitable plant since Dionysus was the god of wine.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Buffiere, Eros adolescent, 363: spelt Ampelos.
Poet and dramatist from Greece who wrote in Greek. Possibly active ca. 400 B. C.
A Greek comic writer active not before *Plato. Only a *fragment survives.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Classical Dictionary. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Lieblingminne und Freundesliebe, 197.
City in the Netherlands in which the main language is Dutch.
Amsterdam, though not the capital of the Netherlands (which is Den Haag), is the largest city and has been important as a center of gay activism and gay literature since 1911 (see *J. A. Schorer). Its recorded gay history dates from at least the eighteenth century. Several Dutch *anthologies have emanated from the city which has long been a publishing center, especially for work challenging the acceptable (see also *The Platonic Blow) and is now a center of gay research.
The major gay archives and library *Homodok are housed in Amsterdam where gay studies are taught at the *University of Amsterdam which claims to take a *social constructionist approach - in contrast to gay studies at Utrecht, another major center. Amsterdam was the site of two gay studies *conferences in 1983 and 1987. Two journals of *pedophilia have emanated from the city: *Pan (1979+) and * Paidika (1988+). The United States *S/M poet James Holmes lived in the city. A gay history exhibition titled Goed Verkeerd (Wrong lovers) was held in the city in 1989 and a pamphlet was produced titled Two of a kind: a history of gays and lesbians in Holland which has much information on the city (16 pp; bibl. p 16). A memorial for gays killed by the *Nazis has been erected in the city. The city has two gay bookshops: Vrolijk and De Woelraat.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Gay Histories and Cultures.
Poem and song in German from Germany. 1975.
A gay protest song in the form of a *ballad sung in *Munich in 1975, beginning: "Das schwulsein, wenn's im andern ist". Text printed in *J. S. Hohmann, Homosexualität und Subkultur (Lahn?: Verlag Andreas Achenbach Lollar, 1976), p. 32.
Poet from Greece who wrote in Greek. Ca. 570 B.C.-485 B.C.
Anacreon's poems joyously celebrate wine and an *epicurean lifestyle; they are full of light and life. Amorous poems are addressed to the males *Smerdies, *Bathyllus, and *Cleobulus, to whom he wrote a famous short poem: "Cleobulus I love, Cleobulus I'm mad for, Cleobulus I gaze at." Though Bathyllus is frequently referred to, no poem to him survives. *Maximus of Tyre refers to Anacreon's lovers in several fragments.
Anacreon also wrote poems to females and thus seems to have been *bisexual. Only fragments survive. His oeuvre is very uncertain since original poems by him have been corrupted by imitations inserted in the surviving manuscripts. He is believed to have come from Teos.
Early printed editions. A cult of Anacreon existed from his first publication in book form in 1554 in the *Renaissance, in an edition
*Anacreontea, which is a series of poems by other ancient Greek poets imitating Anacreon's poetry (see *D A Campbell, Greek Lyric, vol. 2, 1988, 5-6). Compare *Theognis and *Theognidea and, in Persian, *Omar Khayyam [pseud.], where similar textual traditions exist of a poet whose text is added to by later interlopers.
"Anacreon" was very popular in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, perhaps because he was regarded as "saucy": as *Byron wrote in Don Juan book 1, 42, "Anacreon's morals are a still worse example [than *Ovid's]." Editions usually included Latin translations and notes in Latin. Important editors include William Baxter (1695; with Latin trans.), Joshua Barnes (1706; with Latin trans.), *Richard Brunck (1776; with Latin trans.), Giovanni Amaduzzi (1785; text and Latin notes), Jean Baptiste Gail (1801; with Latin trans.) and *Theodor Bergk (1834; Greek text). All the preceding editions were reprinted. Editions frequently included the works of *Sappho. For early editions consult the * British Library General Catalogue, the * National Union Catalog and older European library catalogues (e. g., the *Bibliothèque Nationale).
Text. The latest text (with English translation by the editor) is *D. A. Campbell, Greek Lyric, vol. 2, Cambridge and London, 1988 (with bibliography, 19-20); see also the text of *D. L. Page and B. Gentili, Anacreon (Rome, 1958). An important homoerotically illustrated edition is that of the French engraver A.-E. Girodet de Rouçy Trioson, ca. 1800 (see L'Amourbleu, 18-19 for reproduction); these illustrations were included in the English translation by *Thomas Moore. See also the entries *Anacreontics, *C. M. Bowra. For translation, see the * Anacreontea entry.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Classical Dictionary, 57. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 496-97. Dictionnaire Gay. Bibliographies. Welter, Bibliographie Freundschaftseros, 38: "Das Bild des Bathyllos" ("The Picture of Bathyllus"), poem; editions of poems - Leipzig: Reclam, 1873 and Leipzig: Teubner, 1890. Bullough, Annotated Bibliography of Homosexuality, item 10431: The Odes, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1928. Young, Male Homosexual in Literature, second edition, item 65: The Odes, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1928. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Garland of Meleager. *Forberg, Manual of Classical Erotology. Eros: Die Männerliebe der Griechen, 83-95: trans. by *Herder. Lieblingminne und Freundesliebe, 24-25,185. Ioläus (1902), 77. Die Bedeutung der Freundesliebe, 18. Men and Boys, 8. Eros: An Anthology of Friendship, 44-47 (p. 47; trans. by *R. N. Furness). L'amour bleu, 18-19. Les Amours masculines, 39. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 1, 122; biog., 114. "Matrosen sind der Liebe Schwingen", 48-49. Wilhelm, Gay and Lesbian Poetry, 11-12. Columbia Anthology of Gay Literature, 37-38. Criticism. Symonds,
A Problem in Greek Ethics, 25. Brandt, "Der paidon eros in der griechischen Dichtung", Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen 8 (1906), 642-48. Brandt, Sittengeschichte griechenlands, volume 2, 186-87. Licht, Sexual Life in Ancient Greece, 470-73. Garde, Jonathan to Gide, 13-14. Dover, Greek Homosexuality, 196: noting fragments 346 and 357. Buffière, Eros adolescent, 251-56. Courouve, Ces petits grecs, 6: citing fragments 2, 3, 4, 5, 17 (re Bathyllus), 29 (re Bathyllus), 347, 357, 360.
Anthology in English from Great Britain. First published in *Oxford by an anonymous publisher, 1683.
Anacreon done into English is a work which has claims to be one of the earliest English anthologies with homosexual content, so far located, though it is not an anthology as such. It was reprinted by Edmund *Curll, London, 1713, with the poems of *Sappho, as The Works of Anacreon and Sappho... with *Bion's Idyllium upon the death of *Adonis translated by the Earl of Winchelsea. It was also reprinted Edinburgh, 1886, in Collectanea Adamantea XVI.
It consists of a series of translations or versions purportedly of the ancient Greek homopoet *Anacreon which the *British Library General Catalogue entry (under Anacreon) states are by Francis Willis, Thomas Wood, *Abraham Cowley and *John Oldham. The 1713 edition has an introduction identifying the translators. The context is bisexual, with both poems of homosexual and heterosexual love being included. In the 1886 reprinting see p. 11 "The Epicure", p. 30 "Solitude", p. 32 "The Careless Companion", pp. 36-39 *"Bathyllus".
The word was reprinted in a edition with fine homoerotic illustrations by thr Nonesuch Press, London, 1923, with a very homoerotic engraved title page by Stephen Gooden (ca. 1893-1955), who also engraved the *bookplates for the Royal Library at Windsor; 725 numbered copies only were printed. There are various *Cupids throughout; see the naked youth illustrating Poem 26 "Bathyllus" (there is no pagination).
Anthology in Greek with poets from Greece and Turkey. Poems in the work date from ca. 323 B.C. to 899; the date is very difficult to determine.
The Anacreontea consists of fifty-nine short poems supposedly written by the ancient Greek homopoet *Anacreon but now known to have been composed several centuries later, in imitation of him: they date from 323 B.C. to 899 and the dating is very problematical; they were first published by *Henri Estienne in 1554 as a collection of works of Anacreon. Robortello in 1557 ( De Ratione Corrig.) asserted the collection was a fraud (see *fakes); see also J. B. Stark Quaestiones Anacreonticae (1846). It is possible that some of the poems are original poems by Anacreon, though this question may never be resolved.
Although the poems are cited as a *forgery though they are more aptly called imitations rather than forgeries. Compare the *Theognidea, a similar corpus based on *Theognis. The gay anthology the * Mousa paidike also provides a point of comparison. The crucial difference between the Anacreontea, the Theognis corpus, and the Mousa Paidike, is that some of the poems of the Anacreontea are bisexual and hetersexual whereas those of the other two works are exclusively homosexual. See also *Anonymous poets - Greek, *pseudonyms.
Latest text. *D. A. Campbell, Greek Lyric, vol. 2 (Cambridge and London 1988), 162-257; excellent introduction, pp. 4-18. Campbell states: "the poems were not composed before the Hellenistic period, most of them not until the *Roman and *Byzantine periods" (ibid.,10) and that dates given by experts vary between 323 B.C. and 600 A.D. with one considering the poems could have been composed as late as the ninth century A. D." (ibid., pp. 16-19). Compare *Omar Khayyam (pseud) whose corpus, though ascribed to him, was similarly put together over a long period. If some of the poems were composed in the Byantine period, as seems very likely, they refute the notion of the period as being uniformly homophobic.
The poems are joyous celebrations of love, both homo and hetero. Love here is also frequently associated with *wine drinking and the poems were almost certainly composed in a *symposium context (see also *skolia). They constitute, in part, an anthology of homopoems within the context of bisexuality.
Homopoems include 10,11,15, 17, 18, 37, 38, 40, 42, 43, 45, 48, 49, 50, 53 in Campbell' s edition cited above; lovers mentioned in these poems are *Bathyllus and *Lyaeus. Many other poems refer to such homosexual tropes as *Eros and *Dionysus (e.g., Eros in poems 6, 13, 30-31 and Dionysus in poems 42, 44, 53); other tropes of gay relevance also appear, for example, *Adonis and *Hermes (see poem 17). The homosexual aspect is thus very strongly present in the body of poems. The only surviving manuscript of the Anacreontea is within the manuscript of the manuscript of the * Palatine Anthology (this manuscript thus contains two homosexual poetry anthologies, the * Mousa Paidike and the Anacreontea).
Text. Editions of the Anacreontea were very popular from Henri Estienne's edition onwards; see also *K. Preisendanz. Criticism in general. See Pamela J. Hegedus, Studies in the Anacreontea (1987). *Constantine Trypanis, Greek Poetry, pp. 406-07, has a concise discussion. F. Colincamp, De poetate carminum Anacreonticorum, Paris: Durand, 1848 (source: *Hérelle manuscript 3258) is apparently a *thesis presented at the *Sorbonne; not sighted. See also "Criticism in homosexual terms" below.
Translation. "Anacreon" has been widely translated, perhaps as a "saucy" poet; he was possibly popular because of fascination with *bisexuality and *homosexuality.
The National Union Catalog entry Anacreon reveals what was taken to be the poetry of this poet - but is now accepted as the later imitations called the Anacreontea - was first translated into Latin in 1554 (by Henri *Estienne in the * editio princeps). Latin translations were popular in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and European vernacular translations in the eighteenth and nineteenth, especially in the *romantic period. *Censorship may have occurred. Some of these works may be imitations of the Anacreontea (see *Anacreontics). Only major translators are listed.
Every National Union Catalog and*British Library General Catalogue entry needs to be examined to see if homopoems are included in the translations; since many records in the National Union Catalog are from written library cards information may not always be accurate. The catalogs of other older European libraries need to be consulted. The British Library General Catalogue entry is easier to consult than the National Union Catalog and lists more translators before 1870; both were consulted.
The Anacreontea were enormously popular in French, German and Italian. After initial translation into Latin, translation into French occurred in 1556, followed by Spanish (1620), Dutch (1656) and Italian (1693). Catalan: Frederich Renye y Viladot (1878). Czech: S. Roznay (1812). Dutch: J. de Vries (1656), D. M. Ausonius (1724), G. Kempher (1726), J. H. Hoeufft (1816), J. J. L. ten Kate and S. J. van den Bergh (1837). English. The National Union Catalog and *British Library General Catalogue reveal the Anacreontea were first translated into English in 1561, seven years after Estienne's edition of 1554. Estienne's edition included a Latin translation and the English translation is from this Latin edition. The poems were continuously popular from then onwards. Translators, mainly listed in the National Union Catalog and the British Library General Catalogue, include the following: *Thomas Stanley (1651; repr.), *A. Cowley (1656), * Anacreon done into English (Oxford, 1683), Odes... (1702) - see British Library General Catalogue, The Works of Anacreon and Sappho.. , London, *Edmund Curll, 1713 (repr. of the 1683 Oxford edition and repr. 1886), Mr. Addison (1735), Francis Fawkes (1760; repr.), a popular translation, Edward Burnaby Greene (1768), W. Green (1783), Rev. D. H. Urquhart (1787), Thomas Gilpin (1796; repr.), *Thomas Moore (1800; repr.) - another popular translation, Rev. Hercules Younge (1802), Thomas Girdlestone (1803), Thomas Orger (1825), J. B. Roche (1827), Mr. Locke (1827), T. W. C. Edwards (1830), Thomas Bourne (1830), James Usher (1833), F. J. Manning (1837), T. J. Arnold (1869), Frederick J. A. Davidson? (1915), M. (1918), *Richard Aldington (1919), Doris Langley (1926), Ambrose Philips (1927) - held in the *Private Case, Erastus Richardson (1928), *J. M. Edmonds (1931 repr), P. M. Pope (1955), *Guy Davenport (1986; some poems) *D. A. Campbell (1988; the latest and one of the best translations). French: *Rémy Belleau (1556), Anne Ducier (Mademoiselle le Fevre) (1681; repr.), Mr. de Longpierre (1692), Mr de la Fosse (1706), Francois Gagon (1712; repr.), M. Poinsinet de Sivry (1758), J. J. Moutonnet-Clairfons (1773), P. H. Anson (1795), S. P. de Merard Saint-Just (1798),
J. J. Rousseau? (1799), Cen. Aubanel? (1801), A. E. H. Poisson de Lachabeaussiere (1803), I. B. de Saint-Victor (1812), M. Aubenal (1801), Girodet (1825), *C. Leconte de Lisle (1852; repr.), E. de Lonlay (1858), H. Rossey (1863), A. F. Didot (1864), E.-P. Dubois-Guchan (1873), Roche-Aymon (1882), G. Beau (1884), Maurice Albert (1885), A. Delboulle (1891), F. Mathews (1927, Paris: Les Presses universitaires), M. Meunier (1932). German: J. W. L. Gleim, J. P. Uz and others (1746), J. H. F. Meinecke (1776), J. F.
Degen (1787), *K. W. Ramler (1801), W. Gerhardt (1818), W. Richter (1834), E. Kulmann (1844), *E. Mörike (1846; repr.), E. Burger
(1855), Heinrich Stadelmann (1868), F. Eggers (1870), H. J. Junghans (1873), T. C. Feldmann (1875), Moritz Alsberg (1877), Philomusos (pseud.) (1877), L. Wiessel (1886), V. Knauer (1888), O. Kaysel (1890), A. Charisius (1919). Modern Greek: 1895, 1929, 1971 - see British Library General Catalogue for details. Hebrew: Saul Tchernichovski (1920). Hungarian: Pechy Istvan (1874), Poneri Thewrewk Emil (1885). Italian: F. S. Regnier Des Marais (Paris, 1693; Florence 1695), Bartolommeo Corsini (Paris,1672; repr.), A. M. Salvini (Florence, 1695), Paolo Rolli (London, 1739; repr.), F. Catelano ( Venice, 1753), Trans. not known (Venice, 1773), Cesare Gaetani delle Torre (Syracuse,1776), F. S. de'Rogati (Colle,1782; repr.), G. M. Pagnini (Parma,1793 repr), Antonio Winspeare (Venice, 1817), Paolo Costa and Giovanni Marchetti (Bologna,1823), Giuseppe Rivelli (Naples,1835), Prof. Giuseppe Sapio (1867), Andrea Maffei (Milan,1874), L. A. Michelangeli (Bologna,1882), V. Taccone? (Acireale, 1898), Luigi Dolci (Milan, 1901), *Salvatore Quasimodo (ca.1946), Bruno Gentili (Rome, 1958). Italian and Latin bilingual edition: various translators Venice (1670), Antonio La Manna (Palermo, 1843). Latin: *Henri Estienne (1554; repr.), *Eilhard Lubin (1597), William Baxter (1685; repr.), J. Barnes (1705; repr.), Michael Maittaire (1725), J. C. de Pauw (1732), G. Barnes (1736), J. H. Hoeufft (1795), J. B. Gail (1801), G. J. Aislabie (1817),
C. F. A. Nobbe (1855) - see also the * National Union Catalog and * British Library General Catalogue as not all translators have been indentified. Polish: Fr. Hr. Skarbka? (1816), A. Naruszewicz (1837), F. D. Kniaznin (1837). Portuguese: Francisco Manoel Gomes da Silveira Malhäo (1808). Provencal: Aubenal (1814). Russian: Nikolai L'vov (1784). Spanish: Estaban Manuel de Villegas (1620) - see British Library General Catalogue entry, F. Gomez de Quevedo y Villega ( 1645), Joseph y Bernabe Canga Arguelles (1795), *J. A. Condé (1796), Don Jose del Castillo y Ayensa (1832), Not known (Puerto Rico, 1838 - see British Library General Catalogue ), F. Baraibar y Zumarraga (1884), A. Lasso de La Vega (1884), Florencio Varmonde (1897), Gregorio Arcila Robledo (1943), M. *Brioso Sanchez (1970, 1981). Swedish: A. G. Sjostrom (1826), J. Traner (1868). Swedish and French F. D. H. M. (1802). Welsh: D. S. Evans (1840?) - kept in the *Private Case.
Bibliographies. Young, Male Homosexual in Literature, second edition, item 66: Anacreontea, West Orange, NJ: Saifer, no date.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Eros: An Anthology of Friendship, 46-47: trans. by *Richard Aldington. Criticism in homosexual terms. Brandt, "Der paidon eros in der griechischen Dichtung", Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen 8 (1906), 648-51. Brandt, Sittengeschichte griechenlands, volume 2, 186-87. Brandt, Sittengeschichte Griechenlands, volume 3, 235. Licht, Sexual Life in Ancient Greece, 473.
A type of poem in Greek from Greece and later in other languages in praise of *wine, love, men, women and song, *bisexual in context; also the name of a poetic meter. From ca. 323 B.C.
Anacreontics are modelled on the Greek poet *Anacreon's poems and frequently written in trochaic tetrameter. Poems survive from ca. 323 B.C. The term originally referred to the meter and later the type of poem. The first Anacreontics, apart from Anacreon's own poems, were the * Anacreontea (see the entry in Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium); the name Anacreontics is sometimes used to refer to the Anacreontea. See also *Constantine of Sicily.
Latin poets, such as *Horace, used the meter in the *Roman period. From the 'Renaissance, following the rediscovery and publication from manuscript of the Anacreontea in *Henri Estienne's edition in 1554 Anacreontics were written in European languages. As poems, Anacreontics had the reputation of being lascivious verse with homosexual and bisexual undertones. But in many cases they eventually became simply celebrations of epicurean heterosexual behavior (see *epicurus); frequently they are *non-gender specific and the context is ambiguous. In addition, original poetry in the style of the Anacreontea cannot always be separated from translations of the Anacreontea (see the *Anacreontea entry for translation details). Compare *alcaic, *Sapphics.
Anacreontics in modern European languages constitute a homosexual (and bisexual) tradition which awaits detailed investigation. English: see *Abraham Cowley (1656), *The Works of Anacreon and Sappho (1713 - reprint of 1683 Oxford edition), *T. Moore (1800) - he was called "Anacreon Moore" by his friend *Byron - and *Digby M. Dolben. French: see *Ronsard, Remy Belleau. Italian. *Tasso, Partini, Monti, Foscoli and *Leopardi wrote them. German. The poets *Gleim, Uz, Gotz were called as a group, the Anakreontiker (see Oxford Companion to German Literature entry); Hagedorn also used them. See "Anakreontik" in Reallexikon der deutschen literatur geschichte, edited by P. Mereker (Berlin 1955), vol. 1, pp. 40-41. Latin: see *Hadrian, *Laevius, Seneca, *Petronius, Claudian, Martianus Capella, Boethius, *Hadrian. Spanish: see *E. de Villegas (1618), J. de *Melendez Valdes, J.
*lglesias de la Casa. Bulgarian. Anacreontic poems exist from the late 18th and early 19th centuries: see Yannis Motsios, "The Anacreontic Poetry in Greek and Bulgarian Literature", Balkan Studies vol. 25 no. 2 (1984), 397-407.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics, 33. Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. New Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics.
Homosexual anal sex is documented in poetry from the ancient Egyptian spell *"Go forth, plant thyself on him", ca. 2,175 B.C.
Similar feelings occur in Hebrew in the *Old Testament in the trope of *Sodom and Gomorrah. The Latin poet *Catullus refers to it and it is implied in Greek in the myth of *Ganymede (ca. 700 B.C.) and in the *erastes and *eromenos relationship (as is evinced by *Achilles and Patroclus in *Homer and later implied in the poems of the * Mousa Paidike). (On Greek see the article, with poetry reference, "Anal erotik im alten Hellas" in Ullstein Enzyklopädie der Sexualität; for Latin see the article following on Rome). It is depicted in art on Greek vases (see *Kenneth Dover, *Phallicism). It can be enjoyed by both the active and passive participiants, by fucker and fuckee.
Anal sex as a theme rarely appears in later European poetry due to European laws stigmatizing it before 1969 (see * L'amour bleu) and when referred to is mostly provocative - e. g. in the work of *Beccadelli. As a theme it has come to prominence in the poetry of the *gay liberation period dating from 1969. Ritualized initiation involving anal sex occurs in *Papua New Guinea languages and song cycles used in initiation ceremonies may be relevant. Considering its importance, anal sex has been little written about though *censorship has played a part in this until recently in European languages. From 1983, *Aids has turned poets away from anal sex.
English. Australia: see *Christopher Brennan, *David Herkt, John Shaw Neilson. Great Britain: see *Rupert Brooke, *Abraham Cowley, * Sodom, or the Quintessence of Debauchery. United States: see *Allen Ginsberg, *Graham Jackson, *Ed Sanders, *Adrian Stanford - re passive anal sex, *Hunce Voelcker, *"Gas, Grass or Ass" (poem), *Whitman - re the Calamus poems. The anthology *Bugger (1964) was the first work in the United States to deal openly with the theme of gay anal sex to any degree. Great Britain and United States - see *Limericks. See also all *bawdry entries relating to English where reference to homosexual anal sex occurs frequently. French. *Rimbaud and *Verlaine wrote a notorious sonnet on the subject ("Sonnet to the Arsehole"). See also *Pierre Louys. German. Forum 1 (1987), 38-72: article by Gerhard Härle (with discussion of the Verlaine/ Rimbaud sonnet); bibl., 69
72. See also his article in: Schwulenreferat im Allgemeinen Studenternausscchuß der FU (editor), editor, Homosexualitat und Wissenschaft (Berlin, 1992), 27-62 on the significance of the anal for the 'aesthetic of homosexual literature. Latin: see *Martial, *Forberg, Manual of Classical Erotology. Anal sex is documented from *Catullus onwards; it is a major motif of the *Priapeia. Persian: see *Obeyd Zukani. Urdu: see Josh Malihabadi (pseud.), *Dard. Yaowoia: see *Cosmogenic song. Japanese. Leupp, Male Colors: The Construction of Homosexuality in Tokugawa Japan, 178: a poem by Fujiwara Yorinaga, from the Heian period, from his diary (before 1000).
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 48-50. Howes, Broadcasting It. Ullstein Enzyklopädie der Sexualität: see "anale Phase" and following articles. Gay Histories and Cultures: see "Sex Practice: Anal Sex". Other references. Gay Sunshine no. 24 pp. 27-29 and no. 25, pp.16-17 (articles on Anal Sex).
Licking the anus with the tongue. Documented in poetry in Latin from Italy from ca. 85 and later in English. Analingus is also called arse licking in less formal English.
Latin: see *Forberg regarding it being hinted at first in *Martial (active ca. 85-103). English. Australia: see *David Widdup.
Poet from India writing in English. Born 1972.
The author of one book of poems, he is a journalist with the Hyderabad Deccan Chronicle in south India. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Yaraana: Gay Writing from India, 55-56; biog. 219.
Poet from India writing in Sanskrit or possibly Pali. Active ca. 500 B. C.
The *beloved disciple of the *Buddha (active 500 B.C.) who left a collection of poems called the Theragatha either in Sanskrit or Pali (the language of Buddhist religious texts, a dialect of Sanskrit). His name means "joy, bliss" (compare the sex manual Ananda Ranga). See H. Saddhatissa, The Life of the Buddha (1976), 54-56 and index; states he was the Buddha's cousin who became his personal attendant. *Heart Master Da Love-Ananda took his name from Ananda.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopedia Britannica .
Movement in German, Russian and English. From ca. 1780.
Anarchism is "a principle or theory of life and conduct under which society is conceived without government" ( Encyclopedia of Homosexuality). As a movement it arose in the late nineteenth century in Europe. *Surrealism had a significant anarchist element. Contrast *Marxism and *Socialism (both of which are more organized) and compare *libertinism.
English. See *Hartford Wits, *Stuart Merrill, *Gay liberation, *Charley Shively, * Fag Rag, *Paul Goodman, *George Barker (Great Britain), *Harry Hooton and James McAuley (Australia), *lan Young (Canadian). German. See John Henry Mackay, * Adolf Brand, *Erich Muhsam. *Raoul Hübner. Anarchism was very strong in *Berlin from 1945 to 1989 when the Berlin wall came down and is a guiding idea in the German gay liberation period anthologies. Russian. Anarchism was a very strong movement in Russia about 1900. Poets active in the period 1900-1917, e.g. *Esenin, may be relevant.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 50-52: by *Charley Shively. Gay Histories and Cultures.
Anthology in English from Great Britain. Published in 1749, possibly in London.
Possibly the first English homosexual anthology. No copy survives so whether poetry is included is not known. Men and Boys, ix, states it was compiled by *Thomas Cannon. See also *lost works
Anthology in English and Gaelic from Great Britain. Edinburgh: Polygon, 1989, 192 pages.
Compiled by *Toni Davidson; introduction by *Edwin Morgan, pp. 11-13. A combined male and female anthology; mostly prose but containing some poetry. The title come from a line of the poem "The Nameless Love" by the *Scots poet who wrote in German, John Henry Mackay. The introduction discusses *Hugh Macdiarmid's knowledge of Mackay, the *you strategy and *Compton Mackenzie.
Male poets: John McRae pp. 37-40, *Edwin Morgan pp. 127-130, *Christopher Whyte pp. 167-75 (poems in English and Gaelic). See also the prose piece: "A Preface to John Henry Mackay" by *Hubert Kennedy pp. 41-44, with prose by Mackay following.
Anthology in German from Germany. Frankfurt, Suhrkamp, 1988, 343 pages.
A mixed prose and poetry anthology on historical lines from ancient Greece to contemporary Germany compiled by Joachim Campe. All poets appear only in German translation without the text in the original language. This is the most comprehensive recent German anthology apart from * "Matrosen sind der Liebe Schwingen" though it does not adequately represent the contemporary period. It contains an excellent selection of poems. Notes 319-37, sources 338-41, index 342-43. Most of the anthology is prose however. The title means "different love". Compare *Eros: Die Mannerliebe der Greichen and * Lieblingminne und Freundesliebe.
Poets (see entries): Anonymous (page 64), Der Stricker (pseud.) (69-71), Erasmus (83-85), Frederick II (110-13), Stefan George (210-14), Goethe (139-48), Heinrich Heine (178-80), Hilary (61-62), John Henry Mackay (228-32), August von Platen (173-77), Ludwig Renn (261-65), Roswitha (49-54), Schiller (151-53), Walafrid Strabo (48-49), Theocritus (23-28), Heinrich von Veldeke (6467), Christoph Martin Wieland (120-24).
Poet from Denmark who wrote in Danish; he also lived in Italy. 1805-1875.
He was a famous writer of fairy stories for children which have been translated into many languages. Two poems discovered in a cupboard earlier this century, "Friendship" and "For Ludwig and Edward" reveal homosexual feelings. He wrote several autobiographical works and there have been many biographies; he lived for many years in Italy and led a wandering life living all over Europe. On his homosexuality see Aksel Dreslov, H. C. Andersen og «denne Albert Hansen« (1977), 88 pp.
His homosexuality was first raised by Albert Hansen in * Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen in 1901 and was discussed by Hjalmar Helweg in his 1927 book (reprinted, 1954), Forfatteren tile bogen: H C Andersen (see the article in Vennen cited below). Ludwig Muller may have been a lover. *Edmund Gosse wrote a poem on him in English.
Biography. See Elias Bredsdorff, Hans Christian Andersen - Eine Biographie, published in Germany, 1993, 493 pp. (in German). Jackie Wullschlager, Hans Christian Andersen: The Life of a Storyteller (2000) makes clear the intense homoeroticism of his relations with men and shows there is no proof he experienced heterosexual relations. Erling Nielsen, Hans Christian Andersen (1805-1875), Copenhagen: Royal Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 1983, contains many photographs.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Cassell's Encyclopaedia of World Literature. Garde, Jonathan to Gide, 592-94. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 54-55. Howes, Broadcasting It. Tyrkus, Gay and Lesbian Biography. Dictionnaire Gay. Who's Who in Gay and Lesbian History: From Antiquity. Bibliographies. Welter, Bibliographie Freundschaftseros, 38: cites a poem "Es geht bei gedänpfter Trommelklang" [no source given]; set to music by Friedrich Silcher. Hansen, Nordisk Bibliografi, 1: O. T., Copenhagen: Hans Heitzel, 1962 (first edition 1836); see also p. 6: cites Aksel Dreslov, H. C. Andersen og «denne Albert Hansen«, Copenhagen: Samlerens Forlag, 1977. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 2, 385-86: "To Ludwig Miller (1809-1891)" and "For Eduard and Ludwig"; biog. note 381-82. " Matrosen sind der Liebe Schwingen", 87: German. trans. titled "Der Sahwan". Criticism. Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen vol. 3 (1901), 203-30: article on his homosexuality by Alb. Hansen, Copenhagen. Moll, Berühmte Homosexuelle, 51-52. Vennen 7 (1955), 110: poem "Til H. S. (Ind i den dunkle skov i tjorn og krat)"; see also the article H. C. Andersen's "Specielle Psyke" (no author), including another poem. Schyberg, Walt Whitman, 266-68.
Author of two articles touching on homosexuality in the French author *Andre Gide (using the pseudonym Galileus Belotti) pp. 97-101 and the Spanish poet *García Lorcia (using his real name) pp. 60-64 in the Melbourne University Magazine ca. 1946-47: for instance in the piece on García Lorca he state "his rather erotic ballad on St. Gabriel" suggests "he had homosexual tendencies" (p. 60). These are possibly the first discussion of these writers in relation to homosexuality in Australia.
The author lives in Melbourne, was a close friend of the historian Manning Clark and was in the furniture business.
Poet from the United States who wrote in English. 1903-died before 1995.
In the Forests of Hell, 1958 is a prose poem. He is believed to have been gay (*Burton Weiss to the author, oral communication,
Bibliographies. Bullough, Annotated Bibliography of Homosexuality, volume 2, items 10432-35: two poems in the journal, One, June/ July 1956 ("After hours") and October/ November 1957 ("Not a new season, but a clarification of a clouded one") and In the Forests of Hell and of Heaven, San Francisco: Gilbert and DeLue, 1958, and Toward other shores, San Francisco: Pan Graphic,
1961. Young, Male Homosexual in Literature, second edition, items 70-71: same two books as in Bullough; highly rated by Ian Young. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Penguin Book of Homosexual Verse, 315: poem "The Beach Homos".
Poet from the United States who wrote in English. Born 1935.
A native of Milwaukee, in 1983 he was a dance critic for the * New York Times and has written several books of poems. As poetry critic see *Jack Spicer (very brilliant article).
Bibliographies. Young, Male Homosexual in Literature, second edition, item 72-73: City Joys, Brooklyn, NY: Release Press, 1975 and Toward the Liberation of the Left Hand, Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1977. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Son of the Male Muse, 13-18: fine poems with a photo of the author p. 13; biog., 186. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 2, 548. Name of Love, 2930: fine love poem "Perfection"; biog., 69: notes eight books of poetry by him and he is dance critic for the New York Times and The Dancing Times (London). Word of Mouth, 185-93.
Poet from the United States writing in English. Active 1996.
Book of poems including gay poems: The Intense Lover, FLF/STARbooks Press, 1996; biographical information is on the back cover. Widely published in various gay and other journals, he is an Associate Professor of English.
Poet and anthologist from Canada writing in English; he lived in Great Britain for most of his life. 1915-1979.
He was co-editor, with *Alistair Sutherland, of the fine anthology * Eros: An Anthology of Friendship, a major English gay anthology. Eros was assembled from material gathered by Alistair Sutherland (see Eros, p. 7); the editing was done by Patrick Anderson. He was the first well known poet of Canada to write homopoems after 1940, with poems dating from his book The White Centre (Toronto, 1946): see "Boy in a Russian Blouse" in this book. Autobiographies: Search Me: The Black Country, Canada and Spain, London, 1957; The Character Ball, London, 1963. He also wrote travel books on Greece (e.g., The Smile of *Apollo, 1964) and Singapore (Snake Wine, 1955).
Born in Great Britain, he was educated at *Oxford (where he was President of the Oxford Union in 1937) and then at Columbia University, *New York, and lived in Canada from 1938, becoming a Canadian citizen in 1945. He left Canada in 1950 to live in Great Britain where he became head of the English department at Trent Park College, Barnet, Hertfordshire 1968-79.
He was married in the 1940s and divorced in 1947. In 1943, John Sutherland, a writer, published an article alleging Patrick Anderson was homosexual in the Canadian journal First Statement (14 May 1943, 3-6), titled "The Writing of Patrick Anderson"; Anderson sued him and forced an apology (see *Robert K. Martin for a discussion).
On his later life see "Attic Shapes and Empty Spaces: Patrick Anderson - A memoir", Canadian Literature, vol. 121, 1989, 86-99: this states, p. 87, he had a companion, Orlando Gearing. He was involved with the journal Preview in the 1940s and was a *Marxist at this stage. His final volume was Selected Poems: Return to Canada (Toronto, 1977). Obituary: AB Bookman's Weekly, 16 April, 1979.
His manuscripts are at the Public Archives, Ottawa, Ontario, and McGill University Library, Montreal, Quebec (see Dictionary of Literary Biography entry). The manuscripts at Ottawa are the major holdings and consist of some twenty boxes, including a box relating to the selection of the poems in Eros; there are also 700 photographs relating to him in the photography collection. This material was given by Orlando Gearing of Great Britain.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Companion to Canadian Literature. Contemporary Authors, vol. 85-88: obituary. Contemporary Authors, vol. 93-96. Dictionary of Literary Biography, vol. 68. Oxford Companion to Canadian Literature, second edition. Who's Who in Contemporary Gay and Lesbian History. Bibliographies. Young, Male Homosexual in Literature, first edition, items 50: The Color as Naked, Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1953. Bullough, Annotated Bibliography of Homosexuality, volume 2, item 10436: same book. Homosexuality in Canada, first edition (1979), 5-6: The Color as Naked, Torono, 1953, Return to Canada: Selected Poems, Toronto, ca. 1977, A Visiting Distance; Poems: New, Revised and Selected, Ottowa, 1976, (lists gay poems in the books); also cites his autobiographical works The Character Ball: Chapters of Autobiography, London, 1963 and Search Me; Autobiography: The Black Country, Canada and Spain, London, 157. Young, Male Homosexual in Literature, second edition, items 77-78, 80-81: The Colour as Naked, Return to Canada: Selected Poems, A Visiting Distance and The White Centre, Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1946. Homosexuality in Canada, second edition (1984), 136: same works as the first edition. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Eros: An Anthology of Friendship, 386-87: poem "Spiv Song", from The Colour as Naked (1953) re a male *prostitute. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 2, 520-21: "Spiv Song".
Poet from Portugal writing in Portuguese. Born 1923.
A well known poet, his first openly gay poem was published in 1988 in Coloquio/Letras (Fundacao Calouste Gulbenkian) - see the poem "Poema para o meu amor dolente". Biography: see entry in Alvaro Manuel Machado, Quem e quem na literatura portuguesa (Lisbon, 1979), p. 120. He has been active as a poet from 1942.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Who's Who in Contemporary Gay and Lesbian History. Bibliographies. Cuaderno bibliográfico gay, 13: cites Anthología poética 1940-80, Barcelona: Plaza & Janes, 1981 (this is a bilingual anthology in Portuguese with translations into Spanish and with introductory essay).
Poet from Brazil writing in Portuguese. 1893-1945.
One of the first Portuguese *Modernist poets, he has a huge literary oeuvre but his private writings were not to be published until 1995. About ten gay poems exist. He was gay but not open about it.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Cassell's Encyclopaedia of World Literature. Gay Histories and Cultures, 142: *Luis Mott he is said to have been homosexual. Who's Who in Gay and Lesbian History: From Antiquity. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Poemas do amor maldito, 131 - a *sonnet; biog., 130. Criticism. Trevisan, Perverts in Paradise, 105: states he wrote poems praising soldiers and adolescents. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 163: stated to have been gay.
Pseudonym of a poet possibly from the United States who wrote in English. Born 1880.
A writer of conventional but good *boy-love poetry of the time.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Men and Boys, 63-64; biog. note p. 63: stated to be the pseudonym of "an American newspaperman". Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 2, 495-96. Columbia Anthology of Gay Literature, 677.
Mythical figure and trope in Greek from Greece from 380 B.C. in Greek; later in other languages.
Androgynes are creatures uniting the physical characteristics of both sexes and therefore capable of being both male and female. It is a concept very common in the *decadent movement and the *Theosophist movement. See also *angels, *fairy, *feminism, *Theosophy. Carolyn Heilbrun's Towards a Recognition of Androgyny (1973) and Wendy O'flaherty, Women Androgynes and Other Creatures (1980) are recent studies. In June Singer, Androgyny (1977), see Chapter 10 on *Plato, Chapter 13 on the * Kabbala and Chapter 20 on homosexuality.
Hebrew. In the first book of the * Bible dealing with the creation of Adam and Eve, the feminine person, Eve, is created out of the masculine, Adam; in the * Kabbala, this took on mystical significance in the idea of Adam Kadmon. Compare *gazelle. Greek. See *Plato's * Symposium, 189-91; *hermaphrodite, *Yannis Ritsos. For the artistic depiction see the * Lexicon iconographicum mythologiae classicae entry "Hermaphroditos". English. Great Britain: see *Shelley, *Pre-Raphaelites, *D. G. Rossetti, *Swinburne, *Simeon Solomon, *Aleister Crowley. United States: see "Tennessee Williams, Tom Clark (re *Charles Olson); see also *lily.
German: see the article by L. S. A. M. von Römer, "Uber die androgynische Idee des Lebens" (On the androgyne idea) Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen vol. 5 Part 2 (1903), 707 ff: though written in German this deals with other cultures and is profusely llustrated; it is the major survey to date (it was reprinted in Schmidt, Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen , vol. 2, pp. 139256). Sanskrit: Brhad Aranyaka *Upanisad 1.4.3-4 (source: Encyclopedia of Religion article "Androgyne"). There are myths of the androgynous *Siva in Sanskrit (these almost certainly exist in other *lndian languages); see also *Brahma. Armenian: see *Sergei Parajanov, *Sayat Nova (pseud.). Aranda (a central Australian Aboriginal language) and other central Australian aboriginal languages. A major survey of the central Australian tribes and cultures (including the Arandal is J. Winthuis, Zweigeslechterwesen bei den Zentralaustraliern und anderen Völkern, 1928 (the title means Androgyny Among the Central Australians and Other Tribes) - see p. 126 regarding *pederasty and pp. 170 re the Kurnai and 173 re the Semang; note: the English translation of the first word in the title of this book as "bisexuality" in Magnus Hirschfeld, Men and Women: The World Journey of a Sexologist, New York, 1935 (p. 308) is incorrect since the German word means "having the characteristics of both sexes". All persons in these tribes sing and recite oral poems and *songs. Japanese. Leupp, Male Colors: The Construction of Homosexuality in Tokugawa Japan, p. 174: a poem about a male actor.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Eliade, Encyclopedia of Religion: defined as "a creature which is half male and half female." Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 56-58. Gay Histories and Cultures. Gay Poetry Anthologies. L'amour bleu, 52: re androgynes in ancient Greek culture.
Sexual and affectional relationships between adult males, an adult being a person from the time of puberty or the *age of consent. From ca. 1945, it is perhaps the most practiced form of homosexuality.
The relationship of *Gilgamesh and Enkidu in Akkadian and other languages seems of this type as does *King David's relationship with Jonathan in Hebrew but it is not possible to decide whether these relationships are androphile since the ages of the persons involved are not known. Whether *Achilles and Patroclus's relationship in ancient Greek falls into this category is debatable. Many ancient Greek relationships were *pederastic, involving an older man and a younger, as seems the case with ancient Latin (see *Catullus, *Martial).
The fact that the *age of death today has considerably advanced, due to improvement in medicine, needs to be considered in relation to homosexual relations in the twentieth century; for instance, life expectancy in the ancient world was much lower so more relationships were pederastic.
Many Chinese poets had homosexual relationships with each other; on the other hand Japanese poets were more pederastic before the contemporary period. Strong adult *male bonding relationships need to be considered (e.g. that of the Italian poet *Leopardi and *Ranieri). English androphile relationships are especially common in the *gay liberation period. Compare *pederasty, *pedophilia, *Uranian poets.
In the contemporary world from 1945 most homosexual relationships are probably androphile. Since, in many cases, especially in earlier centuries, it is not possible to know the ages of the persons involved in homosexual relationships depicted in poems, whether they were androphile cannot be conclusively stated.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 58.
Novelist and poet from Poland writing in Polish. 1909-1983.
He wrote a few poems (Josef Pyzik, Cracow, to the author, June 1987). Apparently bisexual he married and had two children but left his first wife on the wedding day. His novel The Gates of Paradise, 1948, was translated into English by James Kirkup and published in 1963. A notable film is based on his novel Ashes and Diamonds. Before the war he was a leading right wing writer. He joined the Communist Party in 1949 but later became disillusioned.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Everyman Companion to East European Literature. Who's Who in Contemporary Gay and Lesbian History - states in 1942 ge fell in love with the poet Krzystof Baczynski but it was not returned. Bibliographies. Young, Male Homosexual in Literature, second edition, item 99: lists the novel, The Gates of Paradise, London. 1962. Criticism. Milosz, History of Polish Poetry, 490-93. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 1013-14.
Poet from Great Britain writing in Welsh. Active 575.
The first known Welsh poet, from Wales to the west of England. His poem The Gododdin is a series of elegies describing the death of men with homoerotic overtones: see The Penguin Book of Welsh Verse, trans. by Anthony Conran (1967), pp. 57-78. See also The Oxford Book of Welsh Verse in English, edited by Gwynn Jones, 1977, p. 6: No 11 (lxxxv) from The Gododdin - a poem of lament for his lord with strong affectional undertones.
Poet from Greece who wrote in Greek. 1940-1991.
Compiler and translator of the anthology *Amerikanike homophylophile poiese, the first Modern Greek gay anthology. He also wrote a series of poems based on the life of *Cavafy called Kavaphes kath' hodon (Cavafy on the Way), Athens, 1984, 45 pages, and several homosexual plays. His book of Greek poems whose translated title is Metaphysics of the Night (1982), with fine illustrations by the US photographer Arthur Tress, is a notable gay work. Transliteration of his name here follows the Library of Congress system. He died of *Aids. He has also edited an erotic poetry anthology Poietike anthologia apoklinontos erotismou (Athens: Gnose, 1988).
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 503 (spelt Angelakis).
Mythical figures and a trope in Hebrew in ancient Israel and later in *European languages; the concept is also known in Arabic,
Persian and Turkish. First recorded in Hebrew from ca. 500 B. C.
Angels are sexually ambiguous, intervening between humans and *God; because of their sexual ambiguity there can be homosexual connotations (for example, in the story of *Sodom and Gomorrah). Angel comes from the Greek word meaning messenger, and is the equivalent of the Hebrew word mal'akh, messenger, where they are strongly sexual creatures. Angels occur in the Jewish, *Christian and *Islamic religions. Michael and Gabriel are the only two named angels in the * Old Testament, Michael appearing in the Book of Daniel (6th century B.C.).
The story of Sodom and Gomorrah in the Old Testament involves homosexual sex with angels and is the main Christian and Judaic source of the trope. The corporeality of angels and exact sexuality are difficult to determine and there were many arguments about them in the Christian *Middle Ages (e.g. how many angels could fit on the tip of a needle). In art they are normally like *androgynes, i. e. neither male nor female, with long hair and ambivalent faces.
Arabic: see * Angels of the Lyre, *Minoo S. Southgate, *Charles Wendell (re houris). See also entry "Mala'ika" in Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition. They are also called houris in Arabic and accompany the faithful in heaven. Turkish: see *Sultan Selim II. Hebrew: see *Sodom and Gomorrah. English. In poetry they provide a coded way of referring to homosexuality: see *C. S. Lewis with regard to *Milton. The English anthology * Angels of the Lyre (1975) uses the trope in its title and has a somewhat *decadent angel drawn by Czanara opposite the title page. The poet *Harold Norse's autobiography is entitled Memoirs of a Bastard Angel (1989). See also *Wayne McNeill. Dutch: see *Guus Vleugel. German: see *Goethe. *Hilary the Englishman wrote a famous Latin homoerotic poem, "To an English Boy", which has a play on the Latin words for angel and English. French: see *Antoine Ferrand. Angels appear in Zoroastrianism in Persian and in the *lslamic religion are closely related to Christianity. Portuguese: see *Sosigenes Marinho Costa.
See in general G. Davidson, A Dictionary of Angels, Including the Fallen Angels (1967).
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Howes, Broadcasting It. Eliade, Encyclopedia of Religion. Other. Adler, The Great Ideas, volume
Anthology in English from the United States. San Francisco: Panjandrum Press and *Gay Sunshine Press, 1975, 245 pages; biog. notes, pp. 237-45.
Compiled by *Winston Leyland. It was the the second United States *gay liberation anthology after * The Male Muse, which was its main inspiration, and contains well chosen poems with fine illustrations featuring gay sex. The fifty-seven poets chosen were usually frequent contributors to the journal *Gay Sunshine and the poems published were mostly chosen from works published there.
It consists of United States and Canadian poets. In the "Introduction", pp. 7-12, discussing the history of gay love in poetry, Winston Leyland states that "Gayness extends far beyond physical sexuality" (p. 12) and notes *Allen Ginsberg, *Frank O'Hara, Jack Spicer and John Wieners as seminal poets for the period.
Contributors (see entries): Hector Tito Alvarez, William Barber, Bruce Boone, Victor Borsa, Joe Brainard, Perry Brass, Adrian Brooks, Ira Cohen, Kirby Congdon, Ed Cox, Emilio Cubiero, Tim Dlugos, Robert Duncan, David Eberly, Jim Eggeling, Kenward Elmslie, R. Daniel Evans, Gerald Fabian, Salvatore Farinella, Edward Field, Charles Henri Ford, James Giancarlo, Allen Ginsberg, John Giorno, Robert Gluck, Paul Goodman, Steve Jonas, E. A. Lacey, Michael Lally, Gerrit Lansing, Winston Leyland, Gerard Malanga, Paul Mariah, Wayne McNeill, Taylor Mead, Tom Meyer, James Mitchell, James Nolan, Harold Norse, Frank O'Hara, Chuck Ortleb, Stan Persky, Robert Peters, Vincent Sacardi, Ron Schreiber, Perry Scott, Charley Shively, Aaron Shurin, David Emerson Smith, Jack Spicer, George Stanley, Richard Tagett, Hunce Voelcker, John Wieners, Jonathan Williams, Terence Winch, Ian Young.
* Homosexuality in Canada, second edition (1984), 136, states Canadian poets include Wayne McNeill, Ian Young and E. A. Lacey. Review: Gay News no. 94 (1976), 17 by *Rictor Norton.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Bullough, Annotated Bibliography of Homosexuality, volume 2, item 10437. Young, Male Homosexual in Literature, second edition, item 2327.
Poet from Italy writing in Italian. 126Q-131Q.
Born in Siena he was opposed to *Dante.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. L'amicizia amorosa, 41-43: *sonnets; biog., 39. Criticism. Arcadie 71 (November 1959), 585-590: article and French translation by *Roger Peyrefitte.
Pseudonym of a poet possibly from Iran who wrote in Persian. Active ca. 159Q.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. A'in i Akbari anthology, 64B-49 - a homosexual love poem is on p. 649; biog., 64B - states his real name is Yol Quli.
Poet from Brazil writing in Portuguese. Born 1884.
He published a single volume Eu (1912), which had gone into thirty editions by 1965. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Poemas do amor maldito, 21; biog., 20.
Bibliography in English from the United States. New York and London: Garland, 2 volumes, 1976.
The most comprehensive bibliography of homosexuality in its coverage so far, though no longer the most up to date (for later bibliographies see *Waynes Dynes and *Gary Simes). It was compiled by *Vern L Bullough, *W. Dorr Legg, *Barrett W. Elcano and James Kepner. *Dorr Legg was a major force behind the work which gives evidence of use of major United States research libraries such as the *Library of Congress. Volume 1 covers science, law, religion, medicine etc; volume 2 is literature and is divided into several sections including "Poetry". Overall the work has 15 sections. Despite many imperfections and much carelessness in entries, as far as poetry goes it first cites many little known poets and volumes relating to male homosexuality.
"Poetry", volume 2, pp. 255-91, is the largest poetry listing before this Encyclopedia. There are 794 book or journal references to poets and poems (referring to about 370 poets, which is less than the 500 in *Ian Young's bibliography in the second, 1982, edition). It includes both gay male and lesbian poetry. Some ninety percent of the poets are men and all are included in this encyclopedia though reference to lesbian material has not been included. Most entries relate to poets writing in *European languages (there are only a handful of poets from China, for instance). Male and female gay poets are included together, alphabetically arranged. Entries consist of author, title of book (or poem), place of publication, publisher and date of publication. While there are some annotations in the poetry entries, in most cases reasons for inclusion are not given.
Most entries are to books but some entries cite poems in journals, notably * One Magazine with which some of the editors were connected. (The method of citation is not always easy to follow). It incorporates many previous works especially in German: e.g. the bibliographies in the * Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwishchenstufen and the work of *Ernst Günther Welter. There are many typographical errors due to the hasty compilation of the work for publication (*Jim Kepner to the author, 1988; he stated the work was put together from file cards and little checking was done, the main effort being in the end to get it published). Some entries lack information on place of publication, publisher and date of publication and sometimes titles are wrongly entered; in addition, transcription of titles frequently does not follow exactly the title on the title page in relation to punctuation.
Examination of poetry entries included shows that the reason for an entry can include one poem - or several poems - dealing with homosexuality or about a person known to be homosexual in a book of a poet. The fact that the poet is believed gay is another reason for entries (in which case - e.g., *Allen Ginsberg - all books of poetry are cited though some may not contain obviously gay poems). In cases where entries are not annotated (and most entries are not annotated), books must be examined individually for the reason for entry. Entries for major gay writers, for instance *Martial or *Marlowe do not cite the first edition but usually a commonly available edition. There is an Index of Authors pp. 385-426 and an Index of *Pseudonyms on pp. 427-35.
Entries show that the first English bibliography * A Catalogue of Selected Books...of a Student of Boyhood, Youth and Comradeship (1924) was consulted and the poets listed there included. Many poets appear in the first edition of *Ian Young's Male Homosexual in Literature, 1975, and it is uncertain whether they were taken from this source or found independently. Poets in the bibliography also appear in the second edition of Ian Young's bibliography (1982), which supercedes An Annotated Bibliography of Homosexuality for almost all items in English (exceptions are references in journals: e.g., the references to poems in the journal One Magazine).
The work overall is, after *Ian Young's * Male Homosexual in Literature, second edition (1982), the second most wide ranging listing of homosexual poetry references, ever compiled so far. Its main emphasis however, is on English language poets. See also the introduction and discussion of the evolution of the project volume 1, pp. vii-xxii. There is a list of gay *journals, the most comprehensive to its date (including literary journals); see volume 2, pp. 334-350.
A card index of items by Dorr Legg, stated to consist of 25,000 items, exists in the library of *One Inc. which supplements the Annotated Bibliography. A four volume manuscript of an extended bibliography exists at One; this is mentioned in the program of the thirtieth anniversary of *One Institute.
Poem in English apparently from the United States. A poem - or part of one - in English quoted on the title page of the novel Imre by *Xavier Mayne (pseud.), Naples, 1906: "The whole heart exhaled into One want,/ I found the thing I sought, and that was - thee."
The author has not been identified though he or she may be a United States *transcendentalist such as *Emerson since the poem is in the transcendental vein; see also *mysticism. Also quoted on the title page is the following: "The *Friendship which is Love - the Love which is Friendship".
Poem and song in Portuguese from Brazil. Recorded ca. 1920.
See Trevisan, Perverts in Paradise, p. 87, re a *Carnival song 1920s on Febronio, a famous gay *prisoner (Trevisan quotes part of the song); see also pp. 79-83.
Poems in Acehnese from Indonesia from before 1995.
Poems about the beauty of boys are known from before 1995 (Dr. Dede Otomo, Universitas Salitiga, Surabaya, Indonesia, to the author; Dede Otomo is an openly gay Indonesian academic who regularly appears on television in a gay capacity); see his "Homoseksualitas di Aceh" in Gaya Nusantara, no. 11 (July 1989). Acehnese, an *Austronesian language, is spoken in Indonesia on the north of the island of Sumatra, the largest island, adjacent to Java.
See C. Snouck Hurgronje, The Achchnese, 2 volumes (London and Leiden, 1906) for details of these people; see also the entry in Amiram Gonen, editor, The Encyclopedia of the Peoples of the World (1993), under "Atjehnese" and in Paul Hockings, editor, Encyclopedia of World Cultures (New York, 1993) (with bibliography).
There has been a struggle by the Acehnese to rule themselves for many years. They were effectively self ruling until 1961. The Acehnese are *Muslims, though animistic traditions are present in religious practice.
Poems in Armenian from Armenia are known from before 1800.
See Hovanessian, Anthology of Armenian Poetry, p. 28 ("Stranger"), p. 33 ("Your Bosom"), p. 34 ("Andouni") - highly *mystical folk poems showing Persian *influence, some capable of homosexual interpretation
Poems in Japanese from Japan are known from ca. 1185.
Japanese. *Maggie Childs, "Japan's Homosexual Heritage", Gai Saber, volume 1 number 1 (Spring 1977), 41, cites poems about homosexual relationships between monks in the Heian period (which ended in 1185) which were found by the Japanese author S. Takikawa and also in *Gozan literature. See also Partings at Dawn, 123 (from the anthology *Iwatsutsuji). Poems written by male *prostitutes and about them exist. Leupp, Male Colors: The Construction of Homosexuality in Tokugawa Japan, 139: a poem about the relationship of pages and lords.
Translation into German: see the Anonymous comic song on pederasty cited in p. 122 of'Ferdinand Karsh-Haack, Das gleichgeslechtliche Leben der Ostasiatischen Kulturvolker, Munich, 1906, cited in the Japanese journal Fuzoku Gaho, 1894, no. 66 and 1897, no. 152.
Poems in Korean from Korea are known from ca. 1600.
See Lee, Poems from Korea, pp. 155-58; all poems are in the *sijo form and many are *non gender specific love poems.
Poems in Spanish from Spain are known from ca. 1600.
In Pierre Alzieu, Floresta de poesías eroticaas del siglo de oro (Toulouse, 1975), see poem no. 30, "Hallandose dos damas en faldeta" (pp. 46-47), no. 121 "Aqui, de semilla gomorrea" (pp. 238-39), both the preceding being *sonnets, and no. 129 "A un puto" (To a male *prostitute) (pp. 250-510. These poems are notable works from an era thought to have produced few poems referring to homosexuality.
Poet from Great Britain writing in Welsh. Active ca. 850.
See Gwen Jones, editor, The Oxford Book of Welsh Verse in Translation (Oxford, 1977), p. 10: from the poem "Hateful old age" - "What I loved as a lad I now curse:/ A girl, a stranger, a horse.../ No girl wants me, no friend haunts me".
Poets and poems in English from Great Britain are known from ca. 1595.
See the poem "Zeus to steal boy *Ganymede" (trans, from the * Palatine Anthology) in Christopher Street no. 183 (July 1992), 14; this work is possibly by Jeffrey Nickel. Poets and Writers in Folsom Prison (San Francisco, 1974), 59 pp., has some poems of relevance (copy sighted: John Willis collection). See also the poem *"Aesthete of aesthetes" and the collection *In Re Walt Whitman. Many *limericks are anonymous, as are *parodies of poems.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Eros: An Anthology of Friendship, 155-56: an *elegy on *Sir Philip Sidney. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 2, 63: "Blue Boy"; 99: poem "Les Decadents" (ca. 1900).
Poems in French from France are known from ca. 1580.
See Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 1, p. 383: apparently an anonymous lampoon about *Viau; p. 404 - poem called *"The Hermaphrodite" (ca. 1580); p. 411 - a street song on the burning at the stake of Chausson (see also *Claude Le Petit). See *Pierre de L'Estoile regarding poems on *Henri III and *Marc Daniel (pseud.) regarding poems from the seventeenth century accusing people of homosexuality or about persons convicted of homosexuality.
Poems from French manuscripts found in Paris libraries and archives exist in the collection of *Giovanni Dall'Orto: e.g., Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal MS N. 4123 Recueil Conrart vol. 18, pp. 29, 39, 201, 206, 235, 239, 364; there are quite a large number of these poems from the seventeenth century to 1789.
Poems in Latin from Italy, France, Great Britain and Germany survive from ca. 525.
Anonymous Latin poems (some with English translations) survive in abundance from the early *middle ages from ca. 525, especially in *manuscripts in European libraries in Italy, France, Great Britain and Germany from which countries poems originated; the earliest poems are from north Africa, which had been occupied by the Latin-speaking Romans. The largest collection is in * Medieval Latin Poems of Male Love and Friendship which lists many anonymous poems from *medieval manuscripts. See Anthologies below for poems.
The outstanding feature of the manuscript poems is the number of *graffiti poems on homosexual themes, poems which were apparently composed by anonymous scribes and poets and inserted into manuscripts (which mostly originated in monasteries). The use of *pseudonyms by Latin homopoets is a form of anonymous publication. See also *"Quam pravus est".
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Eros: An Anthology of Friendship, 117: from a MS of Monte Cassino. Penguin Book of Homosexual Verse, 114, 118-130 (twelfth century poets), 141 (sixteenth century). Boswell, Christianity, Social Tolerance and Homosexuality, 381-401. Medieval Latin Poems of Male Love and Friendship, 8-13 (poems from Anthologia Latina from north Africa, dated ca. 525), 22-27 (eleventh century manuscript), 84-143: poems from manuscripts, twelfth and later centuries including * Altercatio Ganimedis et Helene and *Carmina Burana; notes 144-45, 147-48, 155-63. Wilhelm, Gay and Lesbian Poetry, 140-42: poems from the * Latin Anthology (ca. 525), in Latin, also called the Anthologia Latina; 171-91, poems including some from the *Carmina Burana. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 472: citing a Latin poem on Lantfrid and Cobbo.
Poems in Arabic from Spain and Arabic speaking countries (such as Egypt, Spain and Iraq) from before 1211.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Dar al-Tiraz: several fine gay love poems included (from before 1211). Orgasms of Light, 128-29 (ca. 1200?). Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 1, 287-95: brilliant gay poems from the * Arabian Nights trans. into English; 300-303 - poems from *al-Tifashi. Criticism. *Norman Roth, "'Deal Gently with the Young Man': Love of Boys in Medieval Hebrew Poetry of Spain", Speculum 57 (1982), 29: poem translated into English.
Poems in Chinese from China survive from at least ca. 800.
*Graeme Wilson has translated an anonymous poem of ca. 800 (in the collection of *Paul Knobel); the source of this poem was not supplied.
Criticism. Hinsch, Passions of the Cut Sleeve, 156 (poet not known; source given foonote 66, p.199) - a *Ch'ing love poem to a man. Partings at Dawn, 104: a homoaffectional poem by a Japanese monk from an old commentary on the *Kokinshu.
Poems in German from Germany and Switzerland survive from 1903.
For the twentieth century, *Magnus Hirschfeld in Berlins drittes Geschlecht (6th printing, 1905), pp. 15-16, prints a poem of a gay man to his friend. See also *"Schwulenlied", *"An der linken Mann".
Bibliographies. Welter, Bibliographie Freundschaftseros, 84-88: a list of over 100 names of which some 15 are definitely poets; poets apparently listed are Peter (1949), Norbert (Switzerland, 1958), Siegfried (1903), Max, Ein Erosjunger (1903), 16jarig, Olka, Niels, Zelte. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Andere Lieben, 64. Criticism. Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen, vol. 5 Part 1, (1903), 659-60: two poems "Kannst Du den Flug mit mir, o Freundin, wagen" and *"Eros (In des Orasis friedlich stillen Auen)"; see also p.
661. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 2, 236: poem on *comradeship (ca. 1900).
Poems in Greek from Greece survive from ca. 700 B.C.
There were probably a great number of ancient Greek homosexual poets who wrote anonymously. A large number survive from ancient Greek (see Anthologies below). Many others, whose poems are *lost, undoubtedly existed. Poets may have had their names omitted from manuscripts by *scribes, although in the case of the * Theognidea and the * Anacreontea this can probably never be known. The ascription of the names of famous poets to the work of anonymous poets (e. g., in the Palatine Anthology) undoubtedly has also occurred. Most anonymous poets listed below seem to have written in the period to 150 B.C. (the end of the *Hellenistic age).
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Palatine Anthology xii 19, 39-40, 55 (or *Artemon), 61-62, 66-67, 69, 79, 87-90, 96, 99-100, 103-04,
107, 111-12,115-16, 123, 130, 136, 140, 143, 145, 151-52, 155-56, 160. Palatine Anthology: see also Licht, Sexual Life in Ancient Greece, 487. Eros: Die Männerliebe der Griechen, 61-64, 132 (no names given). Ioläus (1902), 80. Eros: An Anthology of Friendship, 51, 58-59. Penguin Book of Homosexual Verse, 63-65, 73-74. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 1, 95: list of anonymous poets in
* Mousa Paidike; 121 - anonymous fragments; 135 - *epitaphs. Poems of Love and Liberation, 65: Palatine Anthology xii, 219. See also *Theognidea (700-ca. 460 B.C.) and * Anacreontea as both of these works contain *anthologies by what is apparently a large number of anonymous poets. Columbia Anthology of Gay Literature, 43. Criticism. Symonds, A Problem in Greek Ethics, 41. Brandt, "Der paidon eros in der griechischen Dichtung", Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen 8 (1906), 660. Brandt , "Der paidon eros in der griechischen Dichtung", Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen 9 (1908), 230: re book xi of the * Palatine Anthology; 274-79: book xii of the Palatine Anthology. Brandt, Sittengeschichte griechenlands, volume 2, 201-02. Buffiere, Eros adolescent, 682: eleven poems cited.
Poems in Hebrew from Spain and Iraq and other countries survive from ca. 1300; one poem is partly in Aramaic.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. *T. Carmi, The Penguin Book of Hebrew Verse, 361-62, see the poems "The Enthralled Lover" and "The Fifteen-year-old Boy" translated from Hebrew into English (*gazelle, *Fawn and *cup bearer tropes); on p.111 Carmi states the poems in this section come from Spain, Egypt, Italy, France and Germany. Pagis, Hebrew Poetry, p. 65: a fine gay poem heard by *Alharizi in *Baghdad and translated into English (see his entry). Wilhelm, Gay and Lesbian Poetry, pp. 238-39: this poem, from Spain in the middle ages, and here translated into English, shifts into Aramaic in lines 15-25.
Poems in Persian possibly from Iran survive from before 1838.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Eros: Die Männerliebe der Griechen, 66-71: translated into German by *Hammer-Purgstall; 135-36.
Poems probably in Turkish from Turkey survive from before 1838.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Eros: Die Männerliebe der Griechen, 129-31 (possibly translated into German by *Thomas Schabert), 143-48 (translated into German by *Hammer-Purgstall). These poems are almost certainly Turkish poets; the only other possibility is Persian.
Poet possibly from Germany writing in German. Active 1977.
A writer of *post modernist free verse. The name of the poet is given as "Anonymous".
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Schwüle Lyrik, schwüle Prosa, 7-16; biog., 8 (all data obscured).
Poet from Afghanistan writing in Persian. 1006-1089.
See Ibn 'Ata'Illa: The Book of Wisdom: Kwaja Abdullah Ansari: Intimate Conversations, translated by Victor Danner and Wheeler Thackston (London, 1994), pp. 184-87. Conventional *Sufi poetry.
Poet and letter writer from France, later living in Great Britain, who wrote in Latin. 1033-1109.
Born in northern Italy, he was an abbot in France and later Archbishop of Canterbury in Great Britain. Letters: see My Dear Boy: Gay Love Letters through the Centuries, pp. 33-36.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Who's Who in Gay and Lesbian History: From Antiquity. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Iolaus (1902), 104-5. Eros: An Anthology of Friendship, 119-23: letters to monks. Medieval Latin Poems of Male Love and Friendship, 26-29: a poem celebrating his passionate friendship with his friend or lover Gundolf (with English translation); biog., 148-49 (recording his strong disapproval of physical homosexual acts).
Poet from the United States writing in English. Active from 1957.
See Contact Highs: Selected Poems 1957-87, (1990), 213 pages. Source: *Prinz Eisenherz catalog 90/1, p. 7. His books have only been published in private editions since 1961.
Poet who wrote in German. Active before 1964.
No entry was found in the *British Library General Catalogue or the * National Union Catalog for this poet.
Bibliographies. Welter, Bibliographie Freundschaftseros, 38: poem "Die taube Nuß (Drei Jahre lang hab ich... )"; no source given.
The Latin name of the * Greek Anthology; it refers to both the *Planudean Anthology (first published in 1494) and the * Palatine Anthology. Entries in older library indexes for these works may be found under this title.
Collection of poems in Latin from north Africa from possibly Tunisia or Algeria. Ca. 525.
The collection was compiled in the sixth century and contains a selection of gay *epigrams. The poems include the tropes of *Hylas, *Ganymede, *Orestes and Pylades, *Nisus and Euryalus and *Hyacinth. Text: see the edition by *Shackleton Bailey (Stuttgart, Teubner, 1982).
Bibliographies. Welter, Bibliographie Freundschaftseros, 44: Karl Bruch, Lateinische Anthologie, Rome, 1884. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Medieval Latin Poems of Male Love and Friendship, 8-13: gives eleven *anonymous poems from the anthology with English trans.; notes 144-45. Wilhelm, Gay and Lesbian Poetry, 140-42.
The Latin name for the *Palatine Anthology, frequently abbreviated to Anth. Pal. in the literature; older library catalogues should be checked under this name. It was compiled ca. 980.
Anthologie de l'amour turc
Anthology in Turkish translated into French. Paris: Societé du *Mercure de France, 1905, 271 pages.
Compiled by 'Edmond Fazy and 'Abdul-Halim Memdouch. Review: Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen vol. 7 (19Q5), B63-67: states seven poets deal with male homosexual love. It consists of a selection of 'Diwan poets. See entries for 'Baki, 'Fuzuli, 'Nabi, 'Nedim, 'Raghile Pascha, 'Selim, 'Zia Pascha (all discussed in the Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen article). This appears to be the first anthology of Turkish poetry in French. Being 'Ottoman Divan poets, the poets all have a significant interest for a homosexual reading. Rare. The Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, holds this work on microfilm.
Anthologies in Arabic containing gay poems date from ca. 870 and were compiled in Iraq, Syria, Egypt and Spain.
Apart from the *Dar at-Tiraz (ca. 1200) of *Ibn Sana al-Mulk (active ca.1200), so far as is known separate homosexual anthologies in Arabic have not existed, homosexual poems usually being incorporated into general anthologies of love poetry such as that of *Ibn Dawud (active 900), the Yatimat al-Dahr of *al-Tha'alibi (active 1000), the works of *Shihab al-Abchichi and *Shihab an-Nourwairi and the anthology * Moorish Poetry of *Ibn Sa'id (dating 1243). However a selection of extracts from poems on *friendship compiled by *Ibn Quytaiba (ca. 870) is possibly relevant as the first homoerotic anthology.
Selections of homopoems are in *manuals of sex and *treatises of sex - e.g. those of *al-Tifashi (active 1200) and *al-Nawadji (active ca. 1400) - and in the * Arabian Nights (from where they have become widely known in translation). A large number of homopoems are cited in The Encyclopedia of Pleasure by *Abul Hasan 'Ali Ibn Nasr al-Katib in his discussion of homosexuality; so many poems are cited in this work as to make the poems included an anthology. The poems of *Abu Nuwas (ca. 756-810) may, in part, constitute an anthology similar to those of *Omar Khayyam and *Anacreon since, as with Omar Khayyam and Anacreon, poems were added to the initial corpus of the poet's work by *scribes (compare also the * Palatine Anthology); if these poems of Abu Nuwas are accepted as a homosexual anthology the first Arabic anthology begins ca. 850.
The English anthology * In Praise of Boys is an Arabic homosexual anthology consisting of homosexual poems translated from the poems in the Spanish translation of *Emilio Garcia Gomez's translation of Ibn Sa'id's anthology. Compare overall *Anthologies - Greek (where homo and hetero love poems also exist in the same anthology, as also in Chinese anthologies). A general erotic anthology in French is Anthologie de l'amour arabe, edited by Ferdinand de Martino and Abdel Khalek bey Saroit, with introduction by *Pierre Louys, Paris: Mercure de France, 1902 (rare: the *Bibliothèque nationale holds a copy); a poem to a youth by *Abu Nuwas appears on p. 161 (other poems are to women).
Translations of the above works are relevant (e.g., * Moorish Poetry). Most works have not yet been translated into European languages. Works are suspected in *manuscript. See also *Anthologies - Islamic.
References. *Marc Daniel, "Arab Civilization and Male Love", Gay Sunshine 32 (Spring 1977), 5.
Anthologies in Chinese with gay poems date from 479 B.C. and were compiled in China.
No separate Chinese gay anthology is known (though in 1927 a collection of poems on the gay actor Hsu Tzu-Yun, * Yun-lang Hsiao Shih, was published). However homosexual readings of the Chinese classical anthologies are possible from the first collection of poems, the *Shih Ching (before 479 B.C.), a fact noted by the *Ch'ing scholar *Zhao Yi. (The compilation of the Shih Ching is traditionally ascribed to *Confucius, the first Chinese philosopher and the dominant Chinese philosopher until the *Communist period.) Given *gender ambiguity in written Chinese, all anthologies from this anthology are relevant; see also *gender switching. The anthology * Yu-T'ai Hsin-Yung (compiled in 545) included many homosexual love poems as well as heterosexual ones.
Intimate *friendship is a constant motif in Chinese poetry to 1911 and the *Republican period. *Arthur Waley and others have commented on homoerotic aspects of this tradition. All poems in general anthologies on this theme are relevant and, as there are a huge number of such poems, large areas of all Chinese anthologies become relevant. For instance, intimate friendship is a theme throughout T'ang-shih san-pai-shou (Three Hundred Tang Poems), the most famous anthology of T'ang Period poetry, compiled in 1763 or 1764 by Heng-t'ang T'ui-shih (see entry in Indiana Companion to Traditional Chinese Literature); this anthology was the standard anthology for all scholars from the time of its compilation until the Communist period in 1948.
*Indirect language is a most important consideration in Chinese anthologies; because of the use of such language, homosexuality may not be directly apparent.
All scholars in Korea, Japan, and Vietnam and many in Tibet (and some in Thailand, Burma, Laos, Cambodia and even India) could read Chinese; hence Chinese poetry collections were read by people in all these countries. In addition, in Korea, Japan and Vietnam, anthologies in Chinese characters based on Chinese models - and deeply imitative of the Chinese - were compiled until around 1900. *Tuan-hsiu-pien, the first collection of homosexual texts in Chinese, is an anthology, but not of poetry.
In French an Chinese erotic anthology exists containing poetry: Anthologie de l'amour chinois, compiled by Soulie de Morant (18781955), Paris: Mercure de France, 1932 (rare: the *Bibliothèque Nationale has a microfiche of this work).
Gay anthologies in Dutch from the Netherlands date from 1979.
Those published so far cover Dutch poetry from the time of *Guido Gezelle. Coverage has been excellent from 1900 on. See entries: *Naar vriendscaap zulk een mateloos verlangen (the first such anthology, published in 1979 and compiled by *Hans Hafkamp), *Mannenmaat (1980), compiled by *Gert Hekma, * David Heeft Ook Een.. (1985) compiled by *Mark Thornton, * Het huis dat *vriendschap heet (1985) compiled by *Rob Mooser and a short poetry anthology of thirty-four pages of 1986, * Hoe kan ik in woorden vangen.
Anthologies of gay poetry in English from Great Britain, the United States, Australia, Canada and New Zealand date from 1561.
English, with over seventy known gay poetry anthologies has the richest tradition of gay poetry anthologies of any language. The most far reaching (e.g., *Eros: An Anthology of Friendship, *The Penguin Book of Homosexual Verse and *The Eternal Flame) have been some of the most comprehensive ever assembled. Even so, English anthologies have been weak on Asian languages. *The Eternal Flame (of which volume one only, of the two volumes planned, was published in 1992) is by far the finest English language general survey of gay poetry and includes outstanding translations. Collections of gay prose from South Africa and New Zealand have recently been made. See the Overview - English entries for these countries.
The first English gay poetry anthology may be, in retrospect, *Thomas Stanley's translation of the Anacreontea in 1561, a translation of a Greek homosexual anthology. * Anacreon done into English (1683; repr.) also has claims as an early anthology. The first gay anthology as such was *Edward Carpenter's * Iolaus (1902) emanating from Great Britain, while the first United States anthology was *Men and Boys (1924); both these anthologies included extensive translation of poems from other languages. For anthologies covering the *eighteen-nineties period see the separate entry *Eighteen-nineties anthologies - English.
In the contemporary period Eros: An Anthology of Friendship (1961) is a brilliant general anthology while * Sexual Heretics (1970) covers the period of British poetry from 1850 to 1900. * The Penguin Book of Homosexual Verse (1983) is the most comprehensive recent anthology of poets in English and of poets translated into English.
The *gay liberation period from 1968 has been particularly rich in anthologies especially those emanating from the United States - starting in 1973 with * The Male Muse. *Gay Roots (1991), compiled by *Winston Leyland covers this period for United States poets. Australian anthologies start with * Edge City (1983). Apart from the 1977 work * Larkspur and Lad's Love, separate Canadian anthologies do not exist, Canadian authors having been incorporated into United States anthologies.
Recent trends have been towards anthologies based on country (see * Take any Train, which is a British anthology), combining gay male and female poets (see *Gay and Lesbian Poetry in Our Time, *Pink Ink) and towards increased specialization: see * Lads: Love Poetry of the Trenches (an anthology of World War One poets) and *The Road Before Us: 100 Black Gay Poets.
*Aids anthologies started with the Australian * Love and Death (1987) and include * Poets for Life (1989). Aids has been a major theme of gay poetry from 1983. For the extensive translation of anthologies from other languages into English (which constitutes another rich tradition of English homosexual anthologies), see *Anthologies - Arabic, - French, - Greek, - Latin, - Turkish, - Urdu. Anthologies of poems compiled by known homosexuals also need to be considered (e.g. *T. E. Lawrence). Gay poems are now being included in general anthologies of sexual material e.g., in Fiona Pitt-Kethley, The Literary Companion to Sex (London, 1992).
Great Britain. British anthologies begin with translations of Greek anthologies, notably, the poems of the * Anacreontea translated by *Thomas Stanley in 1561: however these were not really accepted as anthologies at the time, though they may seem so now. (Translations of *Theognis, from 1842, may also be counted anthologies.) The Elizabethan poetry anthology * England's Helicon (1600; reprinted) contained several gay poems mostly in the *pastoral mode and one of *Shakespeare's sonnets appeared in a collection of poems in 1598 - thus showing that in the Elizabethan period homo and heterosexual poems could be in the same anthology. The *lost work * Ancient and Modern Pederasty Investigated (1749) may have contained poetry.
See individual entries: * Love in Idleness (1883) - actually a collection by several poets and not an anthology as such, * Iolaus: An Anthology of Friendship (1902; repr.) - the first English gay anthology as such and constantly in print, *Oliver Hill (regarding three *Uranian anthologies published 1923-1930 which contain both homosexually and heterosexually orientated poems and are not as such homosexual anthologies), *Eros: An Anthology of Male Friendship (1961), a very comprehensive collection, * Sexual Heretics (1970) covering the period 1850-1900 and consisting of poetry and prose, * Speaking Out (ca. 1982), *Son of the Male Muse (1983), containing some British poets, *The Penguin Book of Homosexual Verse (1983), very comprehensive including translations from many languages, * Not Love Alone (1985), a contemporary British survey, Tongues Untied (1987), a *Black anthology of British and United States poets, Lads: Love Poetry of the Trenches (1989), a brilliant anthology centring on the first World War, *And Thus Will I Freely Sing (1989) consisting of Scots poets in English and Gaelic, * Take Any Train (1990) and the very fine * Language of Water, Language of Fire (1992), both the latter two being general anthologies. * The Eternal Flame (1992) is outstanding in every way.
* Beyond Paradise is a combined gay and lesbian anthology published in 1990. * Turning Points (1995) is an anthology of northern gay writers, with a few poems. Translations of anthologies in other languages - as is the case of the * Anacreontea and *Theognis from Greek or *The Penguin Boook of Turkish Verse - also constitute English homosexual anthologies: for a list of languages involved see above in the overall discussion of English anthologies. From 1990, gay sexual poems have started to enter general British anthologies: see for example John Whitworth, The Faber Book of Blue Verse, (London, 1990).
United States. American originated gay poetry anthologies start with * Men and Boys (1924), though United States printings of the British originated anthology * Iolaus existed from 1902. The 1964 anthology, * Bugger, was the first anthology devoted to poems about *anal sex; however, its poems were both heterosexual and homosexual.
Anthologies are richest in the *gay liberation period from 1968 and more date from this period than prior to it. Since then the United States has predominated in the publication of gay poetry anthologies in English, and, indeed, in any language. A recent development has been a number of anthologies of black writers: see below.
See individual entries: Iolaus (1902 onwards; separate United States printings existed), Men and Boys (1924), Four From the Circle (1959), Five x Four [5 x 4] (1959), Eros: An Anthology of Friendship (1963; United States printing), Bugger: An Anthology of Anal Erotic Pound Cake Cornhole, Arse-Freak, & Dreck Poems (1964), Greek Love (1964; includes a large selection of poetry), Angels of the Lyre (1975), In Praise of Boys (1975), Orgasms of Light (1977), Now the Volcano (1978), We Bumped Off Your Friend the Poet (1978), The Poetic Friends Nosegay: An Anthology of Gay Quaker Poetry (1978), L'amour bleu (1978; United States printing of the English translation of *Beau Petit Ami), Gay Bards: An Anthology of Poetry (1979), Hidden Heritage: History and the Gay Imagination: An Anthology (1979), Brother Songs: A Male Anthology of Poetry (1979), I Promise You This: An Anthology of Poems for Harvey Milk (1979), A True Likeness: Lesbian & Gay Writing Today (1980), Sage Writings from the Lesbian and Gay Men's Writing Workshop at Senior Action in a Gay Environment (1980), Son of the Male Muse (1983), Medieval Latin Poems of Male Love and Friendship (1984), In The Life: A Black Gay Anthology (1986), Tongues Untied (1987; British compiled, but includes United States poets), Gay and Lesbian Poetry in Our Time (1988), Poets for Life (1989), In the Manner of Friends: an anthology of lesbian and gay Quaker poetry (ca. 1990), The Road Before Us: 100 Black Gay Poets (1991), Brother to Brother (1991), Unending Dialogue (1991), Here to Dare: 10 Gay Black Poets (1992), Gents, Bad Boys, and Barbarians (1995), The Name of Love (1995), The Badboy Book of Erotic Poetry (1995), The Columbia Anthology of Gay Literature (1998: includes much prose however), A Day for a Lay (1999), The World in Us: Lesbian and Gay Poetry of the Next Wave (2000), Word of Mouth (2000), Love speaks its name: gay and lesbian love poems (2001). These anthologies mainly consist of United States poets though some are general anthologies and some include British and Canadian poets. Recent trends have seen a number of anthologies by black gay poets; Word of Mouth covers poets wrting from 1950. An anthology of gay *Buddhist poems appears in *Winston Leyland, Queer Dharma: voices of Gay Buddhists, 1995, pp. 392-416 (in the section "Queer Dharma Poetry"). Announced for 1993 in James White Review vol. 10 No. 1, p. 2, was The Other Garden, an anthology of English and Spanish poetry but is not known whether this anthology has been published since no record of it has been found.
Translations of homosexual anthologies in languages other than English made in the United States and published in the United States also need to be considered. For a list of languages see the general survey above; see also * The Delight of Hearts (1988) and *Gay and Lesbian Poetry: An anthology from Sappho to Michelangelo (1995) both of which are anthologies of English translations.
Anthologies of poetry compiled by gays are relevant: see, for instance, *Edward Field. Gay poetry journals such as * Mouth of the Dragon (1974-80) constitute anthologies for the periods published. The * James White Review (1983+) publishes poetry and its issues constitute anthologies. In 1936 Henry Justin Smith and *Lloyd Lewis published Oscar Wilde in America which contains poems on Oscar Wilde written while he was in the United States in 1882. Two brilliant anthologies containing many poems on *Walt Whitman are *In Re Walt Whitman (1893), and *Walt Whitman: The Measure of His Song (1981).
The anthologies from Great Britain listed above constitute works available to United States readers (just as United States anthologies now do for readers in other parts of the English speaking world).
Gay poetry is now frequently included in general anthologies. Between the Cracks : The Daedalus Anthology of Kinky Verse (1997) edited by *Gavin Dillard contains some gay poems. An anthology mentioned in James White Review vol. 4 no. 1 (Fall 1986), 16 where it was said to be upcoming is The Classic Voice in Contemporary Gay Poetry; the poet *Steven Finch who lives in Switzerland is said to have a poem in it and it was compiled by *William Barber. However, no record of this work has been found.
Bibliogaphies. Young, Male Homosexual in Literature, second edition, p. 350: list of (mostly) US anthologies.
Canada * Larkspur and Lad's Love (1977) is the only separate Canadian gay poetry anthology recorded. Canadian poets are included in the following United States anthologies: The *Male Muse (1973) which was compiled by the Canadian Ian Young, * Angels of the Lyre (1975), *Son of the Male Muse (1983) - compiled by *Ian Young - and * Gay and Lesbian Poetry in Our Time (1988). They are also included in such British anthologies as * Eros: An Anthology of Friendship (compiled by *Patrick Anderson who was a Canadian) and *The Penguin Book of Homosexual Verse (1983). *Plushis a collection containing the works of five poets, published in 1995; some of the poets are from the United States.
Bibliographies. Homosexuality in Canada, first edition (1979), 17-18: lists general poetry anthologies in which "at least one Canadian gay work is printed"; most works refer to anthologies containing a poem or poems by *Ian Young.
Australia. Anthologies originating in Great Britain and United States originated mentioned above were read in Australia before contemporary Australian originated anthologies. One Australian poet, *J. Le Gay Brereton, was included in the British anthology Sexual Heretics (1970); he was also included in * The Penguin Book of Homosexual Verse (1983).
See entries for *Edge City (1983) - the first anthology (containing combined poetry and prose),* Songs of the Gay Liberation Quire (1986; protest songs), *Love and Death (1987), *Pink Ink (1991), * Australian Gay and Lesbian Writing (1993). The first anthology containing gay poems is believed to have been a song book compiled by Jenny Pausacker in Adelaide in the late seventies: it contained the song "Come all ye merry poofs and dykes", a send up of "Come all ye merry men of England"; no copy has come to light so far.
Homosexuality has now entered general anthologies though only in a muted way: see Rodney Hall, The Collins Book of Australian Poetry, 1981 (*Francis Webb, "Homosexual" p. 238; Adamson, "Action would kill it", p. 355); Vincent Buckley, Faber Book of Australian Verse, 1991, p. 223 (*Robert Adamson's "Action would kill it" - dedicated "For Keith Hull, 1961", p. 223); John Tranter and Philiip Mead, The Penguin Book of Modern Australian Poetry, 1991 (Webb, "Homosexual", p.145).
Bibliographies. See Hurley, Guide to Gay and Lesbian Writing in Australia.
Other countries. New Zealand. *When Two men Embrace (1999) is the first gay male anthology and is entirely of poems by nine poets. South Africa. The anthology * Invisible Ghetto (1993) from South Africa, a combined prose and poetry anthology was the first gay anthology. India. *A Lotus of Another Color (1993) includes some poems as does *Yaraana (1990).
Aids anthologies. Anthologies inspired by *Aids started with the combined poetry and prose anthology the Australian * Love and Death (1987), the first anthology known in the world on this subject.
United States. *Poets for Life is the response of seventy-six poets to Aids (note: the poets and the inspirers of their poems in this anthology are not necessarily gay). * Unending Dialogue is another anthology. Great Britain. *How Can You Write a Poem... (1993) was the first British anthology and * Jugular Defences (1994), the second. Anthologies after 1983 should also be consulted (e.g., * Gay and Lesbian Poetry in Our Time) as they may contain poems on Aids.
Black antholgies. These have been a recent development in Great Britain and United States giving voice to a new *black gay consciousness. The first were * Voices Against the Wilderness (1983) compiled by *William L. Surrah and * Black Men/ White Men
(1983), an anthology about black and white gays being together, but nevertheless containing a selection of black gay poets from *Langston Hughes on.
See also *In the Life (1986), *The Road Before Us: 100 Black Gay Poets (1991), * Brother to Brother (1991), *Here to Dare: 10 Black Gay poets (1992) - all compiled in the United States; * Tongues Untied (1987) is a combined United States and British anthology which inspired a film by *Marlon Riggs. The anthology from Great Britain * Not Love Alone (1985) contained the black poet *Stephen Bourne. *Marcellus J. Muthien was in Take Any Train (1990). *Gay and Lesbian Poetry in Our Time (1988) also includes many black poets.
Gay Poetry Anthology Index is a list available on the *Internet compiled by Donny Smith; it includes anthologies in languages other than English.
Bibliographies. Young, Male Homosexual in Literature, second edition, p. 350: a list of gay English anthologies (includes prose anthologies).
Gay poetry anthologies in European languages date from 460 B.C. and have been compiled in all languages and countries from Greek in Greece to Russian in Russia to English in the United Kingdom.
Greek. The first European language anthology, the Greek * Theognidea, is believed compiled ca. 460 B.C. but has material possibly dating from 700 B.C. The *Renaissance saw translations into the various European languages of *Theognis (whose corpus may also be an anthology) and the * Anacreontea (now accepted as an anthology but formerly thought to be all the work of the poet *Anacreon).
The first surviving modern anthology - consisting of poetry and prose - was the 1838 German anthology by *Heinrich Hössli. Two fine anthologies from the beginning of the twentieth century were the German *Lieblingminne und Freundesliebe in der Weltliteratur and the English anthologist *Edward Carpenter's Iolaus (1902), the first English anthology, later widely reprinted. Latin and to a lesser extent Greek were languages of learning until the twentieth century so anthologies in these languages, especially Latin, provided a source of homoanthologies to the educated persons of Europe (Latin was read by all educated persons in western Europe and by Catholics in eastern Europe).
Anthologies have proliferated in the *gay liberation period since 1969. * L'amour bleu (1978), originating in French as *Beau petit ami (which work was translated into English and German as L'amour bleu) has been so far the most widely read of all European anthologies with the exception of * The Penguin Book of Homosexual Verse in English. *The Eternal Flame in English is the most wideranging homosexual anthology ever compiled.
English has become the most widely spoken European language so anthologies in it are of special importance. For Catalan. Dutch. English. French. German. Italian. Latin. Portuguese. Russian. Spanish, see 'Anthologies - Catalan etc. So far Russian has had only one anthology * Eros Russe though an anthology has been assembled in English translation: *Out of the Blue. A recent anthology in Slovenian is *Drobci stekla v ustih.
T ranslations of older anthologies from one European language to another constitute anthologies: for example, translations of the
* Palatine Anthology and of the * Mousa Paidike - both of which have been copiously translated. Similarly with translations of homosexual anthologies from non-European languages (e.g., Arabic) into European languages - for instance, * In Praise of Boys (translated from Spanish to English; the Spanish text is itself a translation from Arabic) and * Partings at Dawn (a translation from works in Japanese to English).
Gay poetry anthologies exist in French from 1977 and were compiled in France.
French has a long tradition of erotic poetry anthologies dating from 1616 (see, for instance, in Pia, Les Livres de l'Enfer, vol. 1, columns 143-49, the works called Le Cabinet satyrique and Le Cabinet secret du Parnasse). Examination of some of these earlier erotic poetry anthologies held in the *Deane Erotica collection, University of Sydney, shows they are uniformly heterosexual though some may contain an occasional poem on homosexuality - usually dealing with *sodomy - or by a gay poet. For old erotic poetry anthologies with gay material see *Priapus, *Satyr.
The first two anthologies were *Beau petit ami (1977) and *Les Amours masculines (1984): both these anthologies are historically centered, very fine works and among the best anthologies in *European languages. Pour tout l'amour des hommes (1998) is the latest anthology which is wide-ranging starting with reference to Gilgamesh and finishing with a selection of twentieth century poets. All these anthologies mix poetry with prose. * L'amour en... vers et contre tout consists of fifty-seven little known poets and was published in 1989.
Continuing the earlier trend, a number of general anthologies of French erotic poetry were compiled from the mid-nineteenth century when homosexual poetry first openly appeared (initially dealing with lesbianism as in *Verlaine's volume Les Amies, 1868). *Georges Pillement has edited two general erotic poetry anthologies. *André Malraux compiled a work with some gay poets. See also Marcel Bealu, editor, La Poesie érotique de la langue française (1971; enlarged edition 1976).
Translations of anthologies in other languages into French (e.g., the * Mousa Paidike) are also relevant. *Georges Hérelle published an anthology from Greek in 1930. See also *A. Dandini.
Bibliographies. Pia, Les Livres de l'Enfer, vol. 2, columns 949-51, 999-1011 (especially a series called Le Parnasse satyrique); lists anthologies which are basically hererosexual but which may contain some gay poems.
Anthologies of gay poems in German date from 1838 and were compiled in Germany and Switzerland.
The first German anthology *Eros: Die Männerliebe der Griechen (1838) compiled by *Heinrich Hössli was the first modern gay anthology compiled in a *European language and the second German anthology * Lieblingminne und Freundesliebe in der Weltliteratur (1900) was the second. These two works are international in scope, including Arabic, Persian and Turkish poets, though Chinese and Japanese poets are neglected. Each issue of the journal * Blätter für die Kunst was a defacto anthology for the period covered (1892-1919), collecting as it did the work of the *Stefan George circle.
*Die Beutung der Freundesliebe fur Fuhrer und Volker (1923) compiled by *Adolf Brand in the Weimar period was a concise anthology concentrating on love and friendship. The period from 1933 to *gay liberation in 1968 is particularly bleak due to the rise of the *Nazis and the Second World War.
* Schwule Lyrik, schwule Prose (1977) and * Milchsilber (1979) are gay liberation anthologies produced in west *Berlin which has been a center of gay poetry publishing; both are strikingly illustrated and each has a strong *anarchist streak, as is the case of * Maldoror im blauen Mond (1980), a small anthology *chapbook published in Berlin by the publisher *Maldoror Flugschriften. * Schreibende Schwule (1978) was a prose and poetry compilation based on a gay writing group in Berlin.
* Keine Zeit fur gute Freunde (1982), covering the pre-gay liberation decades contained a few poems and covers 1933 to 1959: the title means "no time for a good friend". *Enstellte Engel (Disfigured Angel; 1983) has been highly regarded. * Andere Lieben (1988), an anthology of mixed poetry and prose, is the most comprehensive recent anthology. * Die Stumme Sünde contains an anthology of medieval German poets. *"Matrosen sind der Liebe Schwingen" is a brilliant anthology of European poetry from ancient Greek to the contemporary period. *Ach Kerl ich krieg dich nicht aus meinem Kopf - Männerliebe in deutschen Gedichten unseres Jahrhunderts (1997) is the most comprehensive anthology of twentieth century poetry.
Translations of anthologies originating in other languages into German constitute gay poetry anthologies in German, especially the ancient Greek anthologies such as the * Palatine Anthology and the * Mousa Paidike (see *Friedrich Forberg for Latin). L'amour bleu (1977), a translation of the French anthology * Beau Petit Ami, is in the great tradition of the first two German anthologies; it has remained in print continuously and remains the standard German gay anthology. Its fine illustrations of gay art and large size make it equally an art book.
Anthologies - Greek
Homosexual poetry anthologies in Greek from Greece date from ca. 460 B.C.
Greek has the oldest surviving tradition of explicitly homosexual anthologies in the world in written form. Works come from Greece, Turkey and Egypt. Some written material may predate the appearance of homosexuality on Greek vases (about 490 B.C.) and some material has been dated as originating from 700 B.C.: see *Theognidea. The earliest anthology, Book II of *Theognis, is - in the majority view of scholars - an Athenian song book for singing in a homoerotic *symposium setting, compiled around 460 B.C. So too, is a group of songs containing two homosongs whose text survives in *Athenaeus. Book I of Theognis is a similar anthology but is homosexual only by implication.
All Greek anthologies from Theognis to the * Mousa Paidike were song books for symposium settings. See entries: * Theognidea (700-460 B.C.), *Theognis (active 544 B.C.), *Athenaeus (active 200; material dating from ca. 450 B.C.), * Skolia, *Anacreontea (ca. 323B.C.-ca. 899), *Garland of Meleager (80 B.C.), *Garland of Philip (40 A.D.), *Mousa Paidike (117-38) itself Book 12 of the *Palatine Anthology, * Circle of Agathias (568), * Anthology of Constantine Cephalas (ca. 917), Palatine Anthology (ca. 980), *Planudean Anthology (1301).
The Idylls of the *Hellenistic poet *Theocritus has claims to be an anthology as it includes forgeries or imitations. Most of the earlier anthologies were apparently assembled over hundreds of years and basically emerge from song traditions at symposiums: see the entry *songs. No anthologies exist from the *Byzantine period and during the Turkish occupation of Greece from the fifteenth to the nineteenth centuries no anthologies have come to light (if any existed - only oral poems from this period may be relevant).
*Amerikanike homophylophile poiese (1982) an anthology of modern United States poets translated into modern Greek and Loose-Tongued Greeks (1983) is a collection of *bawdry with many oral homopoems (see the entry *Mary Koukoules) are two contemporary anthologies, though the latter is not specifically a homosexual anthology.
Ancient Greek poetry anthologies mix homosexual and heterosexual poems frequently, as in the various works comprising the Palatine Anthology and the Anacreontea.
From the first anthology (or possibly two anthologies) - in the Mutinensis manuscript of Theognis - to the Mousa Paidike, there were a series of homosexual anthologies in ancient Greek, proving a continuous gay culture; the passing on of this tradition in the Byzantine period shows continuing interest over 1,500 years. The general tenor of this poetry is joyous and funloving and it is apparent that succeeding anthologies relied on the previous ones.
Before the Mousa Paidike the writers of the poems are unknown; or rather it seems, chose not to identify themselves (though see the Theognis entry on this point). The survival of the poems in manuscript in the Byzantine period, and - in the case of the Anacreontea - additions to the corpus of poems in the Byzantine period, refutes the notion that this period was uniformly hostile to homosexuality and that no homopoetry was written in it.
The ancient Greek anthologies constitute the richest homosexual anthology tradition in European languages so far located before the *gay liberation period (when English comes into prominence). Translations of the above anthologies, of which there have been many, must also be considered as being anthologies: e.g., of Theognis, the Anacreontea, the Mousa Paidike and the Palatine Anthology.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Classical Dictionary, 67: "Anthology". Criticism. Dover, Greek Homosexuality, 9-10, 14,
Homosexual poets are included in regular anthologies in *Islamic languages (Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Udru and other languages). Works survive from ca. 870 in Arabic and were composed in west and central Asia (Turkey, Iraq, Iran, India, Pakistan) and north Africa and Spain. Anthologies of homosexual poems in these languages are all similar in theme and subject matter (see *Influence - Arabic, - Persian, - Turkish). *Wine, the *cupbearer and the *coming of the beard are tropes which occur. See entries *Anthologies - Arabic, - Persian, - Turkish, - Urdu. Compare *Anthologies - European.
A gay poetry anthology in Italian dates from 1982 and was compiled in Italy.
*L'amicizia amorosa (1982), is the only gay Italian poetry anthology to date; *Piero Lorenzoni in 1976 published a collection of erotic works with significant gay content but this is not a gay anthology. French anthologies have been widely read in Italy.
Translation of anthologies in other *European languages (for instance, the *Palatine Anthology) also constitute anthologies in Italian. Since Italian is modern Latin and Latin was read by all *scholars and officials in the *Catholic Church, Latin *anthologies are also relevant: it is from these Latin works that most Italian readers were familiar with gay poetry before the contemporary period.
Anthologies of gay poems in Japanese compiled in Japan date from ca. 780.
Material of relevance dates from the first Japanese anthologies of poetry: the * Manyoshu (ca. 780) and the imperial anthology the *Kokinshu, both of containing some gay poems. As with Chinese anthologies, homosexual poems are interspersed with heterosexual ones in classical anthologies and need identifying (including those capable of homosexual interpretation). *Indirect language complicates identification of gay poems.
The only gay anthology so far, * Iwatsutsuji (Cliff Azaleas - the title is from a poem in the Kokinshu), dates from 1676. Two Chinese anthologies of relevance have been translated into Japanese: the * Shih ching and the *Yu-T'ai Hsin-Yung. Since all Japanese scholars read Chinese until recently and the Chinese material greatly infleunced the Japanese, *Anthologies - Chinese is relevant.
The recent English language anthology From the Country of the Eight Islands (1981), translated by *Hiroaki Sato and Burton Watson ends with a selection from the homosexual poems of *Takahashi Mutsuo. Homosexuality has entered the mainstream, at least in translation. An anthology of Japanese gay poetry and prose in English is * Partings at Dawn (1996); this work has no Japanese counterpart however.
Anthologies of Latin homosexual poetry relevance date from 525; they were composed in north Africa possibly in Tunisia or Algeria, Italy and west Europe.
Though not an anthology exclusively of gay poems, the * Anthologia Latina (ca. 525) contained a selection of gay poems. The ancient collection of poems the *Priapeia - comprising material from 20 B.C. to 120, also has some homosexual connotations; this is not properly speaking a homosexual anthology. As Book I of *Theognis is an anthology, the first printed Latin anthologies were the Latin translations of *Theognis in the sixteenth century, beginning in 1543.
Latin translations of the Greek * Anacreontea (from 1561) - which work contains many homopoems - constitute anthologies. *J. J. Reiske translated the Greek * Palatine Anthology into Latin (published 1752 and 1754) and thus constituting an anthology. In 1863 appeared a Latin translation of the * Mousa Paidike (Book 12 of the * Palatine Anthology) by *Deheque (see also the Latin *Dubner translation of the *Palatine Anthology of 1864-1890). All the preceding are, however, only de facto anthologies, being translations from the Greek.
*Quinque illustrium poetarum (1791) is a collection of the works of five poets bound together, including three poets who wrote homopoems but is not, strictly speaking, an anthology; it contained the work of *Antonio Beccadelli, *Pacifico Massimo and *Ramusius. *F. K. Forberg included the texts of Latin sexual poems in his 1824 commentary on *Beccadelli making it a quasi anthology; it was not exclusively an anthology of homosexual poems since heterosexual poems were also included.
John Boswell made the first actual anthology of Latin poets (from the middle ages) in 1981 at the end of * Christianity, Social Tolerance and Homosexuality though. The text of this work is in English, even though the poems are from Latin. Thomas Stehling's
* Medieval Latin Poems of Male Love and Friendship (1984) is the first separate Latin anthology as such (but only covers the period 300 A.D. to 1300). *Gaio verso: poesia latina per l'altro amore(1982) is an anthology of *Roman poets. See also *Erotopaegnia,
*Erotopaegnion, James Hutton.
No comprehensive anthology of Latin homosexual and gay poems, which survive from the *Roman period to the twentieth century, exists. Although Forberg acts as a quasi-anthology for the *Roman period, there is no anthology for the period from the *Renaissance and, above all, there is no anthology covering the whole Latin heritage. Latin anthologies have been enormously influential since Latin was the language of *scholars and the *Catholic church in Europe and all over the world until the twentieth century.
Homosexual poetry anthologies in Persian survive from ca. 1100; they appeared in Iran, Turkey, central Asia and India.
As the entire Persian tradition is *pederastic, all anthologies in Persian of classical poets - the dominant style until 1945 (when modern poetry emerged) - must be considered. As an example, see the entry for the * A'in i Akbari anthology, ca. 1600, compiled in India under the Mughal Emperor Akbar, a work which consists entirely of homosexual love poems addressed to young males.
The *saki or *cupbearer trope is specially relevant in Persian anthologies; indeed, there exists a genre called * Saqi-nama (Book of the Cupbearer) - of which forty-six at least are known - which may qualify in whole or part as gay anthologies. *Ehsan Yarshater refers in the reference below to an 18th century anthology by the poet 'Abd al-Nabi of Qazvin who compiled a whole tazkira or collection of notices devoted to the writers of saqi-namas (which he defines as collections of couplets in which the charms of the saqi as well as the delights of wine are described); this author has not been found in *Rypka, History of Iranian Literature (compare also the author mentioned in the article "Saqi-name" in Kindlers neues Literatur Lexikon; see also the Saqi-nama entry). The manuscript traditon of *Omar Khayyam (pseud.) constitutes a gay anthology tradition and the work itself is a Saqi-nama.
Apart from being written in Persia (modern Iran), Persian poetry was also written in Turkey, in Central Asia, and in the Indian subcontinent following the Seljuk invasion of India and central Asia (see *Zuhuri). Persian literary traditions spread widely across these areas, so Persian poetic homoanthologies probably had wide currency (they were handed on by *scribes until the coming of the printing press in the nineteenth century).
Persian poetry influenced Turkish, Arabic and Urdu poetry and in turn interacted with poetry in these languages: see also the anthology entries for these languages all of which are *Islamic languages. Translations of the aforementioned anthologies are also relevant.
Criticism. *Ehsan Yarshater, "Persian Poetry in the Timurid and Safavid Periods", in Peter Jackson, editor, Cambridge History of Iran, volume 6, The Timurid and Safavid Periods, 1976, 975.
Gay poetry anthologies in Portuguese date from 1969 and were compiled in Brazil and the United States.
* Poemas do amor maldito (1969) is an historical gay poetry anthology compiled in Brazil of Brazilian poets; * Twenty-two Poemas Gays was published in Brazil in 1982. In English, * Now the Volcano (1978) is a poetry and prose anthology of contemporary *South American Portuguese and Spanish writers with Portuguese texts for the poets, compiled in the United States by *Winston Leyland. There is no anthology for gay poets from Portugal so far.
Anthology in Russian from Russia. Ca. 1925.
An anthology of Russian gay poetry was planned by a gay artistic circle called Antinoi' (Antinous) involving *Kuzmin and is recorded in his diary (information from the history of gay Russia on the *Internet by Dr. Dan Healey [pseudonym?]; reference: Mikhail Kuzmin i russkaya kul'tura XXreka: lektsiii materialy konferentsii 15-17 maia 1990g., ed. G. A. Morev, Leningrad: Sovet po istorii mirovoi kul'tury AN SSSR, 1990, p. 187 - this work is the papers of a conference on Kuzmin).
The only Russian anthology is in English * Out of the Blue.
Anthologies in Sanskrit from India. Anthologies of love poems exist in Sanskrit but no gay anthologies as such are known; these anthologies of love poems, compiled in India, date from 200 B.C.
The *Upanishads (before 200 B.C.), one of the masterpieces of ancient Indian poetry, constitutes an anthology of *mystical poems. In anthologies of poems such as Vidyakara's Treasury (English translation by Daniel H. H. Ingalls, Cambridge, Mass., 1968, titled Anthology of Sanskrit Court Poetry) *hymns to *Krishna and *Siva as well as poems in the persona of Siva's consort Radha, written by men, are relevant; see also p. 57 of this work: a poem by Purusottama about a beautiful man. Vidyakara lived ca. 1075 and his collection covers the period 700 to 1050 with poems by many poets.
Bhartrhari (possibly living ca. 650: see his entry Dictionary of Oriental Literatures, vol. 2) organized his three anthologies thematically and the first contains love poems (English translation by Barbara Stoler Miller, New York, 1967). The Sanskrit anthologies influenced similar Tamil love *anthologies (though their has been contention as to whether the Sanskrit or the Tamil anthologies are earlier). Both traditions have not yet been examined for homosexuality. Love poems written in the persona of a woman in the above anthologies need to be considered from a homosexual view.
References. De Bary, Guide to Oriental Classics, 136-39. New Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics, 589-90.
Gay anthologies in Spanish date from 1979 and were compiled in Spain, the United States and Mexico.
Only three Spanish gay anthologies exist. * Now the Volcano (1979) is a poetry and prose anthology of South American Spanish and Portuguese *gay liberation writers (with the Spanish and Portuguese texts for the poets as well as English translations); it was compiled in the United States by *Winston Leyland. *Poemes Gais (1978) is in Catalan and Spanish and covers *Iberian writers of the *gay liberation period; it was compiled in *Barcelona. * Primera antología de la poesia homosexual (1997) is the first Mexican gay poetry anthology. The anthology Lágrimas y cádenas: poesia y prosa feminista y del ambiente, bilingüe, espaol e inglés, edited by Celia de la Riva Rubio (Michoacán de Ocampo, Mexico: Colectivo Artístico Morelia, 1994) has feminist and homosexual poems and prose; not seen.
Spanish translation of Arabic anthologies with a large amount of homopoetry must be considered (see, for instance, *Emilio Garcia Gomez) as well as Spanish translations of other anthologies (e.g., of the * Mousa Paidike and *Palatine Anthology). There is as yet no single historical Spanish anthology of Iberian or *South American writers. Announced for 1993 in * James White Review vol.10 No. 1, p. 2, was an anthology of English and Spanish poetry, The Other Garden but no record of this anthology has been located.
Two recent general anthologies of erotic poetry have been compiled by Claudio Schvartz, Nueva antologia de amor and Antología de la poesia erotica (both published in *Buenos Aires before 1995); the second contains some gay poems showing a trend for gay poetry to be included in general anthologies.
Anthologies of relevance in Turkish date from ca. 1600 and were compiled in Turkey and in countries of central Asia conquered by Turkey and where Turkish was spoken.
All anthologies of *Ottoman *divan poets in Turkish are relevant; these are believed to date from at least 1600. The corpus of poems published under the name of *Yunus Emre is a defacto anthology.
Translations of Turkish poetrv. All translations of Ottoman Turkish Divan poets are relevant and, because of the homosexual content of these anthologies, they are defacto anthologies; see, for instance, * Anthologie de l'amour turc (1905), a French translation of Turkish Ottoman poetry, translated by *Edmond Fazy and *Abdul-Halim Memdouch, and * The Penguin Book of Turkish Verse, in English. A French anthology Anthologie de l'amour asiatique (Paris: M de F, 1906; repr. 1907) compiled by Adolphe Thalasso contains some poems relating to Turkish which may be relevant(and also includes work from such languages as Cambodian); rare: a copy is in the Bibliothèque Nationale.
*E. J. Gibb compiled the first English anthology in 1882 and another in 1901 ; his History of Ottoman Poetry contains large selections of poetry in translation. See New Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics, p. 1314, for a list of English anthologies of Turkish poetry.
Anthologies in Urdu of relevance were compiled in Pakistan and date from before 1972.
All poetry anthologies in Urdu and translated from Urdu are relevant as the beloved is addressed in the male form in traditional poetry (see *gender switching, *Ralph Russell); anthologies as such have not been traced.
Translations. English. See Ahmed Ali, The Golden Tradition (1973), with biographical notes and critical introduction (some poems relevant; see also Chapter 1 on the *gazelle trope). D. Matthews and C. Shackle, An Anthology of Classical Urdu Love Lyrics, 1972, with biographical notes and critical introduction is another such work (see, notably, p. 9). M. A. R. Barker and Shah Abdul Salam, Classical Urdu Poetry, 1977 (3 volumes, apparently in Urdu) is an anthology.
Criticism. Rahman, "Boy love in the Urdu ghazal", Paidika vol. 2 no. 1 (1989), 14-15: tazkaras (anthologies with anecdotes and biographical notes) contain the work of minor poets dealing with homosex; poets in such anthologies mentioned.
Anthology in Greek from Turkey. Compiled ca. 925.
An anthology, now lost, dating probably from the late ninth or early tenth century, compiled by *Constantine Cephalas. It is the anthology on which the * Palatine Anthology is based. He used the collections of *Agathias Scholasticus, *Meleager, *Philip of Thessalonica and *Straton. The anthology of Cephalas is thus an important link between the earlier anthologies and the Palatine Anthology. Constantine Cephalas is known to have been in the Palace at *Istanbul in 917.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Classical Dictionary, 67: "Anthology".
Poet and anthologist from Great Britain writing in English. Born 1958.
Born in *London, he was educated at University of Hull and Sterling where he took a Master of Philology in Modern Poetry. He compiled the anthology * Of Eros and Dust. The author of three books.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Take Any Train, 9-10; biog., 61. Language of water, 32; biog., 77. Of Eros and Dust, 24, 29, 35, 43-45 ("Wilde in the New Nineties" [fine poem about *Oscar Wilde returning from the dead in the 1990s]); biog., 85. Eros in Boystown, 55; biog., 59. Powell, Gay Love Poetry, 77, 168.
Anthropology is the study of the social organization and meaning of non-literate societies. It emerged as a serious area of study in relation to homosexuality from at least ca. 1885 (with *Richard Burton). Material is in English from Great Britain, Australia and other English speaking countries and in other *European languages as well as major written languages such as Chinese and Japanese.
Though reference to foreign peoples goes back to ancient Greek and Chinese historians, the rise of anthropology, as the serious study of tribal peoples from the late nineteenth century, saw the investigation all over the world of sexual customs in non-literate societies. A huge anthropological literature has sprung up which has only been inadequately assessed for homosexuality and hardly at all for homosexuality in relation to poetry (most of which is still only recorded orally); as examples of poetry see *Cosmogonic Song and entries under *Sepik languages.
An effect of this research has been to show how absurd were prohibitions against homosexuality in cultures prohibiting it and how relative the prohibitions were: cutures which severely stigmatized anal sex for instance such as English language speaking cultures sometimes dominated others where ritualized *anal sex was part of the cultures (for instance in relation to Papua New Guinea).
*Ferdinand Karsh-Haack wrote the first detailed study of homosexuality from an anthropological point of view, in German. Das gleichgeschlechtliche Leben der Naturvölker (Same sex love amongst tribal peoples), which was published in 1911; this was an exhaustive and scholarly analysis of tribal societies worldwide which has still not been superceded in scope.
On sexuality and anthropology see David Levinson, Encyclopedia of Cultural Anthropology, New York, 1994, volume 4, "Sexual Behavior", pp. 1161-68; see also "Sexual Orientation" pp. 1173-78. *Social constructionism, which emerged from sociology (which, as a scientific pursuit, split off from anthropology), has been strongly influenced by anthropology. Ellen Lewin and William L. Leap,
Out in the Field, 1996, is a collection of essays by openly gay anthropologists mostly about the problems of conducting openly gay research in anthropology, including articles by *Stephen O. Murray, Will Roscoe and James Schafer (review: Journal of the History of Sexuality, vol. 8 no. 2, October 1997, 330-334).
English. *Richard Burton's so-called "Terminal Essay" (1885) was the first survey in English of homosexuality and anthropology and includes reference to oral and written homosexual poems; see also *Andrew Lang, *Sir James Frazer, *Roger Goodland (who compiled a massive world-wide Bibliography of Sex Rites and Customs) and *Géza Roheim. The major cultural anthropologist Bronislav Malinowski wrote one of the rare sexual surveys of a tribal people (see *Songs and chants - Trobriand Islands language). The *Human Relations Area Files is a major resource in English, indexing several hundred cultures for homosexuality and giving references to homosexuality. *Gilbert Herdt has recently edited and written brilliantly on Papua New Guinean societies where homosexual rituals involving anal sex between men and boys have been discovered. German: see *Ferdinand Karsch-Haack, *Friedrich S. Krauss, *Gisela Bleibtreu-Ehrenberg, *Hubert Fichte. Spanish and Portuguese: relevant material on non literatre peoples goes back to the invasion of America and the conquest narratives.
Homosexuality and poetrv. The anthropological literature has disclosed widespread homosexual practices frequently in relation to initiation ceremonies in tribal cultures (for example in Australia, Papua New Guinea and Africa) where elaborate *song cycles were performed. These ceremonies involved intense *male bonding (see 'Australian Aboriginal Languages, *African languages) with sometimes *anal sex being involved in the ceremonies - see *Papua New Guinea Languages.
Most of the world's 6,000 languages have not been written down and a huge volume of oral poetry awaits assessment in languages from non-literate cultures. G. P. Murdoch in Outline of World Cultures, 6th revised edition, New Haven, 1983, lists some 10,000 living 'cultures (ancient cultures and those extinct are not included and since there are more cultures that 'languages of the world and
33,000 language names are known in excess of 33,000 cultures throughout history is possible; it should be noted that some of the known language names duplicate others so the list of known names would be less than 33,000 but at the same time it should be pointed out that the names of some spoken languages are not known and languages thought lost have been rediscovered: see *Dunhuang and Turfan).
The entries *tribal languages and *oral poetry are relevant in locating sources of oral homopoetry. 'American Indian Languages and *South American Indian languages have hardly been examined (but see in Spanish *Alberto Cardin). Records for south America are in Spanish and, for Brazil, in Portuguese. Much of this material is disappearing as cultures become literate.
Major museums of anthropology include those in universities in which it is taught (such as the Peabody Museum at *Harvard) and major public collections such as the British Museum, London, the Museum of Mankind, London, the Musée de l'homme in *Paris (especially for material in French'), the Smithsonian Museum in 'Washington, the American Museum of Natural History in *New York, the Field Museum in *Chicago and the Australian Museum in *Sydney, to give some examples. For Russian there are major museums in *St. Petersburg and Moscow; for records in Chinese there exists in *Beijing a center for tribal cultures and for material in Japanese there is an anthropology museum in Osaka. Anthropology is widely taught in universities and most universities in which it is taught have anthropology museums. Natural history museums in large cities (such as *New York, *Berlin, *St. Petersburg or *Sydney) usually have sections devoted to human cultures which need to be checked for *aural and *film material.
See Robert V. Kemper, The history of anthropology: a research bibliography (New York, 1977).
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. New Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics: see "Anthropology and Poetry". Eliade, Encyclopedia of Religion. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 64-67. Ullstein Enzyklopädie der Sexualität. Gay Histories and Cultures. Bibliographies. Goodland, Bibliography of Sex Rites: the whole book has relevant information; see especially under such terms as *sodomy in the index. Bullough, Annotated Bibliography of Homosexuality, items 253-524. Dynes, Homosexuality: A Research Guide, pp.198-228. Pia, Les Livres de l'Enfer, vol. 1, columns 35-36: Fields of Anthropology... by a French Army Surgeon, 2 volumes, Paris: Librarie des Bibliophiles (states in the attached note that the publisher was *Charles Carrington). Simes, Bibliography of Homosexuality, 229-44. Criticism. Journal of Homosexuality vol. 11 no. 3-4 (1985): special issue devoted to anthropology (see *Hijras); produced as a book titled The Many Faces of Homosexuality, edited by Evelyn Blackwood, 1985.
Journal in German from Australia. 1904-1913.
Anthropophyteia was the second western European journal of *folklore research (the first was *Kryptadia). Ten volumes in all were published in German, edited by *Friedrich Krauss, with material on south Slavic and Ukrainian peoples as well as western Germanic peoples. The Beiwerke were a series of books published in connection with the journal (see Legman, Horn Book, pp. 478-79) ceasing in 1931 with Friedrich Krauss and *Tamio Satow's study of sexuality in Japan.
Important articles by *Hans Licht, *Numa Praetorius (pseud.) and others on homopoetry and homosexuality were published (e.g., in volumes 3, 8 and 9).
Various issues of the journal were reviewed for homosexuality in the Jahrbuch e. g. volume 7 was reviewed in Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen, 12 (1911-12), 341-45, volume 8 in Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen, 13 (1913), 109-112. See also the Friedrich Krauss entry as he himself discussed homosexuality in the journal in an article.
Rare. Copy used *Deane Erotica, Fisher library, University of Sydney.
Bibliographies. Stern-Szana, Bibliotheca Curiosa et Erotica, 84-92: description of contents and Beiwerke though not complete for Beiwerke. Hayn, Gotendorf, Bibliotheca Germanorum Erotica, vol.1, 93: brief description; vol. 9, 12-17: a very thorough listing of the contents and the Beiwerke (to 1929 only) based on Stern-Szana.
Apparently the lover of the *Roman emperor *Hadrian from Italy (who was also a Latin poet); later a trope of gay love in English, French and German. Antinous came from Turkey and lived ca. 110-130.
He was probably from Bithynia, Turkey and surviving sculptures depict him as a somewhat plump youth. When Antinous died in mysterious circumstances, Hadrian had statues made of him and placed all over the empire. *Royston Lambert has written the outstanding study of the relationship, a book unlikely to be equalled and which has a brilliant bibliography. Hadrian may have written some poems to Antinous but none have survived.
Many statues of him do survive: for a thorough survey, see Christoph W. Clairmont, Die Bildnisse des Antinous (The Portraits of Antinous), Rome, 1966, 62 pp., which includes thirty-eight pages of plates in addition to the text. Many European museums have some of these sculptures (e.g., the Glyptothek in *Munich). The modern cult of Antinous dates from *Winckelmann. As museum collections became more public and his place in Hadrian's affections became more widely known, Antinous became a popular subject for poetry and prose in European languages in the late nineteenth and earlier twentieth centuries; dramatic works were also written (e. g., the drama Antinous: a tragedy by Abbie Carter Goodloe, Philadelphia, 1895). The story of the love of Hadrian and Antinous has inspired several fine novels, notably in English by 'Marguerite Yourcenar. Relevant works are also discussed in the *Hadrian entry.
As the archetypal beautiful man who became the lover of a Roman emperor, Antinous came to stand for the archetypal homosexual lover. Poems about him may go back to ancient Greek and Latin (see Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, p. 514). See the following entries. English: *J. A. Symonds (1878), *Charles Kains Jackson, *Hugh McCulloch, *Alan Seeger, *Fernando Pessoa, *Montague Summers, *Mark Doty. French: see * Akadémos, *Yourcenar. German: see *K. H. Ulrichs, *Paul Heyse, *Elisar von Kupffer, *Oscar Linke, 'Rilke, 'Eugen Standen; see also L. Dietrichson, Antinoos (Christiana, 1884), Adolf Hausrath, Antinous (Leipzig: Hirzel, 1886) - listed in Welter, Bibliographie Freundschaftseros, p. 62: the author's real name or pseudonym is Paul Taylor), Hugo Held, Die neue Antinous [no other details] (source: Welter, Bibliographie Freundschaftseros, p. 63). Russian: see *Mikhail Kuzmin, where Antinous is a constance motif, 'Anna Akhmatova; 'Perelshin uses it (see 'Out of the Blue, 190). See also 'Pancrates.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Classical Dictionary, 71: see "Antinous (2)". Garde, Jonathan to Gide, 161-63. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 67-68. Who's Who in Gay and Lesbian History: From Antiquity. Bibliographies. Welter, Bibliographie Freundschaftseros, 62, 63: see above for details. Dynes, Homosexuality: A Research Guide, items 528 (citing Royston Lambert) and 1576 (citing Christoph W. Clairmont). Criticism. Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen, vol. 8 (1906), 567-82: 'Otto Kiefer (author), "Hadrian und Antinous" (a seminal article). Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 514: stating "Pancrates and Nicomedes composed poems to celebrate his qualities".
Poet from Lebanon who wrote in Greek. Active 150 B.C.
He has about seventy-five epigrams in the Palatine Anthology. *A. S. F. Gow and *D. L. Page in The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams (Cambridge, UK, 1965), xv, state that one epigram "is dated with high probability to about 150 BC". He is usually stated to have come from Sidon in Lebanon. See also *homonyms.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Classical Dictionary, 73: see "Antipater (3)". Gay Poetry Anthologies. Garland of Meleager. Garland of Philip. Palatine Anthology xii 97. Eros: An Anthology of Friendship, 47: called Antipater of Sidon. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 1, 133. Columbia Anthology of Gay Literature, 44. Criticism. Brandt, "Der paidon eros in der griechischen Dichtung", Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen 9 (1908), 228.
Poet from Greece who wrote in Greek. Active 5 B.C.-ca. 54.
He has about fifty epigrams in the *Palatine Anthology.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Classical Dictionary, 74. Garland of Meleager. Garland of Philip. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 1, 134.
Poet from Greece who wrote in Greek. Active before 130 B.C.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Classical Dictionary, 75: 2 entries. Der kleine Pauly, volume 1, 404-05: many entries. Pauly, Wissowa, Paulys Real-Encyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft: there are 62 entries for this name. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Palatine Anthology xi 40. Criticism. Brandt, "Der paidon eros in der griechischen Dichtung", Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen 9 (1908), 228. Licht, Sexual Life in Ancient Greece, 478.
Poet from the United States writing in English. Born 1946.
He lives in Milwaukee with Jeff Poniewaz and lived in San Francisco from 1978 to ca. 1983. He tries to spend a month in the wilderness each fall and spring. Factory is a powerful *long poem about the awfulness of work in factories and the destructiveness of the consumer society. He is one of the first *green - i.e. environmental - poets of the contemporary period. See also *Steve Abbott.
Books of poems: Factory, *San Francisco, City Lights, 1980; Last Poems, 1986 (a selection of poems 1967-83, essentially his collected works; reviews: James White Review vol.4 no. 2, Fall 1987, 16-17 by *George Klawitter and The Advocate no. 447, 27 May 1986, 61-62 by Steve Abbott). Antler: Manuscripts is his latest book of poems (review: James White Review vol. 12 no. 3, Fall 1995, 20-21). See also poems in Gay Sunshine no. 40-41 (Summer Fall 1979, p. 36): powerful poems about *boy love.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Son of the Male Muse, 19-21 (a strong poem about solitary *masturbation, somewhat narcissistic) with photo p.19; biog., 186. Gay and Lesbian Poetry in Our Time, 23-25 (same poem as in Son of the Male Muse ) with photo p. 23; biog., 23. Gay Roots: Twenty Years of Gay Sunshine, 622. Badboy Book, 15-32; biog., 383. Eros in Boystown, 47; biog., 59. A Day for a Lay, 173-79; biog., 173.
Poet from Russia who wrote in Russian. Born 1896.
A *St Petersburg theater director active as a poet from 1921. He later wrote poetry inspired by 'Communism. Stated to have been the lover of actor-director Yury Zavadsky in 1916 (source: memoirs of 'Marina Tsvetaeva cited in an unpublished article by 'Simon Karlinsky).
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Terras, Handbook of Russian Literature.
Poet from Indonesia who wrote in Bahasa Indonesia. 1922-1949.
Chairil Anwar is the most famous Indonesian poet of the Second World War and early independence period. He lived a bohemian life in Djakarta. See the poem "Taman" (Garden) in The Complete Poetry and Prose, edited and translated by Burton Raffel, 1970, pp. 24-25: possible homosexual interpretation; see also "Dimesdjid" (At the Mosque), pp. 50-51, with *Sufi undertones (a homosexual interpretation is possible). He wrote heterosexual poems. *Paul Knobel has written a poem based on one of his.
Poet from Iran who wrote in Persian. Ca. 1126-ca.1167. His name is sometimes spelt Anvari.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition: "Anwari". Criticism. Rypka, History of Iranian Literature, 197-99: writer of *mystical verse to the *Beloved; he also wrote satires and libellous verses.
Poet from Ghana writing in English. Active 1978.
Criticism. Woods, History of Gay Literature, 304: re his poem about old homosexuals in A Harvest of Our Dreams, 1984.
Aphrodisiacs are natural or chemical stimulants used to enhance love making. Poems survive in English and Latin from before 1852.
English. See '"Let a friar of some order tecum pernoctare", 'Alan Hull Walton. English and Latin. 'Norman Douglas wrote a celebrated book on the subject, Paneros: Some Words of Aprhrodisiacs and the Like (1931); the first word in the title is this book is a joining of the two words *Pan and *Eros.
References. Ellis, Encyclopaedia of Sexual Behavior. Ullstein Enzyklopädie der Sexualität:.
Pseudonym of a poet, bibliographer and critic from France who wrote in French. 1880-1918.
The most famous French poet of the generation before World War I who became a leading defender of *modernism following publication of his volume Alcools (1913). Apollinaire was a pseudonym but he is still generally known by this name. His real name was Wilhelm Apollinaris de Kostrowitski and his mother was Polish, his father Swiss. Sexually, he seems enormously complex and whether he had *bisexual tendencies needs investigating: see John Richardson, A Life of Picasso: 1907-1917, volume 2 (1996), pp.
3-4 and the index, for a recent view of his life.
Apollinaire freed verse of punctuation and wrote *concrete poetry. He was an ancestor of *Surrealism and coined the word in 1918.
His play Les Mamelles de *Tiresias (1917) was a surrealist play and he wrote stories with homosexual overtones: "La Rencontre au circle mixte" and "Le Giton" (named after a character in *Petronius) - see Roger Little, Guillaume Apollinaire, 1976, pp. 76-77. He was also the author, with *Fernand Fleuret and *Louis Perceau, of the first catalog of the *Enfer, the collection of erotica of the *Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris; many of the more erudite comments are his. The full title of this work is L'Enfer de la Bibliothèque Nationale (Paris, 1913). He also wrote an erotic novel Les Onze Mille Verges (The eleven thousand virgins). See Forum no. 7 (1989), 97-99 for his critical article "Walt Whitmans Leichenbegangnis" (article on *Whitman trans. into German).
Apollinaire has been a very influential poet, especially in his abandonment of punctuation, as far away as Hungary and Australia.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Cassell's Encyclopaedia of World Literature. Gay Poetry Anthologies. L'amour bleu, 223-24: prose. Les Amours masculines, 334-35: the first two stanzas of "La Chanson du mal-aimé". Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 1, 436: from "Song of the Ill-loved" (about an English street urchin). Hallam, Book of Sodom: story "The Sodomite's Minion". Pour tout l'amour des hommes, 189: poem "La Chanson du mal-aimé". Criticism. James White Review, vol. 9 no. 1: review of his 1907 novel Les Onze Mille Verges.
Figure from myth and trope in poetry in Greek and English dating from ca. 700 B.C in Greek.
Apollo was the god of light in ancient Greece and is usually depicted in art as a naked or partly robed young man (never bearded) with a bow or lyre; for the artistic iconography see Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae, volume 2, Part 1, 183-464 and the plates in volume 2, Part 2 (this entry is one of the longest in Lexicon iconographicum mythologiae classicae). Apollo, usually depicted as a naked young man, appears extensively in European sculpture and painting in the eighteenth century and also in painting in the art movement called *Neoclassicism.
He appears in Greek poetry from 'Homer on (in The *lliad he supports the Trojans). He had many loves, both male and female. His two main homosexual loves were *Hyacinthus and *Cyparissus. There were many temples to him in ancient Greece, the main one being at *Delphi, with another important one at *Olympia. His earliest adventure was the killing of Python, a formidable dragon that guarded *Delphi, so he is linked with the myth of the foundation of Delphi and opposition to evil. *Prayers and *hymns to him were composed by men and uttered or sung by men. See also 'Praxilla, 'Werner Krenkel, 'Christine Downing. In English see 'Arthur Golding, *H. King, * Century Guild, *Alfred Douglas, *Patrick Anderson, *Stephen Gray, *Brian Hill, *Mark O'Connor.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Classical Dictionary. Eliade, Encyclopedia of Religion. Dictionnaire Gay. Other. Graves, Greek Myths. Oxford Classical Dictionary. Buffiere, Eros adolescent, 359-63. Sergent, Homosexuality in Greek Myth, 79-136.
Poet from Greece who wrote in Greek. 295 B.C.-ca. 215 B.C.
The story of Hercules and Hylas, which appears in Apollonius's epic The Argonautica, concerns the abduction of Hylas (see *Iolaus), the companion of Hercules, by a nymph. In Apollonius Rhodius the story centers on close *male bonding between Hylas and Hercules, not physical homosexuality.
The most important of the Alexandrian epic writers, Apollonius Rhodius was a pupil of *Callimachus, with whom he had a celebrated dispute concerning whether it was better to write *long poems and traditional epics or short poems (Apollonius supported long poems); he retired to *Rhodes because of the dispute. He was librarian at the celebrated library in Alexandria, the largest in the ancient world, in which manuscripts (such as those of *Homer) were edited as well as collected.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Classical Dictionary, 83-4: see "Apollonius (1)". Criticism. Brandt, Sittengeschichte griechenlands, volume 2, 180. Licht, Sexual Life in Ancient Greece, 464-65: citing the story of the love of *Hercules and *Hylas in his *epic The Argonautica. Dynes, Homosexuality: A Research Guide, item 506: re *H. Fuchs, Die Hylas geschichte bei Apollonius Rhodios und Theocrit, Wirzburg, 1969, 85 pages (thesis on the *Hylas trope in his work). Courouve, Ces petits grecs, 7: citing The Argonautica i:1187-357 (Hercules and Hylas), and iii:115-31 (*Zeus and *Ganymede; also *Eros).
Group from Great Britain in existence from 1820, whose native language was English.
See Oxford Companion to English Literature. where it is called "an exclusive intellectual society". Officially it was called The Cambridge Conversazione Society. The Apostles was a secret all-male society in *Cambridge University. Many gay literary males and some poets were members including *A. H. Hallam, *Alfred Tennyson, *William Cory Johnson, *Oscar Browning, *Rupert Brooke, *Lytton Strachey; see also *E. M. Forster, *Wittgenstein. The title of the group recalls the twelve apostles of Jesus Christ (see *Disciple); it may be a satirical reference to them.
Lytton Strachey believed the society had a homosexual history: see Michael Holroyd, Lytton Strachey: The New Biography (1994), pp. 86, 76-82. Certainly in Strachey's period of involvement, in the first third of the twentieth century, there was a strong homosexual contingent of members which Strachey, a key member, actively promoted. The exact extent of homosexuality in the society is unknown. See Peter Allen, The Cambridge Apostles, 1978, and W. C. Lubenow, The Cambridge Apostles 1820-1914: Liberalism, Imagination and Friendship in British Intellectual and Professional Life, 1999.
Poet from Russia who wrote in Russian. 1841-1893.
As a poet his poems concern ideal love and ideal beauty. An engraving of the poet is on p. 14 of the anthology of Russian gay literature *Out of the Blue.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Terras, Handbook of Russian Literature. *Simon Karlinsky, "Russia's Gay Literature and History", Gay Sunshine, 29-30 (Summer/ Fall 1976), 2: a lover of the gay composer Tchaikovsky who set his poems to music.
Philosopher from Italy who wrote in Latin. Ca. 1224-1274.
The major theologian of the 'Catholic church, he was a Dominican friar from Italy who taught at the 'University of Paris and whose theology condemned homosexuality: see his Summa theologiae 184.108.40.206-12.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 71-72. Dictionnaire Gay. Gay Histories and Cultures. Who's Who in Gay and Lesbian History: From Antiquity.
Prose work in Arabic from Egypt with poems contained in the text and thus a *prosimetrum. Stories in it date from 1100 in its present form.
The most famous prose work in Arabic, The Arabian Nights is a series of stories told over one thousand and one nights, incorporating poetry - including some poems referring to homosexuality (notably by *Abu Nuwas) - in the text. It is called in Arabic the Alf layla wa layla (Thousand and One Nights). It dates from 1100 in its present form though material in it is certainly earlier; stories come from all over west Asia and some stories are also known in India. It was first printed in Egypt at the state printing office in Bulak in 1835. There are sufficient homopoems in the text for an anthology of homopoems to be constituted within it; however, no full list of these gay poems has yet been compiled.
The Calcutta edition contains about 1,250 poems composed from about 800 onwards. *Anthony Reid in *The Eternal Flame (see reference below) has anonymous poems from the Burton translation from nights 21, 132, 177, 184, 216, 254, 255, 311, 378, 381, 421, 424, 868, 871, 965 and by Abu Nuwas from nights 200, 381, 382, 420. Homosexual poems from the work have been collected in English in Gay Tales and Verse from the Arabian Nights, edited by Henry M. Christman (Austin, 1989), using the Powys Mathers translation - see pp. 29, 30, 49, 50, 59-60, 67-68 (poems about the hammam, the Islamic *bathhouse) and especially "Poems of Love Sought" pp. 81-98 and "Song of My Zabb" p. 100. *Allen Edwardes and *Richard Burton also have compilations of homopoems in English and *Numa Praetorius (pseud.) compiled a list of these poems in German in 1910 (based on the translation of J. C. Mardrus).
The Arabian Nights is quite a salacious work and openly erotic. See the story "The man's dispute with the learned
woman" (concerning the relative excellence of male and female) regarding the *debate on love in Arabic between homosexual and
heterosexual love; this quotes poems by Abu Nuwas, *Abu Tammam and others (Burton translation, 1885, volume 5, pp. 154-163).
An article in Pan no. 12 (July 1982), pp. 32-34, quotes an anonymous homopoem on p. 33. In George Allgrove, Liebe im Orient (Love in the East), 1963, see Chapter 10 on male homosexuality in The Thousand and One Nights and Chapter 11, on the role of homosexuality in East and West (source: Welter, Bibliographie Freundschaftseros, p. 37). On the Iranian element in the work see Rypka, History of Iranian Literature, pp. 663-6 9; he claims, p. 663, "The core.. is.. undoubtedly Iranian."
Translation. Translators are listed in Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition, and Dictionary of Oriental Literatures in the entries titled Alf layla wa layla. Censorship has occurred in translation. Czech: F. Tauer (1928-55); Danish: J. L. Rasmussen (1824), I. Oestrup (1927-28); English: E. W. Lane (1838-41; censored), J. Payne (1882), 'Richard Burton (1885; reprinted; titled The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night in the most common reprintings, called the Burton Club edition which edition is undates), E. Powys Mathers (1923); French: Antoine Galland (1704-17), J. C. Madrus (1899-1906), 'René Khawam; German: 'Von Hammer (1823), G. Weil (1837-41), M Henning (1895-99; censored), E. Littmann (1921-28); Italian: *G. Gabrieli and others (1948-49); Persian: a counterpart of the work exists called Thousand and One Days (see the discussion in Rypka, History of Iranian Literature, pp. 666-68; there is a French translation of this work titled Mille et un jours by Pétits de la Croix published in 1710); Polish: incomplete - see Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition; Russian: M. A. Sa'le (1929-36); Spanish: V. Blasco Ibanez.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopaedia of Islam, first edition: see "Alf layla wa-laila" (Thousand and one nights). Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition: "Alf layla wa layla" (a brilliant introduction to the problems of the text). Dictionary of Oriental Literatures. Encyclopædia Iranica. Gay Histories and Cultures: see "Arabian Nights". Bibliographies. Welter, Bibliographie Freundschaftseros, 87: cites the tales "Geschichte des Dritten Kalenders" and "Geschichte des Prinzen Kamr" and has a cross reference to *G. Allgrove. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Lieblingminne und Freundesliebe, 24, 90-92: poems trans. into German by *Elisar von Kupffer and *G. Weil. Men and Boys, 21 : poems trans. by *Richard Burton. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 1, 296-98: poems by Anonymous Arabic poets and *Abu Nuwas from *Richard Burton's translation (see above for the nights referred to). Criticism. Mayne, The Intersexes, 293-94. *Pan, no. 12, 32-34: "Some Boy-love Stories from 'The Arabian Nights" by Bill Allen (includes poems). Boswell, Christianity, Social Tolerance and Homosexuality, 256-57. De Bary, Guide to Oriental Classics, 32-36: critical works on the Arabian Nights.
Poet from France who wrote in French. 1B97-19B2.
Les amours masculines states in the biographical note (see reference below) he abandoned *surrealism for *Communism and, after his wife's death in 1970, the poet - unstated - who was his friend became his companion. He is famous for love poems to his wife. He composed a huge oeuvre of poems and an "Ode to Stalin" in 1956 (just as Stalin was being revealed for his monstrous cruelty). His Communism has resulted in his literary reputation being controversial (compare *Yannis Ritsos).
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Cassell's Encyclopaedia of World Literature. Penguin Companion to World Literature. Contemporary Authors New Revision Series, volume 28. Dictionnaire Gay. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Les Amours masculines, 38185: extracts from "Voyage d'Italie" and "Theatre Roman"; biog. note, 382. Drobci stekla v ustih, 49-50. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 1, 446: trans. from "Italian Journey" into English. Pour tout l'amour des hommes, 222: "Voyage d'Italie".
Critic from Greece who writes in Greek. Active from 1979.
Author of a book of essays in Greek discussing homosexual writers, To symplegma tou Kain (The Mark of Cain], Athens, 1980; see the note on the first publication of the articles (which were published in journals prior to book publication), p. 267. This includes an essay on *Ritsos which is a homosexual reading of his work - though in a negative way: he states there are a number of images in his poetry, e.g. of transvestism, which a homosexual would confess to his analyst; there are also essays on *Cavafy, *Gombrowicz and *Embirikos.
He wrote the prologue to a collection of Cavafy's erotic poems, Erotika poiemata (Athens, 1983), 126 pp. (rare: a copy is in the *Library of Congress). His name is also spelt Aranitsis.
Poet from Greece who wrote in Greek. Ca. 315 B.C.-ca. 239 B.C.
He left only one epigram.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Classical Dictionary, 92 see "Aratus (1)". Bibliographies. Bullough, Annotated Bibliography of Homosexuality, volume 2, item 10438: cites *Musa Puerilis, London: Heinemann, 1918, Book 12, poem 120. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Garland of Meleager. Palatine Anthology xii 129. Brandt, "Der paidon eros in der griechischen Dichtung" Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen 9 (1908), 271. Buffiere, Eros adolescent, 298-99: called Aratos de Soles.
Novelist from Italy writing in Italian. Born 1930.
Famous as a novelist, his novel, translated into English as The Lost Boy by Bernard Wall (London, 1964), includes quotations from poems.
Bibliographies. Leggere omosessuale, item 238 re his novel L'anonimo Lombardo, Torino, 1973.
Translator from Arabic and Persian into English from Great Britain. 1905-1969.
A. J. Arberry was perhaps the most famous translator of Arabic and Persian poetry into English of the first half of the twentieth century. However, his work sheds little light on homosexuality in Persian and Arabic, possibly due to the climate of *censorship in Great Britain at the time. He was the foremost expert in Great Britain on Arabic poetry of his time and was Professor of Arabic at *Cambridge University.
Arabic. He translated * Moorish Poetry and ibn Hazm. Persian. The author of Fifty Poems of *Hafiz, Cambridge, UK, 1947 (text and translation), Immortal Rose: an Anthology of Persian Lyrics, 1948, and The Ruba'iyat of *Rumi, 1949 (a verse translation of the poet). The Legacy of Persia (1953), was compiled by him. The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam and Other Persian Poems (1954), is an historical anthology of translations of Persian poems from ca.1770; he also wrote The Romance of the Rubaiyat, (1959). He translated *Rumi (1968-69) and wrote Discourses of Rumi (1961); he also wrote *Sufism, 1950 - in this work see Chapter Ten, "The Persian Poets", pp. 106-118 (incorporated in this Encyclopedia; many poets are homoerotic). He is also the author of Classical Persian Literature (London, 1958), a survey to the sixteenth century which is, overall, dull; bibliography, p. 451.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Dictionary of National Biography. Encyclopedia Iranica. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Eros: An Anthology of Friendship, 132-38: trans. of Arabic poets from *Moorish Poetry. Criticism. *Norman Roth, " 'Deal Gently with the Young Man': Love of Boys in Medieval Hebrew Poetry of Spain", Speculum 57 (1982), 28: notes his * Moorish Poetry is abridged and bowdlerized from the original.
Journal in French from France. 1954-1982.
The first French gay journal to reach a wide readership in France, Arcadie also had wide circulation in Italy, Greece, and Portugal where French was read and male homosexuality was legal. It was known in Spain to a lesser extent (Spain was a under a dictatorship for most of this period). Issue 344 was the last issue.
It was the most important gay journal in the *Romance languages from 1954 to 1982 and was founded by André Baudry and *Roger Peyrefitte. (On Baudry, born 1915, see his entry in Who's Who in Contemporary Gay and Lesbian History). Arcadie was also the name of a gay club on the outskirts of Paris (after the advent of *gay liberation in 1969, the club was regarded as being old fashioned.) Jean Cocteau famously wrote the opening piece in the first issue.
Serious articles covering literature and science were published, including literary criticism and book reviews. The journal published one or two poems each issue, and there were bibliographies of new gay works in approximately every second issue in earlier issues. *Marc Daniel (pseud.) contributed many articles for it as did *Edouard Roditi (using pseudonyms). See *Historical and social background - French with reference to Jacques Girard and the history of the Arcadie group.
Very rare: no copy is in any United States public library but a copy is at *One Institute, Los Angeles, and a complete set is in the Bibliothèque Nationale Paris. *Cornell, the University of Michigan, and a couple of other libraries in the United States have some issues; the author of this Encyclopedia also owns 179 issues. Note: the United States Union List of Serials, 1965, states that the Library of Congress copy - apparently sent free by the journal - was "discarded".
Italian. From ca. 1959, issue 66, see articles by Franco Cerutti on contemporary Italian letters and Maurizio Bellotti on new writers. Very little poetry is discussed. Greek. From ca. 1962 to ca.1965 articles by Demis (pseud.) discuss gay issues in Greece.
Period in ancient Greek relating to poetry written in Greece and Turkey. Ca. 700 B.C.-ca. 500 B.C.
The period from 700 B.C to ca. 500 B.C. in Greek culture is called by art scholars the archaic period because the Greek sculpture of the period is considered unrefined in contrast to that of the fifth century B.C., where black and red figure vase painting have attracted much critical attention - see John Beazley.
Despite this, poetry of the Archaic Period was very sophisticated, though much has been *lost (e.g., the work of *Alcaeus of Mitylene) and many works survive in *fragments only. *Theognis is the first major known homopoet whose works survive in any quantity. *Homer is the major poet whose Iliad contains in the relationship of *Achilles and Patroclus what many have seen as a homosexual relationship. What poetry survives indicates that a significant body of homosexual poetry once existed in Greek of this period.
Practically all the major themes and issues of ancient Greek homosexual poetry emerged in this period as well as the first *anthologies. See Hermann Frankel, Early Greek Poetry and Philosophy, New York and London, 1973 (trans. of the German edition of 1962), a brilliant work on the poets of this period.
See entries for *Achilles and Patroclus, *Aeschylus, *Alcman, *Anacreon, *Alcaeus of Mytilene, *Alcaics, *Apollo, *Archilochus, *Athens, *Bathyllus, *Bisexuality, *Chios, *Cleobulus, *Delphi, *Dionysus, *Elegaic, *Epic, *Epigram, *Epitaph, *Ethnic, *Forgery, *Friendship, *Ganymede, *Hesiod, *Homer, *Homonyms, *"Hymn to Aphrodite", *Hymns, iambic, *Ibycus, * Iliad, *Istanbul, *Kurnus, *Laius, *Lesbos, *Lesches, *Lost Works, *Lovers, *Lycus, *Mimnermus, *Mythology, *Ode, *Olympia, *Phokylides, *Pindar, *Sapphics, *Semonides, *Simonides, *Singers, *Smerdies, *Smyrna, *Solon, *Sparta, *Stesichorus, *Stobaeus, *Teos, *Thebes, *Theognis, *Theognidea, *Tyrtaeus, *Zeus.
Poet from Great Britain writing in English. Active before 1983.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Penguin Book of Homosexual Verse, 223: translation into English, with *Ronald Grant, of the poem "Spring", about lesbianism, by the French poet *Verlaine.
Poet from Great Britain writing in English. Active 1987.
One of three authors of the *chapbook Carnal Ignorance, London: *Oscars Press, 1987 (with *David Melville and *Timothy Gallagher) - see his poems on pp. 19-33; biog., p. 19: states he has been a teacher in south London for thirteen years.
Poet from Greece who wrote in Greek. Active in the period 700-650 B.C.
Only fragments of this poet survive and the uncertain nature of the text means that no firm conclusion can be drawn about him in relation to homosexuality either in his poetry or life. He was a *lyric poet.
Translations. English. *Guy Davenport (1964; an edition with some fine homoerotic black and white illustrations of youths by an unknown artist, possibly the translator).
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Classical Dictionary. Bibliographies. Welter, Bibliographie Freundschaftseros, 38: Gedichte in Fragmenten ("Poems in fragments"; no other details given). Young, Male Homosexual in Literature, second edition, item 107: The Fragments of Archilochus, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1964, trans. by Guy Davenport. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Garland of Meleager. Lieblingminne und Freundesliebe, 20. Criticism. Brandt, "Der paidon eros in der griechischen Dichtung", Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen 8 (1906), 636. Brandt, Sittengeschichte griechenlands, volume 2, 185. Brandt, Sittengeschichte Griechenlands, volume 3, 235. Licht, Sexual Life in Ancient Greece, 469: re one fragment (fragment 85) about *boy love (but see below). Frankel, Early Greek Poetry, 132-51: discussed as being heterosexual. Dover, Greek Homosexuality, 195: notes the absence ("so far") of homosexuality in fragments discovered. Buffiere, Eros adolescent, 239-42. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 496: "In fragment 85 he concedes to a male that 'desire that loosens our limbs overpowers me'" (this line is ambiguous but could be homosexual in implication).
Archive in Canada with works in French and English. It was established in 1983.
Situated in *Montreal this is the largest gay archive of French material in North America. Over five hundred journals are held. Being in Canada, English material is presumably held also.
References. Directory of the International Association of Lesbian and Gay Archives and Libraries, 9-12.
Archives with gay material
Archives are places in which public records and historical documents are kept. Normally such documents have not been published in book form. Gay archives of material in English, Dutch, Danish, German, French, Italian, Spanish, Russian and other languages now exist and date from 1900. Such archives are especially important for rare gay *journals.
*Magnus Hirschfeld formed the first gay archive as such in his Institute for Sexual Knowledge (in German, Institut für sexuelle Wissenschaft) in Berlin. Material was of a general sexual nature but, despite this, the founder's homosexuality meant a large quantity of material was gay; this archive dated from 1900 and included literature. It was destroyed by the *Nazi regime in 1933. *Alfred Kinsey formed a library and archive at the Kinsey Institute after 1945; it includes much literature.
There is now an extensive movement of gay archives in Europe (in Germany, the Netherlands, Denmark, Italy, Spain, Great Britain and Russia), in the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa and, in south America, in Argentina; some of these archives are combined with libraries and contain large libraries of gay books. They date from the early 1970s though some go back to ca. 1950.
English. The first contemporary gay archive was the New York 'Homosexual Information Center dating from the early 1950s, now in the *New York Public Library. New York Public Library also holds material on *Afro-Americans. The *Gerber Hart library in Chicago is the largest gay library and archive in the midwest of the United States. The *Quatrefoil Library in St Paul, Minnesota, is an excellent library with some archival material. The *Labadie Collection of Protest Literature in the Harland Hatcher Graduate Library, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, also has an old and significant gay collection. *One/ IGLA combines two major archives and is situated in *Los Angeles. In *San Francisco the institute for Advanced Study of Human Sexuality has a large archive and there is also the *San Francisco Bay Area Gay and Lesbian Historical Society and *San Francisco Public Library has major gay collections. The *Hall Carpenter Archives is the major gay archives in Great Britain and is housed in the London School of Economics at the University of *London. *Cornell University has a sexual collection, including much gay material. The *Humanities Research Center in Austin, Texas, has gay literary material.
The *Canadian Gay Archives has major gay journal holdings, the largest holdings in the world, and a list of all journals known to it which can be seen on the internet. The *Australian Lesbian and Gay Archives is in *Melbourne. In New Zealand the *Lesbian and Gay Archives of New Zealand (LAGANZ) are housed in the national library in *Wellington. There is a gay archives in South Africa,
*Gay and Lesbian Archives of South Africa, in the William Cullen Library, East Campus, University of Witwatersrand, Braamfontein, Johannesburg. French material is held in Canada in the 'Archives gaies du Québec.
Major archives in Europe include 'Homodok in the Netherlands, excellent for Dutch material but also with material in other 'European languages. 'Forbundet af 48 in Copenhagen is excellent for Danish and for German there is the 'Buchverleih "Andersrum", formerly Magnus Hirschfeld Centrum Library in Hamburg, the *Schwule Museum in *Berlin, a major gay archive, library and museum which has mounted exhibitions many of which have resulted in books (e.g., * Eldorado) and *Schwules Archiv in Frankfurt. The *Bilder-lexikon was compiled from material in the sex research institute in 'Vienna destroyed by the Nazis. For Italian material see *Fondazione Sandro Penna (in *Turin), and *Massimo Consoli's Gay International Archives in Rome. *Milan has a gay archive and 'Bologna an excellent one which is open in the evenings. Spanish and Catalan: see 'Institut Lambda. Spanish and Basoue: see *Tzoko Landan. In south America a private gay archives open to the public in Argentina is owned by Marcelo Ferreyra, *Buenos Aires. Russian. A gay archives has been formed in Russia in 'Moscow. All these archives hold valuable and rare books, gay 'journals (which are almost invariably not in general libraries except for the best known ones) and manuscripts. Swedish. The gay and lesbian foundation of Sweden's archive is now at the Riksarchivet (State Archive) in Stockholm.
*Sex Research Institutes will usually contain gay literary material. See also *Libraries and archives for particular languages since public archives have yielded rare gay material (e.g., by *Théophile de Viau). Even town archives may contain material of value (see *Capri, *Georges Hérelle). The *Vatican archives are some of the oldest in Europe dating from at least 1000 A.D. with material mainly in Latin: little gay research has been done there. Material in general archives exists in most written languages and such material is valuable especially for legal cases. Material of importance may be in ethnic collections (e.g., for Australian Aboriginal Tribes see *Overview - Australian Aboriginal Languages for possible sources).
A list of terms for librarians to describe entries relating to homosexuality and gayness. It is being compiled by librarians in California from ca. 1985 and is believed to number over two thousand terms; a copy is in the library of *One Inc., Los Angeles, and also in the *Canadian Gay Archives which has published it as A Thesaurus of Gay Terminology for the Canadian Gay Archives (by Robert Trow). (Compare Sexual Nomenclature: A Thesaurus, 1976, published by the *Kinsey Institute, which is the Kinsey Library's method of classifying sexual books.)
Gay archives can be checked on the internet. A list of gay archives is in Cal Gough, editor, Gay and Lesbian Library Service (London, 1990), pp. 307-11. All the above archives hold valuable and rare books, gay *journals (which are seldom in general libraries except for the best known titles) and manuscripts.
References. Directory of the International Association of Lesbian and Gay Archives and Libraries : the whole book is relevant. Verzeichnis der Schwulen und Schwul-lesbischen Bibliotheken : list of German language archives.
Poet from Cuba who wrote in Spanish; he later lived in the United States and is best known as a novelist. 1943-1990.
A gay Cuban novelist who was persecuted and imprisoned by Castro. He escaped to Florida in the United States. He died in exile in 'New York after contracting 'Aids. He is the author of the brilliant autobiography, Before Night Falls: A Memoir (1993), which contains much information on gay life and writers in Cuba (e.g., 'José Lezama Lima) and is one of the finest gay literary autobiographies (review: James White Review, vol. 11 no 4, summer 1994, 15-16); this was made into a film released in 2001. He wrote some poems.
A poem by him appears in the Venezuelan gay journal Entendido vol.1 no. 2 (August 1980), p. 11. His long poem El Central (Barcelona, 1981; trans. into English as El Central: A Cuban Sugar Mill, New York, 1981) is about working in a sugar cane mill in Cuba. After his escape to the United States in 1980, poems were published in the United States. He commited suicide in 1990 leaving a note ending "Cuba will be free, I already am". "Autopitafio" (Self epitaph), one of his final poems, is thoroughly homoerotic - about his ashes being thrown into the sea, it finishes by imaging a young man diving into the sea where they are. A film has been made on his life.
Criticism. Francisco Soto, Reinaldo Arenas, New York, 1998. See also Dolores M. Koch, "Reinaldo Arenas" in Carlos A. Solé, editor, Latin American Writers, 3 volumes, New York, 1989, volume 3, pp. 1451-56 (with bibliography, pp. 1455-56). See D. W. Foster, Gay and Lesbian Themes in Latin American Literature, 1991, pp. 66-91, on his fiction and "Reinaldo Arenas's Literary Heritage" in Christopher Street no. 156 (May 1991), 12-16 (despite its title, this deals only with two stories).
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Contemporary Authors, vol. 128. Contemporary Authors, vol. 133 (obituary). Dictionary of Literary Biography, vol. 145. Encyclopedia of World Literature in the 20th Century: Supplement. Flores, Spanish American Authors. Foster, Latin American Writers on Gay and Lesbian Themes. Summers, Gay and Lesbian Literary Heritage, 58-59. Dictionnaire Gay. Encyclopedia of Latin American Literature. Gay Histories and Cultures. Who's Who in Contemporary Gay and Lesbian History.
Poet and letter writer from Italy who wrote in Italian. 1492-1556.
Aretino was an Italian *pornographer whose sexual interests were basically heterosexual but who appears to have been *bisexual; he seems to have treated homosexuality with amused condescension. It figures prominently in his play Il marescalco (1533) in which a man is overjoyed to discover a woman he has been forced to marry is really a page boy in disguise. He wrote erotic *sonnets - famously illustrated by Marcantonio Raimondi - and left copious letters; for homoerotic letters to Federico Gonzaga see My Dear Boy: Gay Love Letters through the Centuries, pp. 54-56. After 1526 he was resident in *Venice. His former secretary *Nicolo Franco turned against him and wrote poems attacking him. Aretino is most famous for his Dialogues (1534), in which heterosexual courtesans converse (they are modelled on *Plato).
The Italian gay poet *Mario Stefani wrote a thesis on his letters.
Translation. English: a translation of nineteen sonnets said to be works of Aretino, many with homosexual reference and attributed to *Oscar Wilde (but almost certainly by someone else), was published with the imprint Privately Printed, Paris, 1923 (rare; copy sighted: 'Deane Erotica, University of Sydney Library). French. See Bibliographies below. See also 'Private Case.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Garde, Jonathan to Gide, 276-78. Cassell's Encyclopaedia of World Literature. Dictionary of Italian Literature. See also his entry in the Macmillan Dictionary of Art edited by Jane Turner (1996). Bibliographies. Pia, Les Livres de l'Enfer, vol. 2, columns 1242-47: Les Sonnets luxurieux du divin Pietro Aretino, Paris: *Lisieux, 1882, with trans. into French; three other editions based on this edition. Gay Poetry Anthologies. L'amour bleu, 94. Penguin Book of Homosexual Verse, 140-41: trans. by *Stephen Coote? Reid, Eternal Flame, vol. 1, 225-26. Wilhelm, Gay and Lesbian Poetry, 310-11. Criticism. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 73. Contemporary Literary Criticism.
Poet from Greece who wrote in Greek. Active ca. 10.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Classical Dictionary, 104: see "Argentarius (1)". Gay Poetry Anthologies. Eros: An Anthology of Friendship, 53. Penguin Book of Homosexual Verse, 64: trans. by *Fleur Adcock.
Pseudonym of a poet from Romania who wrote in Romanian. 1880-1967.
The pseudonym of Ion N. Theodorescu. A writer of "profoundly *decadent verse" according to Nicolae Iorga (see his entry in Cassell's Encyclopaedia of World Literature), he is regarded as Romania's greatest poet of the twentieth century. His work, influenced by *Baudelaaire and *Rimbaud, emerged out of the *eighteen-nineties.
He became a monk, 1899-1904, and was later imprisoned. These experiences he depicted in novels and wrote about in poetry. He wrote openly about sexuality in Flori de mucigai (1931; the title means Blossoms of Mold) a work which was influenced by *Villon and Baudelaire. He was also charged with obscenity and does not appear to have married.
In the selection of poems edited by Dimitru Micu, Tudor Arghezi (1965), see *mystical religious poems on pp. 42-55 to *Christ (especially pp. 54-55). In his Selected Poems translated into English by Michael Impey and Brian Swann (1976), see pp. 25 "Morgenstimmung" (*non gender specific love poem), 47 "Psalm 1" *mystical union with the Father. Some poems in the volume are to women, but the poems are mysterious and unrevealing. See the entry on him in Leonard S. Klein, Encyclopedia of World Literature in the 20th Century, New York, 1981.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Great Soviet Encyclopedia. Penguin Companion to World Literature. Everyman Companion to East European Literature. Contemporary Authors, vol. 116: under his real name Ion N. Theodorescu.
Poet from Spain who wrote in Spanish. 1567-1623.
Born in *Seville where he played a prominent part in the literary life, he wrote *sonnets and later lived in *Madrid. He used the pseudonym Arcicio. The *National Union Catalog lists two books published in the nineteenth century.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Companion to Spanish Literature. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, vol. 2, 1007: states he wrote poems about beautiful boys.
Poet from Italy who wrote in Italian. Active ca. 1562.
See Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 398: stated to be a writer of *Fidentian poetry.
Anthologist from Mexico relating to a work in Spanish. Active 1997.
He compiled the anthology * Primera antología de la poesia homosexual (1997).
Poet from Afghanistan who wrote in Persian. Died 1449.
Criticism. 'Ehsan Yarshater, "Persian Poetry in the Timurid and Safavid Periods", in Peter Jackson, editor, Cambridge History of Iran, volume 6, The Timurid and Safavid Periods, 1976, 974, states he wrote a verse romance 'mathnavi in which the subject is the love of a poor man towards a young handsome prince. Rypka, History of Iranian Literature, 2B4-B5.
Poet from Italy who wrote in Italian. 1474-1533.
Author of the epic poem Orlando Furioso, published in its complete form in 1532 though originally begun in 1505 (first edition 1516; second revised edition 1521). The work is a continuation of Orlando immamorato by *Boiardo. The hero Orlando is the Italian equivalent of Roland and material in the poem ultimately derives from the material from which the * Song of Roland comes.
There are many references to male/male love in his work; there are also references to the *Ganymede trope and to *Cupid. Gender ambiguity occurs: for instance, in the figure of Bradamante, a maiden warrior (who is Britomart in *Edmund Spenser's Faerie Queene). *Shakespeare's play Much Ado About Nothing, which also turns on gender ambiguity, is based on Dalinda's impersonation of Ginerva. The male *friends Medoro and Cloridano warrant attention (on this episode see Barbara Reynolds English translation, London, 1973, pp. 576-83). Handel's opera Ariodante is based on the work; gender ambiguity occurs in this opera also. See also *Humanism, *Satire; compare *Boiardo.
Translation. Orlando Furioso has been widely translated. Only the first and major complete translations are listed here. English. Sir John Harington (1591 - in poetry; repr.); John Hoole (1783 - in poetry; repr.); William Stewart Rose (1823-1831; in poetry); A. H. Gilbert (1954 - prose); Guido Waldman (1974 - in prose); Richard Hodgens (1973-in prose); Barbara Reynolds (1973 - in poetry). On the English translations see Barbara Reynolds translation (London, 1973), pp. 74-88. Dutch. Everaert Siceram (1615; in poetry); J. J. Schipper (1649; in prose). French. Ian Fornier de Montaulban and others (1555; Cantos 1-15); M. M. Panckoucke et Framery (1787); Alcide Bonneau (1879-83; cantos 1-15 onlvl. German. Dietrich von dem Werder (1636). Latin. Marchese Torquato Barbolani (Arezzo, 1756). Polish. Piotr Kochanowskiego (1799; repr.). Portuguese. Xavier da Cunha (1895). Serbo-Croat. D. Stanojevi (189597). Spanish, leronymo de Vrrea (1549; repr.). The * British Library General Catalogue was checked.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Cassell's Encyclopaedia of World Literature. Encyclopedia Britannica. Dictionary of Italian Literature. Bibliographies. Bullough, Annotated Bibliography of Homosexuality, volume 2, item 10439: cites Orlando Furioso, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1963. Gay Poetry Anthologies. L'amicizia amorosa, 85-95: from Canto 18 of Orlando Furioso (Medoro and Cloridano); biog., 83. Criticism. Saslow, Ganymede in the Renaissance, 72-73: re his "Sixth Satire", where he states almost all humanists are pederasts (note: this may be a mistake; the "Seventh Satire" deals with the vices of humanists).
Translator from English to Japanese from Japan. 1878-1923.
He was a *socialist poet who committed suicide with his mistress and part of a group of Popular Poets influenced by *Whitman. His Japanese translation of *Whitman's Leaves of Grass was published 1921-23. He studied in the United States at *Harvard.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Kodansha Encyclopedia of Japan.
Editor from Egypt of works in Greek. Active 150 B.C.
The first known editor to save gay relevant texts. As editor of *Homer he is the person who was responsible for the text of Homer's *Iliad and Odyssey as we know them today; before this (as for instance in the time of *Plato) there was a plurality of textual traditions for Homer's Iliad. He was in charge of the library at *Alexandria to 153 B.C. and also edited *Archilochus, *Alcaeus, *Anacreon and *Pindar. The editing of all these poets in a reliable text meant that their work could be more easily copied and passed down to future generations.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Classical Dictionary, 109: see "Aristarchus (2)".
Poet and dramatist from Greece who wrote in Greek. Ca. 445 B.C.-ca. 385 B.C.
A speaker in Plato's * Symposium. Eleven of his plays survive; as well, we have thirty-two titles of *lost plays. The plays are written in verse. Homosexuality appears in his plays in a comic light. In The Clouds, for instance, *Socrates and his school are ridiculed. The whole play Thesmophoriazusai is full of references to male *transvestism and in Ecclesiazousai female transvestvism.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Classical Dictionary, 113-14: see "Aristophanes (1)". Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 7576: by *Warren Johansson (re The Clouds lines 678, 680, Plutus 153 and The Wasps 568). Dictionnaire Gay. Who's Who in Gay and Lesbian History: From Antiquity. Bibliographies. Young, Male Homosexual in Literature, second edition, items 111-116: the plays The Birds, The Clouds, The Frogs, The Knights, Lysistrata, Ecclesiazusae, Ploutos and Thesmophoriazusae (however not noted as being in poetry). Gay Poetry Anthologies. Iolaus (1902), 51-53. Eros: An Anthology of Friendship, 37, 69-71 (re the poet *Agathon). L'amour bleu, 14, 21-23. Criticism. Dover, Greek Homosexuality, 10-11,135-52. Courouve, Ces petits grecs, 7-8.
Philosopher and poet from Greece who wrote in Greek. 384 B.C-322 B.C.
His Nicomachean Ethics, written for his son Nicomachus discusses *friendship in Chapters 8 and 9. Aristotle studied under *Plato and taught in the Platonic Academy in *Athens and later founded his own school, the Peripatetics, in the Lyceum; he is one of the most famous philosophers of ancient Greece.
He lived with his friend and former fellow-student Hermeias for three years until his death and later married his friend's sister or niece; he wrote an ode to Hermias. In his will he left *Antipater as executor. He was particularly interested in biology. See also *Philosophers - Arabic regarding Ibn Rushd, known in Europe as Averroes who shows his influence. In Latin see the thesis at the *Sorbonne by Krantz, De amicitia apudAristotelem (Friendship in Aristotle) Paris, Germer-Bailliere, 1882 (source: *Herelle manuscript 3258).
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Classical Dictionary, 114. Garde, Jonathan to Gide, 56-58. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 76-77: stating his work is lost and what survives "derives largely from lecture notes" and that "he is known to have had several male lovers". Dictionnaire Gay. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Iolaus (1906), 185. Eros: An Anthology of Friendship, 74-78. Criticism. Symonds, A Problem in Greek Ethics, 47-48: noting "In Aristotle.. paiderastia is almost conspicuous by its absence" (p. 47). Histoire de l'amour grec, 141-44, 292-302. Boswell, Christianity, Social Tolerance and Homosexuality, 49-50: states he considered a homosexual disposition natural. Courouve, Ces petits grecs, 8-9.
Poet from Japan who wrote in Japanese; in later Japanese he became a trope of gay love. 825-880.
He was a *Heian period *waka poet who figures in the Ise Monogatori (Tales of Ise); the majority of tales center on him and he wrote most of the poems in the collection. He wrote poems showing a strong bond with Prince Koretaka. This relationship, which came to epitomise male friendship in later Japanese literature (compare *Li Po and *Tu Fu in Chinese), was embroidered into a homosexual one by *Saikaku (see Schalow, Great Mirror of Male Love, pp. 10-11). He was famous as a poet and lover.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Kodansha Encyclopedia of Japan :
Poet from Japan who wrote in Japanese. Active ca. 1008.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Partings at Dawn, 112: possibly not a gay poem (see footnote 16 on this page); from the anthology *Iwatsutsuji.
Poet from Italy writing in Italian. Born 1942.
He lives in *Rome. Book: Grandine, 1986, 147 pages.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. L'amicizia amorosa, 221-23: a poem about remorse; biog., 283.
Poet from Germany writing in German. Born 1953.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Milchsilber, 138-41; biog., 178. Schreibende Schwule.
Poet from Germany writing in German. Active 1978. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Schreibende Schwule.
English poet from Great Britain. Active from 1912.
See the *British Library General Catalogue entry Martin Donisthorpe Armstrong, a writer active to 1950 who published several volumes of poems and many other literary works, and may be this author (since his name is a common one it is impossible to be sure).
Bibliographies. Murray, Catalogue of Selected Books, item 3: Exodus, 1912.
Songwriter from Germany who wrote in German. 1781-1831.
See *Clemens von Brentano - his lasting friend with whom he lived in *Heidelberg - regarding the collection of German folksongs Des Knaben Wunderhorn (1803-05). He was known as Achim von Arnim and married the sister of Brentano in 1811.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Companion to German Literature. Bibliographies. Welter, Bibliographie Freundschaftseros, 38: cites "Der vortreffliche Stallbruder (Wenn der Schäfer...)" from Des Knaben Wunderhorn., and "Kronenwächter" .
Pseudonym of a poet from the United States writing in English. Born 1967.
Bibliographies. Bullough, Annotated Bibliography of Homosexuality, volume 2, item 10440: the poem "At the Penny Arcade" in the journal Pursuit 2:11, June, 1967; pseudonym of *Arnold Schwab (see p. 427).
Poet and critic from Great Britain who wrote in English. 1822-1888.
A *Victorian cultural critic and poet who had a close friendship with the poet *Arthur Hugh Clough. Sohrub andRustum, a poem based on an episode from *Firdausi, which appeared in a volume of his poems published in 1853 has homoerotic elements (see especially lines 302-318). He took the story from the French translation of the poem by J. Mohl, Le Livre des rois (see the entry Sohrab and Rustum in Oxford Companion to English Literature and the notes by the poet reprinted in The Poems of Matthew Arnold, edited by C.
B. Tinker, 1950, pp. 448-93); there was a prior English translation by James Atkinson published in 1814.
*"Thyrsis", an *elegy for Clough, appeared in New Poems, 1867 (on the poem. see Oxford Companion to English Literature "Thyrsis" entry). It is in the *pastoral tradition of *elegy. Arnold, through his reading of Latin and Greek, could not fail to be aware of the homosexual undercurrents of ancient Greek and Latin elegy (e.g., lines 80 referring to *Corydon and 185 to *Daphnis).
His "The Scholar Gipsy "(1853), shows a debt to pastoral poetry. His brother W. D. Arnold is believed to have been homosexual and wrote the novel Oakfield or Fellowship in the East. A chapter of Matthew Arnold's influential critical work Culture and Anarchy, 1869, was entitled *Hellenism and Hebraism and testifies to a contemporary debate in *Victorian society on *Puritanism versus sensuality.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford Companion to English Literature.
Poet possibly from Italy writing in Italian. Active ca. 1988.
Author of an extraordinary erotic poem "Kiss" (from the suite For the One Who Has Green Eyes, which is titled in Italian, from which it seems to have been translated into English, Por Orazio con tutto mio amore [For Orazio with all my love]). The poem was read by *Adrian Rawlins at a reading in 1988. No other details are available.
Possibly the name is a pseudonym. The surname comes from the same word as the painting by Van Eyck, "The Marriage of the Arnolfini" in the National Gallery, *London.
Poet from Spain writing in Spanish. Active before 1978.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Poemes Gais, 3-6; also trans. into Catalan in Poemes Gais.
Poet from the United States writing in English. Active before 1992.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 2, 556: fine poem "Union".
Poet from the United States (from Puerto Rico) writing in Spanish. Born 1954.
A self professed gay writer who is also a playwright, critic and performance artist. Puerto Rico is an autonomous political entity in the Caribbean in association with the United States.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Foster, Latin American Writers on Gay and Lesbian Themes.
Poet from Brazil writing in Portuguese. Born 1921.
The author of several books.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Poemas do amor maldito, 13; biog., 12.
Movement in poetry and art especially in French and English dating from ca. 1845 to ca. 1914.
The idea that art existed for its own sake and not for any moral, social and political purpose; it originated in France as the slogan "l'art pour art" (art for the sake of art) first articulated by *Theophile Gautier: see M. Amaya, Art Nouveau (1966), p.16. *Walter Pater was influenced by the idea and the main conveyer of it from France to Great Britain. The *aesthetic movement was the major outcome and the phrase achieved it's major currency in the *eighteen nineties with the rise of this movement. Contrast *Socialism, *Marxism.
References. Oxford Companion to English Literature.
Anthology in English from Great Britain. Hamlyn: London, 1995, 64 pp.
No editor is listed (however, the copyright is assigned to *Peter Burton on the verso of the title page so he appears responsible for the selection). A fine anthology of short classic gay poems and passages from gay prose with a cover of the *Elizabethan painting of a dandy by Nicholas Hilliard, "Man Among Roses". The illustrations to the book are as outstanding as the choice of poems. This is part of a series of gay anthologies, identical in format, which are designed as books to be given as presents, especially to lovers: see *Eros in Boystown and *The Art of Gay Love. There are some careless spelling mistakes throughout - e.g., Marlow for *Christopher Marlowe.
Poets (see entries): Richard Barnfield, Reginald Brett, Byron (prose work) Edward Carpenter, Catullus, David and Jonathan, James Elroy Flecker, Goethe, Greek Anthology, A. E. Housman, Paul Keller, D. H. Lawrence (prose work), T. E. Lawrence, Edward Cracroft Lefroy, Christopher Marlowe, Melville (prose work) Michelangelo, Wilfred Owen, Rochester, Rumi, William Shakespeare, Philip Sidney, Count Eric Stenbock (prose work), Whitman, Oscar Wilde (letter).
Poet from Greece who wrote in Greek. Active before 130.
As he appears in the * Mousa Paidike, his date must be prior to 130 B.C. (if this date is correct for its genesis).
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Classical Dictionary, 127-8: five entries. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Palatine Anthology xii 55 (or *Anonymous), 124 (possibly by Artemon). L'amour bleu, 31 : stating he is from the fourth century B.C.
Pseudonym of a lover from the United States speaking English. 1901-1972.
He claimed in the article "The Gay Succession" that he slept with *Edward Carpenter who stated that he, in turn, had slept with *Walt Whitman; he also claimed that he slept with Dean Moriarty who slept with *Allen Ginsberg. The author's real name was Chester Alan Arthur (born 1901). He was the grandson of President Chester Alan Arthur and he set out his philosophy in The Circle of Sex (1966) published under his real name Chester Alan Arthur.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Gay Roots: Twenty Years of Gay Sunshine, 323-25: article "The Gay Succession" (reprinted from Gay Sunshine 35, Winter 1978, 29).
Figure from myth and trope in west *European languages. From ca. 1170.
The story of King Arthur and his knights is a cycle of mythical tales in English, French, Spanish, Italian, German, Scandinavian languages (Danish, Norwegian and Swedish) and Welsh; the material also constitutes a trope with homosexual undertones in the work of some poets. Material survives from ca. 1170 (initially in French) and material in the various languages interconnects by means of translation.
Arthur was a legendary English king who was accompanied by twelve Knights of the Round Table. The story of the Grail (in *Chretien de Troyes and von *Eschenbach), which is part of the Arthurian cycle, centers on a cup or platter (grail) said to have held Jesus Christ's blood when he was on the cross and to have been used at the Last Supper. The cup was held by Joseph of Arimathea at the
cross during the crucifixation and was subsequently brought to Britain. This cup is worshiped by all the Knights together and they worshipped it at the Round Table. The search for the Grail was a major quest of Arthur and his knights and the significance of the Grail story in the Arthurian legend is comparable to the significance of the Last Supper in *Christianity: both feature a scenario of close *male bonding.
Stories associated with Arthur appear widely in European languages as R. S. Loomis shows (see below). Although both Arthur and his favorite knight Sir Lancelot are presented as heterosexuals, they have a close *male bonding relationship - as does the knight Tristan (Tristram in English) with Arthur. (On *Tristan see *Platen, *Richard Wagner and *Thomas Mann.) Lancelot's adultery with Arthur's Queen Guinevere is the more poignant because of the close relationsip of Lancelot and Arthur.
The close male bonding of the knights overall (especially expressed in the *symbolism of the Round Table and the Grail) has a strong homoaffectional basis especially expressed in the Parsifal story (as used, for example, by Richard Wagner as the basis of his last opera Parsifal). Phallic symbolism in the spear in Wagner's Parsifal needs to be considered as well as the significance of a wounding which only a woman's love can heal.
Enaish. The best known work by Thomas Malory, the fifteenth century Le Morte d'Arthur, is in prose; Chapter Three has homosexual incidents. On Malory see his entry in Oxford Companion to English Literature. The Middle English poem *Sir Launful is relevant and *Tennyson used material from the cycle as did *William Morris and *Bulwer Lytton (slight reference only). *Charles Williams has written a major sequence with cryptic meanings associated with *magic. The Australian poet *Robert Adamson has used the material explicitly in a homosexual sense. See also *John Heath-Stubbs. German. *Gottfried von Strassburg was the author of the poem Tristan used by *Richard Wagner as the basis of his opera Tristan und Isolde (the first German version of the Tristan story was by Eilhart von Oberge, ca. 1170). *Wolfram von Eschenbach's Parzival is the source of Wagner's opera, Parsifal. See also *Platen. French: *Chretien de Troyes (active 1170) composed a lost poem on Tristan and his Perceval was the source of Gottfried von Strassburg's work. Versions of the Tristan and Isolde story exist by Beroul (ca. 1150) and Thomas (ca. 1170); for discussion of homosexual aspects of the Tristan story see the Richard Wagner entry. See also * Chateau du roi Grahal. A translation from the Lancelot-Grail with homoerotic undertones is in the * Columbia Anthology of Gay Literature, pp. 111-122. Welsh see R. S. Loomis, Arthurian Literature, 1959, pp. 12-51.
R. S. Loomis, Arthurian Literature in the Middle Ages, 1959, is an exhaustive study of the Arthurian material in western European languages, with separate essays on the material in each language. Material exists in *long poems and in short forms such as *ballads as far apart as Spain, Italy and Wales and in the Scandinavian languages. Compare Arthur and Lancelot with * Amis et Amile (which trope was also a widely diffused medieval legend).
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Companion to English Literature: see "Arthur" and "Launcelot of the Lake"; see also "Grail". Anthologies. Columbia Anthology of Gay Literature, 111-124.
Journal in English from Great Britain. Published 1880-1902.
An important cultural journal of its time, The Artist and Journal of Home Culture was the first English *journal with a significant gay poetry content, publishing gay poems from 1888 to 1894, when it was under the editorship of *Charles Kains Jackson. (Compare The *Spirit Lamp and The *Chameleon.) A United States edition existed. *Henry Scott Tuke published a poem in it. Homoerotic content continued in the art illustrations after 1894. The trial of *Oscar Wilde in 1895 had a significant effect on its contents.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Reade, Sexual Heretics, 40-46: lists gay poems published 1888-94; some poems are reprinted pp. 225 ff. Criticism. Smith, Love in Earnest, 235-39: cites and identifies the writers of gay poems and articles 1888-94. Bartlett, Who Was That Man?, 109 ff: brief extracts.
Critic of Sanskrit literature from Canada writing in English. Active 1975.
Author of "The Transvestite in Sanskrit Story and Drama," Annals of Oriental Research of the University of Madras, 1975, 56-68. This article discusses *transvestitism (both male and female) in several Sanskrit plays in verse. Transvestism may here refer to *eunuchs or *hijras; the meaning is unclear in parts. An Academic at the University of *Toronto in 1975.
Critic from the United States who wrote in English. 1900-1963.
A professor of English at Smith College, a woman's college, who was forced to retire in 1960 after scandal related to photos of young men. He wrote Whitman (1938) and Herman Melville (1950).
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Gay Histories and Cultures.
Poet from Great Britain who wrote in Welsh. Active 1550.
See the poem "A boy dressed in girl's clothes" in Dafydd Johnston, editor, Medieval Welsh Erotic Poetry (1991), pp. 129-23 (with English translation). A very witty poem with homosexual suggestions despite the editor's disclaimer.
Poet who wrote in Urdu. Ca. 1850?; date uncertain.
Criticism. Rahman, "Boy love in the Urdu ghazal", Paidika vol. 2 no. 1 (1989), 21: poem cited about the seductive way of walking of boys.
Poet from the United States writing in English. Born 1966.
A *black poet from *New York.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Road Before Us, 8-9: "Invocation" ("I want to fuck a skinhead/ hard"), a very powerful poem; biog., 172.
Poet from Greece who wrote in Greek. Born ca. 250 B.C.
One of the chief epigrammatic poets of the *Hellenistic period, with eleven epigrams in the * Mousa Paidike. Possibly the teacher of *Theocritus and possibly from *Adramyttium.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Classical Dictionary, 129: see "Asclepiades (2)". Bibliographies. Bullough, Annotated Bibliography of Homosexuality, volume 2, item 10441: this listing of his poems in *Musa Puerilis, London: Heinemann, 1918, xii 36, 36 [sic], 50, 75, 77, 105, 135, 153, 161, 166 "and others" is incorrect (see my listing following under Palatine Anthology). Garland of Meleager. Palatine Anthology xii 36 (called Asclepiades of Adramyttium), 46, 50, 75, 77 (or *Posidippus), 105,135, 153, 161-63, 166. Eros: An Anthology of Friendship, 48, 54. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 1, 132: Palatine Anthology v 169. Criticism. Brandt, "Der paidon eros in der griechischen Dichtung", Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen 9 (1908), 261-63. Brandt, Sittengeschichte griechenlands, volume 2, 198. Licht, Sexual Life in Ancient Greece, 484. Buffiere, Eros adolescent, 295-96.
Poet from the United States writing in English. Born 1948.
See the poem "Memories of Italy (for Pat Stein)" - "I loved the light of course/ and the way the young men/ flirted with each other" - in American Poetry 1988 (New York, 1988), edited by John Ashbery.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Powell, Gay Love Poetry, 63-64.
Bibliographer from Great Britain who wrote in English. 1834-1900.
H. S. Ashbee was a rich merchant and famous book collector and bibliographer of erotica whose collection formed the basis of the *Private Case, a collection of erotica in the British Library kept segregated from the general collection. The collection was given to the British Library with Ashbee's *Cervantes collection and only accepted because the library wanted the Cervantes collection. His erotica collection was not entered into the British Library catalog until 1965, after a campaign to have the Private Case catalogued by Peter Fryer: see Private Case, Public Scandal (London, 1966). (Compare the treatment of the erotica in the *Enfer collection of the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris where works were routinely entered in the catalog.)
Ashbee's Index Librorum Prohibitorum (London: privately printed, 1877), Centuria Librorum Absconditorum (London, 1879), and Catena Librorum Tacendorum (London, 1885), form the basis of English erotic bibliography and make a major contribution to European erotica bibliography (since Ashbee did not collect only English erotica). Each volume also contains a list of works consulted. The work was reprinted in New York in 1962 in three volumes as Bibliography of Printed Books.
Entries consist of bibliographical description of the book or author being discussed followed by a critical essay. The work of a great connoisseur and not a pedant, each essay gives much valuable information on the work or author discussed, though information can seem somewhat arbitrary at times. SInce it lists homosexual titles, the first volume is the beginning of homosexual *bibliography in English and in European languages in the modern period (since no prior work is known with the exception of the Catholic Church's
* Index). Written under the Latin pseudonym Pisanus Fraxi (meaning, "bee of the ash tree" - see the Pisanus Fraxi) the work overall contains the first serious surviving discusion of homosexuality in English: see the indexes under sodomy. It inspired *Richard Burton, *J. A. Symonds, *Havelock Ellis, and *C. R. Dawes and was heavily relied on by *Eugen Duhren. Ashbee's real name is revealed by Burton in his translation of the Arabian Nights, "The Tale of the Hashish Eater" (vol. 3, p. 93, of the reprint of the Burton Club Edition; this edition has no date but was frequently reprinted).
*James Campbell Reddie, Ashbee's fellow book-collector, whose library Ashbee consulted, left extensive notes on erotica now in the British Library and some of his books entered Ashbee's collection; his work predates Ashbee's in erotic bibliography and probably inspired Ashbee. (Reddie also wrote two novels with homosexual incidents.)
Biography: apart from the works below, see Steven Marcus, The Other Victorians (1964), Chapter 2, pp. 34-76, a brilliant discussion of his life and work. His life is discussed in detail in the introduction to the shorter edition of his bibliography called Forbidden Books of the Victorians, edited by Peter Fryer, 1967; this also has a bibliography of his writings, pp. 227-30. A full length biography The Erotomaniac: The Secret Life of Henry Spencer Ashbee by *Ian Gibson was published in 2001.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Dictionary of National Biography. Bilder-lexikon (includes a photo of his bookplate with a drawing of himself). Lexikon des gesamten Buchwesens, second edition. Criticism. Legman, Horn Book, 4-46: life by *Gershon Legman. Kearney, History of Erotic Literature, 12; reprinted from the "Introduction" to the New York edition of Ashbee of 1962.
Poet from the United States writing in English. Born in 1927.
Widely regarded as a major United States poet, John Ashbery was mentioned as visiting the *gay bar called the San Remo in The Advocate, 15 May 1984, 26. In 1992 he was openly gay: he stated "I'm gay" in an interview on the Australian Broadcasting Commission Television Program at the Melbourne International Festival (broadcast 21 September 1992).
His work shows the influence of *surrealism and is mostly very complex (compare *Hart Crane) but he has written simpler poems, such as *haiku. Self Portrait in a Convex Mirror (1975), is a major *long poem of his based on a work by the highly homoerotic painter Parmigianino and is very *narcissistic.
Ashbery edited the journal Art and Literature published in Lausanne, Switzerland (12 issues, published in 1963). He has also been an art critic. See also John Ash. In Gay Sunshine Interviews, volume 2, p. 67, his gayness was noted in 1982 by *Martin Duberman. The journal Bete Noir, which has been supportive of gay writing, had a special issue on him in 1987. There are several pages devoted to him on the internet.
Translation. German. Eine Welle, Munich, 1968; Eine Welle (poems 1979-87), Munich and Vienna, 1988. Both books translated by Joachim Sartorius. Und es blitzen die Sterne, published in Austria, 1997 (trans. by Erwin Einzinger).
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Contemporary Poets, fourth edition. Malinowski, Gay and Lesbian Literature. Summers, Gay and Lesbian Literary Heritage. Gay Histories and Cultures. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Drobci stekla v ustih, 98; biog., 181. "Matrosen sind der Liebe Schwingen", 156-57. Word of Mouth, 97-103.
Poet from Turkey who wrote in Turkish. Died 1398.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 1, 363.
Poet from Iran who wrote in Persian. Active ca. 1590.
Qum is a holy city in Iran.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. A'in i Akbari anthology, 667-68 - *non gender specific love poems including one to "the lovely boy"; biog., 667.
Poet writing in English. Active 1974.
Bibliographies. Young, Male Homosexual in Literature, second edition, item 1642: book You'll be all right once you've found yourself a nice girl, Cambridge, Bluebell printing Co. 1974 - published under the pseudonym *I. L. C. Gustray.
Languages spoken on the continent of Asia, which is normally taken to be the land east of the Ural Mountains (sometimes the Volga River) and extending as far as Indonesia and Japan. Poetry of relevance dates from ca. 1200 B.C. (the earliest work being Gilgamesh).
The area has a huge number of language families of which the *Indo-European, *Turkic and *Sino-Tibetan are three of the most widespread. The *Islamic religion dominates in west and central Asia and *Buddhism in east asia. English is widely spoken as a second language.
Chinese has the oldest gay poetry records in east Asia and material in west Asia dates from the Hittite version of * Gilgamesh (this work is the oldest known long poem with gay interest and dates from before 1200 B.C.). A special issue of The APPA Journal titled Witness Aloud: Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Asian/Pacific American Writing was published in Spring/ Summer 1993 ( vol. 2 no.1); not seen. Notable written languages include Turkish, Arabic, Persian, Sanskrit, Hindi, Urdu, Bengali, Tamil, Tibetan, Chinese, Vietnamese, Korean, Bahasa Indonesia. Japanese is a language isolate. The *Overview entries for these languages discuss them in detail.
See Indo-European languages, *Altaic languages, *Caucasian languages, *Indian languages - India, *Indic languages, *Dravidian Languages, *Iranian languages, *Sinitic languages, *Turkic languages, *Polynesian languages. It is problematic whether *Afro-Asiatic languages originated in Asia (Akkadian) or Africa (Egyptian).
Poet who wrote in Persian. Active ca. 159Q.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. A'in i Akbari anthology, 66B - a homosexual love poem; biog., 66B - states his name is Amir Qazi.
Poet from Greece writing in Greek. Born 1931.
Openly gay. Notable gay poems are Odes ston prinkepa (Odes to the Prince), Athens, 1981, very erotic in a homosexual sense, and O dyskolos thanatos (The Difficult Death), Thessaloniki, 1974.
Critic and bibliographer from France writing in French. Active 1955.
Author of LEvolution de Walt Whitman (1954), a major critical study of *Walt Whitman which was translated into English from French as The Evolution of Walt Whitman (1960); however, the work is negative as regards homosexuality in Whitman: see the Whitman entry in Reader's Encyclopedia of American Literature. In 1972 he published a fine annotated bibliography of Whitman in Eight American Authors (New York, 1972), pp. 225-72.
Poet from France who wrote in Latin. 1604-1679.
He wrote parodies of Latin authors. See also *François le Coigneux de Bachaumont.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Biographie universelle. Cassell's Encyclopaedia of World Literature. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 1, 386: a gay poet who was imprisoned for homosexuality.
Poet from Iran writing in German; he lives in Germany. Born in 1929.
He was born in Teheran but since 1983 has lived in Germany. Book of poems: Gedichte (Frankfurt, 1991). Gay Poetry Anthologies. "Matrosen sind der Liebe Schwingen", 158-59; biog., 169.
Historian and anthologist from Greece who wrote in Greek. Active 200.
His only surviving book, The Deipnosophists (The Learned Doctors), contains extracts from poets and is a source of information on homosexuality and homopoetry in ancient Greece (see *Pancrates). Some homopoems survive only by virtue of being quoted in Athenaeus. The twenty five drinking songs which survive in Athenaeus are printed in *J. M. Edmonds Lyra Graeca, volume 3 (1927), pp. 561-75, and constitute an anthology which may date from fifth century Athens. See Bowra, Greek Lyric Poetry, Chapter 9, "Attic Drinking Songs", pp. 373-97, especially the poems on pp. 380-81.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Classical Dictionary, 139: see "Athenaeus (1)". Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 87-88. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Lieblingminne und Freundesliebe, 22-23 (poem *"Eros"), 26-27, 189-91, 201. Ioläus (1902), 25, 28-29,
74. Eros: An Anthology of Friendship, 38-39. Hidden Heritage, 68. Criticism. Symonds, A Problem in Greek Ethics, 5, footnote 2: referring to xiii 602; 26 and stating that here he preserves two homosexual Athenian *drinking songs (or *skolia). Licht, Sexual Life in Ancient Greece, 492-93 lists the homosexual loves of the gods cited in Beyer's work taken from *Clement of Alexandria (states traces of lists of homosexual loves have been preserved in Athenaeus). Courouve, Ces petits grecs, 10-11.
City in Greece where Greek is the spoken language; during the *Ottoman Turkish occupation, Turkish was also spoken. Gay poetry associated with the city dates from 500 B.C.
Athens is a very ancient city and occupation of the Akropolis, the citadel, which was later fortified, dates from the Neolithic period (before 3,000 B.C.). The main spoken language was and is Greek; Turkish was spoken during the Turkish occupation of Greece from the fifteenth century until the early nineteenth century.
Athens comes into historical prominence in the early fifth century B.C., as a dominant city state Although much has been *lost, records from the city from this century are a high point in human knowledge of homosexual life in ancient Greece. The background to the city's gay culture has been discussed by *K. J. Dover. Athenian vases from ca. 500 B.C. to ca. 450 B.C. show homosexual behavior extensively and were cataloged by *J. D. Beazley; these vases were made for the export trade, for the Etruscans, mainly, and cannot be taken to accurately depict the city's homosexual mores, though they show scenes relating to it - for instance *symposium scenes depicting homosexual conviviality in wine drinking scenes at banquets and scenes showing homosexual practices in vivid detail.
Homosexual public cruising places are known in ancient Athens, such as the cemetery, the Keramikos (see Symonds, Problem in Greek Ethics, 43) and homosexual *graffiti survive from the market place, the Agora. Dramatists such as *Aristophanes (active 430) make copious reference to homosexuality in their plays. *Aeschylus (active 500), *Euripides (active 460) and *Sophocles (active 460) were other dramatists who wrote plays in poetry which are of relevance.
The philosopher *Socrates discussed homosexual love as the most important form of love at a *symposium at the house of the poet *Agathon about 390 B.C. in the dialogue The Symposium which was recorded by his disciple *Plato (see also *drinking songs, *skolium). *Critias, one of the city's Thirty Tyrants, was an associate of his. The * Theognidea, the first Greek gay anthology, appears to have been compiled in the city largely by 460 B.C.; *Pindar also wrote poetry at this time.
Great care should be taken in drawing conclusions about homosexual behavior from other evidence (for example Greek vases) in relation to homosexuality as expressed in the poetry; however in classical Athens of the fifth century B.C. sculptures of the naked male in the kouros tradition show Athenians appreciated the naked body in a way the later *Christian culture could not. The city's extensive gymnasiums were places where the body could be admired as well as pickup places. It should not be assumed that documented types of homosexual behaviour in Athens (for instance *paiderastia, the love of an older man for a youth) was typical of homosexual behavior elsewhere in Greece or in the Greek colonies in Italy, Africa and west Asia in the fifth century B.C. Nor should it be assumed that the behavior of fifth century Athens necessarily continued in the same pattern in later centuries (for instance the *age of death in ancient Greece was much lower than in today's Greece so all homosexual behavior occurred at lower ages
Athens declined in the *Hellenistic period, when the city of 'Alexandria in Egypt became the dominant Greek city. However the important philosopher *Epicurus founded his school in Athens in the third century B.C. and the Platonic academy continued in existence until the sixth century A.D. The city remained in decline during the *Byzantine period (see the entry in Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium ) and was occupied by the Turks in the fifteenth century and liberated from them during the War of Independence in 1821. The English poet *Byron visited Athens during this war and died in Greece.
Though gay publications emanating from the city have suffered from 'censorship in recent decades, Athens, now the capital of the Greek republic, has been a centre for gay publishing in the contemporary period: see the entries Journals - Greek, *A. Angelakes, *David Halperin, *Elias Petropoulos (who compiled the first Greek dictionary of gay slang words), *Rebetika, *G. Savidis, * The Trojan War. Modern poets such as James Merrill and *Chester Kallman have been attracted to the city. The city contains important Greek *libraries.
For information on the city see Stuart Rossiter, Blue Guide: Greece, 1981, 57-177.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Classical Dictionary. Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Gay Histories and Cultures.
Poet who wrote in Urdu. Active ca. 1850?; the date is uncertain.
Criticism. Rahman, "Boy love in the Urdu ghazal", Paidika vol. 2 no. 1 (1989), 18: a poem in which the beloved is referred to as a baby.
Historian and critic from Great Britain writing in English. Active 1970.
Author of Sex in Literature, 4 volumes, London, 1970. This contains little gay material except for volume 2. It is eccentric in what it includes and excludes though the bibliography contains some little known items (e.g. the gay poem "Advice" by *Tobias Smollett). It is mainly a compilation which quotes from other sources.
Volume 1 is subtitled The Erotic Experience. Volume 2, the main volume of concern, subtitled The Classical Experience, deals with Greek and Latin literature; see Chapter 3 re *Catullus, Chapter 5 re *Martial, Chapter 6 re Juvenal, Chapter 7 re *Petronius; relevant also are Chapter 8, "Homosexuality" (see pp. 174 * Romance of the Rose, 179-86 * Arabian Nights [on which see also 258], 196-99 *Cavafy), Chapter 10, "Buggery", and Chapter 12, *"Phallic worship". Volume 3 deals with The Medieval Experience. Volume 4 is The Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century.
Poet from the United States writing in English. Active before 1992. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 2, 558.
Poet from Iran who wrote in Persian. 1119-1230.
A Persian mystical poet who was close to being a *Sufi though never joining the order. He lived in Nishapur the old center of Sufism. His works have strong homosexual undertones with *non gender specific poems addressed to The *Beloved. Light, the rose, the beloved and the soul are major tropes to express his feelings of love for the prophet Mohammad. His most famous poem is Mantiq alTahr (The Conference of the Birds) one of the masterpieces of world poetry, which has many homosexual stories incorporated; e.g. see pp, 93-95 of the Penguin English translation (1984). The Australian poet *Anne Fairbairn wrote a poem based on this work.
'Attar means pharmacist but little is known about him personally; he may have been gay. He was strongly influenced by *al-Hallaj. A phrase said to be by the *Sufi Abu sa'id Harraz - "sitting with young boys is the biggest temptation" - occurs in *R. A. Nicholson's edition of Attar's Tadhkiratu 'l-Awliya (Memorial of Saints), London, 1905, volume two, p. 41, line 2. Text: Conference of the Birds, edited by Dr Sadegh Gouharin (Tehran, 1978); see also the Encyclopaedia Iranica article on Attar p. 24. Criticism: *Helmut Ritter has written a recent brilliant study of him (with bibliography).
Translation. English: *Edward Fitzgerald (1894), *R. A. Nicholson (1905-11). The Conference of the Birds, translated by Afkham Darbandi and Dick David, New York: Penguin Books, 1984), is the most reliable translation. The English translations before the Penguin translation are strongly censored and unreliable. French: *Gargin de Tassy (1863; repr.). Swedish: Erik Hermelir (1929; translated from the French of Gargin de Tassy). Arabic. Hindi and Turkish translations exist which were consulted by Gargin de Tassy in his edition: see C. S. Nott, The Conference of the Birds, 1971, page v; these are likely to be in manuscript. Consult also the *British Library General Catalogue and the National Union Catalog for other translations.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition: by *Helmut Ritter (notes p.753 "frequently one does not know who is speaking or who is being addressed" in his poetry). Great Soviet Encyclopedia. Dictionary of Oriental Literatures. Encyclopedia Iranica. Eliade, Encyclopedia of Religion. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 1, 335 (a gay love poem); biog., 327. Criticism. Browne, Literary History of Persia, volume 2, 506-15. Arcadie, 98 (February 1962), 113-16: review. *Marc Daniel, "Arab Civilization and Male Love", Gay Sunshine 32 (Spring 1977), 8. Arberry, Sufism, 107-09.
Translator from French and Russian to Hungarian from Hungary. 1905-1937.
He was a prominent poet who translated the French poets *Rimbaud, *Villon and translated *Esenin from Russian. Very unhappy in his later life, he threw himself under a train and died. See Klaniczay, History of Hungarian Literature, pp. 413-29 for information.
Translation into English. See Attila Jôsef: Poems and Fragments, ed. Thomas Kabedo (2000) and The Iron Blue Vault: Selected Poems, translated by Zsuzsanna Ozsvath and Frederick Turner (2000).
Poet from France who wrote in French. 1550-1630.
A French *Calvinist poet who spent his last ten years in Switzerland. See also *Bathyllus.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Cassell's Encyclopaedia of World Literature. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Penguin Book of Homosexual Verse, 142: re *Henri III from his *long poem Les Tragiques. Les Amours masculines, 98-100: from Les Tragiques and regarding Louis XIII. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 1, 402-03: poems lampooning *Henri III. Pour tout l'amour des hommes, 61-62.
Editor of works in Greek and translator from Greek to French from France. Active from 1921.
Editor and translator of the French edition of the *Palatine Anthology. He edited Book 11 and the poems from the *Planudean Anthology not in the Palatine Anthology (volumes 10 and 13 of the Waltz edition). An academic at The University of Rouen, France.
Article: "Le livre XII de l'anthologie palatine: la muse de Straton", Byzantion (39), 1969, pp. 35-52; this deals with the construction of the book and the manuscript tradition. Buffière, Eros adolescent, p. 295 states he and *Félix Buffière are the editors and translators of the forthcoming edition of the * Mousa Paidike in the *Waltz edition.
Biographer from Great Britain who wrote in English. 1626-1697.
The first English biographer to unequivocally refer to homosexuality in a poet. In his life of Bacon in his Brief Lives he states: "He was a paiderastes [i.e. pederast; the word is written in Greek in Aubrey's text]. His *Ganimedes and Favourites took bribes..." (Clark edition, vol. i p. 71). In his life of *Francis Beaumont and John Fletcher he remarks on "that dearnesss of friendship between them" (ibid., i p. 95) and states: "They lived together on the Bank side, not far from the Play-house, both bachelors; lay together.. the same clothes and cloak, & c, between them" (ibid., i p. 96).
The Lives were deposited in manuscript in the Ashmolean Museum, *Oxford, just before his death; they discuss over 400 persons, sometimes in brief form, sometimes, as with *Milton, in detail. The first edition of the Lives of 1813 was censored. The text was established by Andrew Clark in his 1898 edition for Oxford University Press, using the Oxford manuscript, and he published most of the lives; however, a more complete text using this manuscript and other manuscripts is that of Oliver Lawson Dick, 1949. The complete text of all lives has not been published, many of the lives being in note form.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford Companion to English Literature.
Poet from the Netherlands writing in Dutch. Active before 1980. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Mannenmaat, 47-51; *sonnets.
Poet, critic and anthologist from South Africa writing in Afrikaans. Born 1934.
Active as a writer from 1965. His Wisselstroom: Homoerotiek in die Afrikaanse verhalkuns (South Africa, Kaapstad, 1990), 219 pages, is the first Afrikaans gay anthology. It covers not only the history and criticism of homosexuality in literature in South Africa in the twentieth century, but is also an anthology of prose; bibliography, pp. 215-17. The word "wisselstroom" refers to a stream. He wrote the Introduction to this work, pp. 9-20, which discusses prose writers and one poet,*Melt Brink. Active as a writer from 1965. Some poems are relevant.
For his biography, see his entry in International Authors and Writer's Who Who , 1977
Poet from Great Britain who wrote in English; he lived in the United States from 1939 and became a United States citizen in 1946. He wrote at least six poems in German and translated works from Swedish to English. 1907-1973.
W. H. Auden was the most famous British gay poet of the twentieth century who, however, became a citizen of the United States. The *Platonic Blow, an openly gay erotic narrative poem vividly describing gay sex, which Auden admitted writing, alone puts him among the greatest English language gay poets (written in 1948, it circulated in manuscript until 1965). This poem and 'Ginsberg's "Please Master" were among the most widely read English gay poems of the early 'gay liberation period. Auden's love poem "Lay your sleeping head, my love" (sometimescalled "Lullaby"), now known to have been "addressed to a teenage boy" (see Charles Osborne,
W. H. Auden: The Life of a Poet, 1979, p. 140), is also a famous poem and felt by many to be the finest love poem in English of the twentieth century (it was first published by the homosexual 'John Lehmann in New Writing, Spring 1937 and was written in late 1936 or early 1937); 'John Fuller, in W. H. Auden: A Commentary, 1998, p. 158, states it was inspired by a "fourteen-and-a-half-year old boy" with the poem being discussed on p. 264).
Educated at 'Oxford, Auden published his first book, Poems, in 1928 (it was published by 'Stephen Spender). Auden had a high reputation in the 1930s when he espoused 'Marxism and 'Freudianism and was the leading poet in a group called the 'MacSpaunday poets (which consisted of 'Louis MacNeice, 'Stephen Spender, W. H. Auden and 'C. Day Lewis). 'D. H. Lawrence figured as an influence in this early work. Moving to the United States in 1939, he lived in 'New York with his lover 'Chester Kallman whom he met in that year. In the poem "September 1, 1939" (written in New York on the day World War Two commenced) he wrote famously: "we must love one another or die". This poem, which Auden later suppressed, ends with the words: "May I ... show an affirming flame".
He became a 'Christian from 1940 and a United States citizen in 1946. After World War Two, he regularly holidayed on 'Ischia, Italy, an island near 'Naples across the bay from 'Capri. He later bought a house at Kirchstetten, Austria, where he lived in summer, died, and is buried.
Auden came out at a public reading in New York in the early gay liberation period about 1970 but his poems contain many subtle gay usages and his gayness was apparent to perceptive readers from much earlier. He was deeply depressive and his love life was unhappy (in "September 1 1939" he also wrote that what humans wanted was "Not universal love/ But to be loved alone"). Towards the end he was alcoholic. His persona of kindness and compassion, so emphasized by Stephen Spender in his Dictionary of National Biography obituary, points to a similar persona in Allen Ginsberg, his contemporary (who did not become addicted to drugs and who was more genuinely positive and optimistic).
Unlike 'A. E. Housman (about whom Auden wrote a splendid poem), Auden was not obsessed by self hate but the oppression of gays during his life in Great Britain and United States left deep scars and must be taken into account in reading his poetry. His relationship with Chester Kallman was also not happy (see the memoir of Kallman's stepmother 'Dorothy J. Farnan); it seems that the relationship early on broke down sexually although the two remained together. Auden married Erika Mann, the daughter of the novelist 'Thomas Mann and brother of the homosexual writer 'Klaus Mann in 1935 simply to get her out of Germany (Thomas Mann had left Germany to go into exile with the rise of the 'Nazis).
Other lovers included 'Christopher Isherwoood (with whom he wrote Journey to a War, 1939, about a visit to China) and 'Jackie Hewit (who has recalled an unpublished poem written to him). He was close friends with the gay British composer Benjamin Britten who set many of his poems to music (Benjamin Britten and his lover, the singer Peter Pears, lived in New York and shared a house with Auden and others at the beginning of the Second World War before returning to live in England).
Besides lyrics, many 'long poems, such as Letter to Lord *Byron, were written and Auden was a master of verse forms. A detailed gay reading of his early poems has not been attempted and this is related to the complex problems of his text. He also wrote dramatic works. In his and Christopher Isherwood's play The Ascent of F6 (1936) Auden stated the hero figure was modelled on "'T. E. Lawrence, or the dictators of the continent" (Hynes, The Auden Generation, 1976, p. 239). Auden also wrote opera libretti.
Text of the poems. The text of Auden is very complex. Not all his poems are readily available in his Collected Poems (1976) edited by his literary executor 'Edward Mendelson. Mendelson, who is editing his works, was left discretion as to what he might publish and has printed the latest texts as approved by Auden. As Auden revised his published poems in the Collected Shorter Poems and Collected Longer Poems published in his lifetime, omitting and altering the text, this is another problem with his texts. The problems of his texts are discussed in Stephen Spender, W. H. Auden, 1975; see "A note on Auden's text", by Edward Mendelson, pp. 249-51 (see also the introduction to the Collected Poems). Edward Mendelson has been criticized for his editing methods and his choice of poems (e.g., omitting the fine poem "September 1, 1939": see the review in Agenda vol. 30 no. 3, 71-75).
Volumes published so far include Juvenilia: Poems 1922-1928 (London, 1994), 263 pp., edited by Katherine Bucknell and The English Auden: Poems, Essays and Dramatic Writings 1927-1939 (1977), edited by Edward Mendelson, which collects poems of the 1930s written in Great Britain as published before Auden moved to New York in 1939. The United States poems from 1940 are forthcoming, as is a variorum edition. As I walked out one evening: Songs, Ballads, Lullabies, Limericks and Other Light Verse is a selection of 'limericks and light verse edited by Edward Mendelson and published in 1995. Princeton University Press is publishing a Complete Works of which so far the following have been published: The Plays and Other Dramatic Writings by W. H. Auden, 19281938 (1988), Prose and Travel Books in Prose and Verse Volume I 1926-1938 (1996), W. H. Auden and Chester Kallman: The Libretti and Other Dramatic Writings By W. H. Auden, 1939-1973 (1993), all edited by Edward Mendelson. So called pornographic works, such as The Platonic Blow, have been omitted from work published so far. In addition, some poems published in journals have not been included.
The Table Talk, edited by Alan Ansen (1991), consist of Auden's remembered conversation (review: Lambda Book Report vol. 1 no.
9 , 1991, 18-19). A selection of ten love poems Tell Me the Truth About Love (1994), based on a film of the same title, has proved very popular and been translated into some 'European languages (for example French, Italian - see Translation below). Several recordings of his readings exist. Interview: see the film interview in series Writers of Today, where he is interviewed by Walter Kerr, ca. 1950.
Poems written in German. At least six poems were written by him in Germany in the 1930s: see Katherine Bucknell editor, W. H. Auden, 1991 - this contains a large amount of unpublished material. Auden as translator. Swedish: see *Dag Hammarskjöld for Auden's translation.
Manuscripts. A large number of Auden's manuscripts are in the *New York Public Library.
Gay poems. Discussed here are homosexual poems of Auden. As Auden was homosexual, all his poems are relevant. Since poems were continuously rewritten by Auden, the first published texts must be consulted in all cases as well as every later version; gay reference was toned down or deleted in later versions of some poems.
Auden was especially fond of subtle uses of words, including using words which would have special meanings for gay readers, another problem in reading him (heterosexual readers may miss many references). As Auden did not reprint one of his finest poems, "September 1, 1939", as already noted, he cannot be trusted in what he considered final versions: it therefore cannot be assumed that the text of his poems in published books represents the best text of the poems.
The early "A Letter to a Wound", which may be about his homosexuality, he later suppressed. His 'non gender specific love poem "Lay Your Sleeping Head My Love, Human on My Faithless Arm" (January 1937), one of the most famous English love poems of the twentieth century, was written, as already noted, "to a teenage boy" (Charles Osborne, W. H. Auden, 1979, 140).
In Poems: Another Time, London, 1940 see "Funeral Blues (Stop all the clocks, cut off the telephone)" p. 91, in the sequence "Four Cabaret Songs". This poem was used in the film Four Weddings and a Funeral, 1992, with a gay reference (it has been dated April 1936 by Edward Mendelson). In Poems: Another Time see also the Dedication poem "To Chester Kallman" (the poems are based on 'Shakespeare's sonnets). The *Platonic Blow is Auden's most widely read gay poem. In Nones (1952) see "The Love Feast" (there are slight changes to it in the Collected Poems) and "In Praise of Limestone" (the text was changed in his Shorter Poems [e.g., "the nude young male who lounges/ Against a rock displaying his dildo" in the version in Nones, 1952, p. 11, disappeared in later versions though the phrase "a mad 'camp" was retained]). About the House (1966) deals with his relationship with Chester Kallman.
Charles Osborne states there are "three central love poems" in Auden's oeuvre: "Lay your sleeping head, my love", "The Common Life" (written to Chester Kallman) and "Glad", written to "Hugerl, a Viennese call-boy" ( W. H. Auden: The Life of a Poet, op. cit., p. 276).
For the text of a gay 'limerick see Charles Osborne, WH Auden (1979), p. 284 (other limericks seem to have been written).
Academic Graffiti (1971) has one relevant poem, No. 58 on 'Oscar Wilde. Other gay poems not included in Mendelson's edition are in the memoir of 'Dorothy Farnan, Auden in Love (London, 1984), e.g., the poem "To Chester Kallman", pp. 25-27. The Queen's Masque (1943) is an unpublished manuscript in the Berg Collection, New York (see Times Literary Supplement, May 20-21, 1988, 554). Woods, Articulate Flesh: Male Homo-eroticism and Modern Poetry, pp. 168-94, is the most detailed gay reading of his poetry so far. For further relevant poems, see the books mentioned in Bibliographies below and the poems in gay Anthologies listed below.
Biographers. Biographical works include works by *Charles Osborne (an affectionate tribute), 'Humphrey Carpenter (a detailed and readable work), 'Dorothy Farnan (on the relationship of Auden and Kallman), 'Richard Davenport-Hines (a very detailed biography), Thekla Clark, Wystan and Chester: A Personal Memoir (New York, 1996); review: James White Review, vol. 13 no. 3, Summer 1996,
19 (by Jack Shreve). 'Edward Mendelson has written a two volume survey of his thinking. See also reminiscences by 'Harold Norse in his autobiography and by 'A. L. Rowse. Samuel Hynes, The Auden Generation (London, 1976), deals with Auden, Spender and Isherwood 1930-40. His summer house in Kirchstetten, Austria, is now a museum. Film. A British Broadcasting Commission documentary on his life Tell Me the Truth About Love by Susanna Short was completed in 2000; this includes interviews with 'Christopher Isherwood and Don Bachardy.
Bibliography. Barry C. Bloomfield and *Edward Mendelson, W. H. Auden: A bibliography (second edition, 1972), is a very thorough bibliography listing books, journal publications, translations, films (discussion of the printings of The Platonic Blow, pp. 366-68, which is not in the first edition of the bibliography, is excellent). A third edition is reputedly in progress.
Criticism dealing with homosexuality in his poetrv. Discussion of his homosexuality started in 1973 with *Clive James after Auden had come out ca. 1970 at a poetry reading believed to be at the YMCA in New York (an article in Life, 30 January 1970 had referredto his and Chester Kallman's "homosexual routine" at this summer house in Kirchstetten in Austria. 'Gregory Woods, in Articulate Flesh: Male Homo-eroticism and Modern Poetry, pp. 168-94, has written the most detailed reading so far from a gay viewpoint.
Since Auden's poems are frequently obscure with many hidden references a guide to them is virtually essential. 'Anthony Hecht has written detailed analyses. 'John Fuller's W. H. Auden: A Commentary (1998) is the most detailed discussion of his poems so far, based on his earlier Reader's Guide to W. H. Auden (1970); it discusses each poem separately and gives detaild bibliographical reference to all published texts so that textual variations can be checked.
Translation. The *British Library General Catalogue was checked. See Bloomfield and Mendelson's bibliography (1972), referred to above under Bibliography, pp. 286-322 (this lists translations into many languages of poems in anthologies, journals and selections in books). Only book translations are listed here. French. Jean Lambert (1976; selection of poems including "Lay your sleeping head"); Tell Me the Truth About Love (see above) has been translated titled Dites-moi. la vérité sur l'amour(1995). German. Sag mir die Wahreit über die Liebe (1994; Tell me the truth about love). Hungarian: Translated by Andras Fodor, Agnes Gergely and others, titled Acilles pajsza, 1968 (trans. of 35 poems); Italian: Poesie, trans. Carlo Izzo (Parma, 1952; repr. 1961, 252 pp; trans. of ninety poems, the largest selection in any translated language), La verita, vi prego, sull'amore (Milan, 1994) - translation of Tell Me the Truth About Love; Japanese: Oden shishu, trans. Motohiro Fukase, 1955 (trans. of 42 poems); see also Bloomfield and Mendelson's bibliography p. 311 ; Macedonian: Pesni - a selection of poems, Scopje, 1971, trans. and selected by Bogomil Guzel - see * British Library General Catalogue entry (citing this incorrectly as being translated into Serbo-Croat).
The Platonic Blow has not been translated except into Dutch: see the entry for *The Platonic Blow.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Companion to English Literature. Dictionary of National Biography : by 'Stephen Spender and stating "he was a 'Christian... and a Christian gentleman". Dictionary of Literary Biography. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 9192: by 'Wayne Dynes. Dictionnaire Gay. Malinowski, Gay and Lesbian Literature. Summers, Gay and Lesbian Literary Heritage. Gay Histories and Cultures. Who's Who in Gay and Lesbian History: From Antiquity. Bibliographies. Bullough, Annotated Bibliography of Homosexuality, volume 2, items 10442-46: About the House, London: Faber, 1966, Academic Graffiti, London: Faber, 1971,
Collected Longer Poems, London: Faber and Faber 1974, Thank you, fog, London: Faber, 1974 and "A Day for a Lay" in Avant Garde 11, March, 1970, Vector 7:3, 18-19, March 1971 and Gay Sunshine 21: 11, Spring 1974 . Young, Male Homosexual in Literature, second edition, items 134-39: About the House, Academic Graffiti, The Age of Anxiety: A Baroque Eclogue, London: Faber, 1948, The Orators, second edition, London: Faber, 1934, The Platonic Blow, New York: The Fuck You Press, 1965 and Thank You Fog. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Gay Poetry, 7: a limerick. Frà mann til mann, 46-47. Penguin Book of Homosexual Verse, 320: poem "Uncle Henry" (about a Scot who travels to find sex). Les Amours masculines, 427-49. Gay and Lesbian Poetry in Our Time, 32-35; biog 32. Gay Roots: Twenty Years of Gay Sunshine, 654-58: text of '"A Day for a Lay". Drobci stekla v ustih, 68. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 2, 161: poem "Uncle Henry". Name of Love, 17; biog., 69. "Matrosen sind der Liebe Schwingen ", 139-44. Eros in Boystown, 56-57; biog., 59. Poems of Love and Liberation, 29, 33-34: "Uncle Henry" and "Lullaby". Pour tout l'amour des hommes, 257-58: trans. into French of "Lay your sleeping head" by Jean Lambert. A Day for a Lay, 40-44. Word of Mouth, 4-6.
August Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha
Poet from Germany who wrote in German. Active 1805.
Ein Jahr in Arkadien, edited by Paul *Derks (1985), 169 pp., is an idyllic novel with parts in poetry (i.e., it is a * prosimetrum). Not inOxford Companion to German Literature.
Criticism. Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen volume 5, Part 1 (1905), 646-687 including the poems "Kannst Du den Flug mit mir, o Freundinn, wagen" and *"Eros (In des Orasis friedlich stillen Auen)" pp. 659-60 and "Anteros" p. 686. Derks, Der Schande der heiligen Päderastie, 410-31.
Poet from Brazil writing in Portuguese. Active 1977.
Author of the book of poems Falo, self published, 1977, 61 pages (reviewed in *Lampiao no. 11, p. 14: it is assume the reason for the review is that the book contains relevant poems dealing with the theme of homosexuality).
Poet from Spain who wrote in Spanish. Active before 1992.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 2, 331: gay poet included in the *journal Cantico (published in Cordoba).
Aural recordings in English and other languages from Great Britain, the United States and Australia date from ca. 1888.
English. Aural recordings of English language poets reading their poetry date apparently from the late 1880s; published material exists relating to poets from Great Britain and the United States especially.
*Tennyson is believed to have recorded a poem and *Whitman's voice (ca. 1888) may have been preserved. The Canadian Lesbian and Gay Archives holds a recording of what is believed to be the voice of *Oscar Wilde. *Auden and *Ginsberg have been widely recorded. United States poets: see James Broughton, *Kenward Elmslie, James S. Holmes. Great Britain: see *Ivor Treby, *Lee Harwood. *Gershon Legman's works should provide leads for oral recordings of erotic poetry.
Cassette tapes and videos of poets reading frequently exist in the private collections of poets, both those broadcast on radio and those from public readings. See also *Archives and *Libraries and Archives - English since these are repositories of rare material. The *Library of Congress and Smithsonian Institute in *Washington DC in the United States are major United States repositories; the Library of Congress Folklore section should be able to help for. There is a National Sound Archive in the United States, as in other countries. The Sound Recording Archives at Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio, founded in 1967, has over
500,000 recordings in various forms including cylinder recordings from the 1880s. There is an Association for Recorded Sound Collections in the United States. Many countries are developing sound archives and videos screened on television sets are relevant (private copies of television screenings may frequently be the only copies in existence). In Great Britain, the BBC Archives and in Australia the archives of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation contain material; national and state broadcasting authorities in other English speaking countries may have material.
In Australia an archive of Australian poets reading on video exists in Canberra at the Defence Forces Academy, Campbell. The Poetry Society in London may have material and similar poetry societies and writers' societies in other countries may be repositories (check the internet for such societies). *RLIN, *OCLC and other online union library catalogs should be checked since aural material is increasingly being cataloged on them. Some libraries (such as the State Library of Victoria, *Melbourne) have card catalogs of aural material not yet transferred to machine readable form. See also *Poetry Readings.
As far as radio goes, it is important to realize that broadcast material has been archived in a haphazard way and material may be scattered in all parts of the world since radio is still a major media and material emanating in one country has been broadcast in others and may have been archived there and not in the country of origin.
Other languages. National libraries should be checked as well as national film and sound archives, poetry societies and literary societies. For French ICRAM in Paris is the national sound and film repository. In Russian archives exist in Moscow as in Chinese and Japanese.
For cultures lacking writing *anthropology museums (such as the Smithsonian in Washington and the Peabody Museum at *Harvard) have aural material. Major museums such as the British Museum in London also should have material. The National Museum of Ethnology in Osaka, Japan, has 63,00 audio-visual items.
City in India in which Urdu is the main spoken language (see *Siraj-ud-din, active 1747).
A city in Maharashtra state in north-central India, the city is a center of Urdu speaking Muslims. See *C. M. Naim, "The Theme of Homosexual (Pederastic) Love in Pre-Modern Urdu Poetry", in Studies in the Urdu Gazal and Prose Fiction, edited by M. U. Memon, 1979, pp. 121 and 128.
Poet from France who wrote in Greek and Latin and translator from Greek to Latin. Ca. 310-ca.395.
Ausonius married and lived in the French city of Bordeaux; he also wrote *epigrams in Greek (though whether any are relevant is not known); see also *fellatio. The *National Union Catalog and *British Library General Catalogue reveal his works were first published in 1472 and have been many times reprinted. He wrote some 146 epigrams. As translator, see Dawes, A Phase of Roman Life, 330 - he notes a large number of translations from the Greek * Palatine Anthology, e.g., poem cxix (in the *Loeb edition poem lix).
Translation. English: H. G. Evelyn White (1919-21; *Loeb edition), Jack Lindsay (ca. 1928). Catalan: Carlos Riba and Anton Navarro (1924). French: L'abbé Jaubert (1769), E. F. Corpet (1842-43+), E. Ducote (1897), M. Jasinski (1935). German: M. W. Besser (1908).
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Classical Dictionary. Bibliographies. Young, Male Homosexual in Literature, second edition, item 141-42: Ausonius, Volume I, Books I-XVII, and Volume II, Books XVIII-XX, both published London: Heinemann, Loeb Classical Library, [no date]. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Forberg, Manual of Classical Erotology. Eros: An Anthology of Friendship, 109. Penguin Book of Homosexual Verse, 110-11. Medieval Latin Poems of Male Love and Friendship, 2-5: three *epigrams showing fascination with homosex and one to his pupil *Paulinus; biog., 142. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 1, 202-03. Wilhelm, Gay and Lesbian Poetry, 137-38. Criticism. Courouve, Ces petits grecs, 11.
Biographer and critic from the United States who wrote in English. 1935-1984.
Author of Genteel Pagan: The Double Life of *Charles Warren Stoddard (Amherst, MA, 1991). This is a major biography of a minor poet which, in addition, reveals much about nineteenth century *San Francisco; on Stoddard's Poems 1867, see pp. 34-35. A biography of Austen appears on pp. vii-xxiv (he committed *suicide). Roger Austen was also the author of Playing the Game: The Homosexual Novel in America (1977).
Poet from the United States who wrote in English. Died 1974.
He taught in the Far East Division of the University of Maryland, in *Tokyo, where he died unexpectedly in 1974 . See Gay Sunshine no. 24, p.11, for some relevant poems.
Bibliographies. Bullough, Annotated Bibliography of Homosexuality, volume 2, item 10447: three poems and photographs of Japan's naked festival from *Gay Sunshine no. 19 (Sept/ Oct 1973), 14-15. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Orgasms of Light, 22-23: fine poem *"Mishima" (with reference to St *Sebastian); biog., 248.
Bibliography in English from Australia. From ca. 1970.
A computer database based at the Defence Forces Academy, Canberra, indexing Australian books and journals, including *subject indexing (and including subject indexing for homosexuality - both male and female). It commenced ca. 1973 and is being progressively extended backwards in time (e. g., early journals such as the Sydney Bulletin are being entered). Coverage from 1970 is excellent; coverage before 1970 is not detailed but is being progressively extended and widened.
This is apparently a unique database which, as a model, could be applied to all the *languages in the world, estimated at some 6,000, and extended to oral material, including film and aural recordings. Problems of conceptualization arise with subject indexing since the words and subjects indexed are inevitably subjective. This problem would be helped by entry of all the material being entered in computer form (allowing searchers to make their own subject searches of the actual texts for much contemporary material). This may be possible in future as more and more authors' manuscripts are deposited in libraries and archives in computer form (but this seems unlikely for the present due to copyright problems). See the entries *Robert Adamson, *Briggs, *Dibble, *Goodfellow, *Harwood, Jefferies, Jones, John Kinsella, *Li Min Hua (pseud.), *Sharkey, *Wardleworth as examples.
Languages spoken by the Aboriginal peoples of Australia. Detailed documentation exists especially from ca. 1970 though written records of individual languages go back to the late eignteenth century.
Australian Aboriginal languages may date back over 40,000 years. Over 200 languages are spoken currently and possibly 300 were spoken at the beginning of the contact period (1788) with many more dialects being spoken (recent estimates indicate some 678 Aboriginal tribes existed). It has been estimated that, of the 250 languages spoken in 1788, 160 are extinct and only 20 are actively transmitted (David Horton, Encyclopedia of Aboriginal Australia, 1994, volume 1, p. 600). The languages formed 29 language families at least, one language family being spoken over south-east Australia and 28 others in north-west Australia (in northern Western Australia and the north of the Northern Territory). Walpiri and Aranda, both spoken in the central desert, are languages with a large number of speakers; Kukatja is spoken in the desert in northern western Australia. Many languages have only a few speakers and are in danger of extinction.
Oral literatures have not been recorded in most languages for the most part, even on tape and video, and what has been recorded on tape and video only date from ca. 1970 (see *T. G. H. Strehlow); initiation ceremonies are of major importance. Of those languages that have been recorded, literary analysis has barely begun (for Aranda, the main language, see *T. G. H. Strehlow). Dictionaries, where they exist, are mostly inadequate: e.g., the dictionary of Gidjingarli (Northern Territory), compiled by the Christian missionaries
D. and K. Glasgow, omits all words which hint at sexuality and obscenity - which words in fact form a large proportion of the vocabulary (estimated by *Les Hiatt, University of Sydney, to this author, at up to 40%). See overall R. M. Dixon, Languages of Australia (1980).
See *Australian Aboriginal languages - Overview for homosexual poems. For information on languages see, in the Australian Encyclopedia, 1965 edition, under "Aborigines" the subsection titled "Languages"; in the 1977 printing see "Languages" under "Aborigines" (written by S. A. Wurm). See also entries on individual languages in The Encyclopedia of Aboriginal Australia edited by David Horton, 2 volumes (Canberra, 1994).
References. International Encyclopedia of Linguistics.
Anthology in English from Australia. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1993, 383 pages.
Compiled by *Robert Dessaix. Introduction pp. 1-18; biographical notes pp. 375-79. This is a mixed male and female anthology of poetry and prose on historical lines in the area of *queer writing. The anthology is arranged in seven sections: "Forewords", "Desiring", "Initiating", "Transgressing", "Loving", "Afterwords".
It has been much criticized for not representing the writing of the *gay liberation period adequately and for including heterosexual writers or writers who indentify as heterosexual at the expense of those who have written on homosexual themes (see reviews listed in Hurley, Guide to Gay and Lesbian Writing in Australia). Review: The Age, 11 September 1993, Extra p. 9. It contains some good poems but is uneven overall.
Male poets (see entries) are: Javant Biarujia, John Le Gay Brereton, Michael Dransfield, David Herkt, Rae Desmond Jones, David Malouf, Don Maynard, Tony Page, Peter Rose, Thomas Shapcott, Val Vallis; see also Gwen Harwood, Benedict Chiantar, Francis MacNamara (p. 3) and a poem by Sasha Soldatow (p.15).
References. Hurley, Guide to Gay and Lesbian Writing in Australia.
Languages spoken in Australia are of two types: indigenous and introduced languages. Material of relevance dates from 1847 in English - see *Christianos (pseud.).
*Australian Aboriginal languages were spoken before 1788 and go back 53,000 years or more (a piece of ochre used by humans hands in the Nationals Museum of Australia in Canberra on display is dated from 53,000 to 59,000 years before the present). Only twenty Australian Aboriginal languages are extensively spoken. *European languages - English, spoken from 1788, being the main language - and *Asian languages (Chinese initially from ca. 1851) are now spoken. The languages of the Torres Strait islands (Meriam and Mabuiag) are Melanesian and are related to the *Papua New Guinea Languages; these languages have oral traditions but there is not much reference known to homosexuality (information from Jeremy Beckett, an anthropologist specializing in the peoples of the islands). The Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies in *Canberra - known as AIATSIS - is the premier institute for the study of Torres Strait islander cultures.
Over three hundred languages are currently spoken, including some 150 Aboriginal languages and over 150 introduced languages. The number of introduced languages has increased markedly since 1945 when there was increased immigration. Some 200 introduced languages are in daily use in homes in New South Wales, the largest state with one third of the population (capital: *Sydney). Migrants came mainly from Europe until the 1980s when there has been increasing Asian immigration.
References. Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics: see "Australia".
Archive mainly in English situated in Australia. It was established in 1978.
The archive is based in Melbourne; Graham Carberry has been the main person responsible for running it until the late 1990s. It has assembled the largest collection of gay *journals in English in Australia holding * Christopher Street, *The Advocate, *Gay News and by 1994 an extensive collection of 694 journal titles (a computer based list of these journals exists). It has some non-English and nonAustralin journals (e.g., * Homologie). There are also 1,000 files on individuals, gay groups and gay topics and 40,000 newspaper cuttings arranged chronologically. The achives has an internet site.
References. Directory of the International Association of Lesbian and Gay Archives and Libraries, 18-22.
Languages spoken from the Pacific to the Indian Oceans, from Hawaii and other islands of Polynesia to Madagascar. Many are spoken in the Philippines and Indonesia. They include Bahasa Indonesia, the national language of Indonesia, and Tagalog, the national language of the Philippines. Tribal languages of Taiwan belong to this group. Material of relevance dates from ca. 1590.
The Austronesian languages are the most widespread indigenous language group in the world. They are spoken by over 250 million peoples. Hundreds of languages are involved. *Oral and tribal cultures predominate. Little work has been done on recording the oral literatures of the group which frequently include poems readily composed on almost any subject.
The Indonesian is the largest group of languages (some 669 languages are known: see "Indonesia" in Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics). Various scripts, derived from India, were used - e.g., the Kawi script for Javanese. The * Ramayana and *Mahabharata are major long poems extensively translated in southeast Asia. *Islam is a dominant religion in Indonesia and Malaysia and *Sufism has been influential in these countries (see * Pantun and the *Sufi poet *Hamzah Fan Suri, active ca. 1590); *Christianity is a major religion in the Philippines.
Indonesia. Bahasa Indonesia is the most widely spoken language: see *Chairil Anwar. Javanese, the next most widely spoken language, is spoken on Java. Balinese is spoken only on the island of Bali. In Javanese relevant material dates from 1000 in oral form: see *Mahabharata (which translation existed from 1000, though written versions may only date from 1893). Buoinese. spoken in south Sulawesi in Indonesia, has a major epic poem * I La Galigo recited by male *transvestite priests.
Malaysia. Malay: see *Pantun. Asmah Haji Omar, The Malay Peoples of Malaysia and their Languages (Kuala Lumpur, 1983), discusses languages spoken in Malaysia. Madagascar. Malagasy is spoken: see *Rabearivelo, *Songs - Malagasy. Philippines. Tagalog is the most widely spoken language: see *Songs - Tagalog. *J. Neil Garcia has edited a gay anthology and is a gay poet. Taiwan. The native languages of Taiwan (where Chinese is now the main language) are the northernmost languages and are related to Tagalog.
Polynesia. The languages of this area, in the Pacific Ocean from New Guinea to Hawaii, are usually regarded as a sub family: see entries *Ulamoleke for Tongan, *Overview - Maori and *Overview - Polynesian. Victor Krupa, The Polynesian Languages (1982) surveys these languages. On oral languages see the separate entry *Overview - Oral languages of Southeast Asia for some oral in this language family.
References. Katzner, Languages of the World, 5 and 25-26. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 579-99: "Indonesia". Murray, Oceanic Homosexualities, 151-84. New Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics: "Indonesian", "Polynesian". Simes, Bibliography of Homosexuality, 238-39.
Autobiography of gay poets in English dates from 1722; works exist from Great Britain, the United States, Australia and Canada.
The first autobiographies of poets of relevance come from the United Kingdom: see *Lord Hervey and *Thomas Walpole (whose autobiography, published in 1722, is the first work of note). The poet *Leigh Hunt described homosexuality at his school in his autobiography. *J. A. Symonds - whose autobiography was edited by *Phyllis Grosskuth - and *Edward Carpenter wrote autobiographies. The autobiographies of homopoets who did not write openly can frequently be more interesting than their works: for instance, *Osbert Sitwell (whose five volume work fails to mention his partner *David Horner).
Autobiographies frequently give valuable information on the circles the person moved in which can help in tracing who was gay in these groups. One poet, *Aleister Crowley, is so enigmatic, that, even after an autobiography and three biographical editions by one man, John Symonds, over forty years, the full story of his life is not known. Great Britain. See J. R. Ackerley, *Lord Alfred Douglas (whose autobiography is unreliable), *A. K. Seawright (an unpublished manuscript), *Francis King and James Kirkup (one of the most important poet autobiographers) His continuing autobiography extends now over several volumes. United States: see *Harold Norse (author of a major autobiography), James Broughton, *Samuel Steward. Australia: see *Patrick White (primarily a novelist but he also wrote some poetry). Canada: see *Patrick Anderson. Until recently the possibility of iibel has been an inhibiting factor in writing about homosexuality in autobiographies.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 138-42. Gay Histories and Cultures : see "Autobiographical Writing". Bibliographies. Simes, Bibliography of Homosexuality, 132-40.
Poet from Greece who wrote in Greek. Born before 40.
The name means charioteer. Not in Oxford Classical Dictionary.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Pauly, Wissowa, Paulys Real-Encyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft: see "Automedon (4)". Bibliographies. Bullough, Annotated Bibliography of Homosexuality, volume 2, item 10448: *Musa Puerilis,
London: Heinemann, 1918, Book 12, poem 34. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Garland of Meleager. Garland of Philip. Palatine Anthology xii 34. Penguin Book of Homosexual Verse, 65. Les Amours masculines, 41. Criticism. Brandt, "Der paidon eros in der griechischen Dichtung", Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen 9 (1908), 271. Brandt, Sittengeschichte griechenlands, volume 2, 200. Licht, Sexual Life in Ancient Greece, 486-87. Buffiere, Eros adolescent, 680.
Poet from the United States writing in English. Active 1975.
Bibliographies. Young, Male Homosexual in Literature, second edition, item 143: book Man to Man, *San Francisco: privately printed, 1975.
Poet from Germany who wrote in German. 1856-1923.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Neue deutsche Biographie. Bibliographies. Welter, Bibliographie Freundschaftseros, 38: Gedicht für Theodor Fischer [poem for Theodor Fischer]; no source given.
Poet from Spain who wrote in Arabic. 1113-1199.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 1, 321: fine gay love poem; *wine trope.
Translator from Persian to English from Great Britain. Active 1952-65.
Translator of The Rubaiyat of *Omar Khayyam, 1979, with John Heath-Stubbs (reprinted Penguin Books, 1981): a close translation based on the *Forughi and *Hedayat editions. Hafiz of Shiraz, Thirty Poems (London, 1952), is a text and translation of the Persian poet *Hafiz. The * British Library General Catalogue reveals he also published Modern Iran (London, 1965).
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Eros: An Anthology of Friendship, 127-32: trans. of *Hafiz with John Heath-Stubbs.
A performance artist from *Philadelphia. He has written his memoirs titled "Memoirs of a Sissy" in Men Freeing Men (1985). He works in *A Different Light, a queer bookship in the Castro in San Francisco. He has written journal articles for the San Francisco Examiner: see the internet.
Bibliographies. Young, Male Homosexual in Literature, second edition, item 144: Magic Doesn't Live Here Anymore, An *Androgyne Collective Publication, 1976. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Orgasms of Light, 24-25. Gay and Lesbian Poetry in Our Time, 36-37: "The *Rape Poem"; biog., 36: lists also the book Boy Dreams, 1983.
Poet from the United States writing in English. Born ca. 1972.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Gents, Bad Boys, and Barbarians,17-21; biog., 16.
Poet from Azerbaijan who wrote in Persian. Ca. 1271-1337.
A *disciple of Kirmani strongly influenced by him: see Kirmani, Heart's Witness (Tehran, 1978), p. 3.
Pseudonym of a critic from France who wrote in French. Active 1924.
His Platoniquement (Paris: Figuère, 1924) in prose, has a dialogue between *Platen and *Sappho. In Paris Gay 1925, by Gilles Barbedette (Paris, 1981), p. 311, there is a list of his writings including Les solitudes inquiètes (Paris, 1926) and Les miettes du Banquet (Paris, no date); his real name is stated here to be Pierre Guyoloy-Dubasty.
He is not to be confused with a later pederastic writer and painter François Augiérias, 1924-1971 (see the article in Paidika vol. 3 no.
1, issue 9, by *Gert Hekma, 57-64, the entry in Dictionnaire Gay and the entry in Who's Who in Contemporary Gay and Lesbian History). Biographical information on Augiérias also appears in * Pour tout l'amour des hommes, pp. 287-88, and Brongersma, Loving Boys, volume 1, 284; his surname is spelt "Augerias" in his entry in Duroc, Homosexuels et lesbiennes illustrés, 37.
Poet and anthologist from Brazil writing in Portuguese; translator from Spanish to Portuguese. 1933-1991.
Coeditor with *Gasparino Damata Ayala of the only Brazilian gay poetry anthology * Poemas do Amor Maldito; he wrote the introduction pp. 7-10. His "Phallic Ode" is one of the most erotic poems in the anthology. A prolific author who had published some seventeen books of poetry to 1988, with gay sentiment apparent from the book Un animal de deus, ca.1964 (title means "an animal of God"). He is best known mainly a writer of children's fiction. He translated *Federico García Lorca from Spanish.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Dictionary of Brazilian Literature. Foster, Latin American Writers on Gay and Lesbian Themes.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Poemas do amor maldito, 127-28; biog., 126.
Lover of a poet who wrote in Persian and lived in Iran; later a trope in Persian poetry. Active ca. 998.
The slave who was the beloved of the Ghaznavid *Sultan *Muhmad (ruled 998-1030). Their passion is a recurrent theme in Persian Poetry. He appears in Persian in the poetry of *Farrukhi, *Attar's Mosibatnama and *Rumi's Mathnawi; long mathnawi poems were written by several other Persian poets and especially in *Sufi writings (see his entry in Encyclopaedia Iranica). Other poems are cited in the Sultan Muhmad entry; see also *Huzni of Ispahan. He was a Persian trope of the *Beloved.
Little is known about Ayaz except that he was the chief cupbearer or * saki of Muhmad. He was known in Persian poetry for his good looks, valor, shrewdness and sincerity.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopedia Iranica; brilliant article by J. Matini (with bibl.)
Poet from Iran who wrote in Persian and Arabic. 1098-1131.
*Sufi and martyr who also wrote in Arabic. See the *Kirmani entry in Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition: he is in the tradition of Kirmani, though apparently more mystical.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition, Supplement.
Poet from Brazil who wrote in Portuguese. 1831-1851.
Criticism. Trevisan, Perverts in Paradise, 101-03: a repressed *Romantic poet who appears to have been homosexual. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 163: stated to have been gay.
Novelist and poet from China who wrote in Chinese. Active before 1972.
Though mainly a novelist, gay poems occur in his novel. Hinsch, Passions of the Cut Sleeve, pp. 166-67, cites from his novel Family (Jia), trans. English, New York, 1972, by Olga Lang (see pp. 64-65). The passage refers to the main character's grandfather who wrote poems, playing around with sing song girls (to whom he dedicated poems) and *actors who were female impersonators in Chengdu (a large city in southwest China). Ba Jin is spelt in *Pinyin.
Poet from Iran who wrote in Persian. 1000-1055.
Persian *Sufi poet who wrote * rubai; they are sorrowful, in contrast to those of the joy loving *Omar Khayyam. He was translated into English by *A. J. Arberry, entitled Poems of a Persian Sufi (1937).
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Rypka, History of Iranian Literature, 234.
Poet from Iran who wrote in Persian. Active ca. 159Q.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. A'in i Akbari anthology, 676; biog., 676.
Journal in Italian from Italy. From 1983.
It is the most widely read Italian gay journal, published monthly in Milan, Italy. Though popular, it contains serious cultural articles including some on poetry. The major gay scholar *Giovanni Dall'Orto writes for it and has been a leading force in producing it. It has an excellent internet site.
See entries for Barcelona, Dario Bellezza, Giuseppe Belli, Bologna, Jean Cocteau, Alfredo Cohen, Giovanni Dall'Orto, Dictionaries and Words - Italian, Gilgamesh, Guido Gozzano, Heinrich Heine, Hou Chu, Journals - Greek, Mario Mieli, Cesare Picchi, Raymond Radiguet, Piero Santi, Songs - Italian, Gennady Trifonov, Turin, Venice.
Bibliographer from Great Britain who wrote in English. Active 1925.
He was the bibliographer of the important early gay researcher John Addington Symonds who compiled Bibliography of the Writings of John Addington Symonds (London, 1925; repr. New York, 1968), 244 pages. The book is an annotated bibliography of 560 items, including books and articles. It is one of the finest bibliographies of a gay poet and writer so far. The book is dedicated to A. T. Bartholomew "In gratitude for his assistance and in memory of twenty-one years of unclouded friendship." Compare *Christopher Millard.
Poet and critic from Hungary who wrote in Hungarian. 1883-1941.
A major twentieth century Hungarian writer and poet strongly influenced by 'decadent poetry in his early poetry (published in 1909 and 1911); see Kaido, History of Hungarian Literature, pp. 361-62. He married in 1921. Poems of his are obscure and allusive and may contain hidden gay meanings - see "Pictor Ignotus", in Tibor Klaniczay, History of Hungarian Literature, 1982, p. 262. He also wrote a book on 'Oscar Wilde - Wilde Oszkar verseibol (1916).
He is noted for his translation of 'Dante's Divine Comedy into Hungarian and wrote a history of European literature published in Hungarian in 1934 as Az eurôpai irodalom tôrénete (trans. into German and published in 1949 as Geschichte der europäischen Literatur); this discusses many gay poets (e.g., 'Shakespeare, 'Michelangelo) and the second section ends with the ' fin de siècle (there is a small final chapter on the twentieth century). Eroto, Budapest, 1970, is a translation of erotic poetry into Hungarian (rare: copy held, 'Library of Congress). Bibliography of his works: see Albert Tezla, Hungarian Authors(1970), pp. 54-63.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Penguin Companion to World Literature. Criticism. Kaido, History of Hungarian Literature, 36066.
Poet from India and Afghanistan who wrote in Turkish, Chagatay and Persian. 1483-1530.
He was founder of the Mughal dynasty of India, occupied *Delhi and Agra and wrote memoirs, the Baburnameh, in the eastern Turkish literary language Chagatay; the memoirs were translated into Persian in 1589 and English by L. F. Brushbrook Williams (published 1921-22) and into French by Pavet de Courteille (published 1891). His memoirs reveal him to have been infatuated with a seventeen year old man known as Baburi. He wrote poems in Turkish; about twelve are in Persian. He had sons.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopaedia of Islam, first edition: see "Baber". Garde, Jonathan to Gide, 282-83. Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition: "Babur". Encyclopedia Iranica: "Babor". Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, vol. 1, 18 and vol. 2, 1007: stated to have written poems. Criticism. Raffalovich, Uranisme et unisexualite, 57-59: regarding a poem to a Persian youth. Rahman, "Boy love in the Urdu ghazal", Paidika vol. 2 no. 1 (1989), 13: love for a boy Babari.
Figure from myth and trope in Greek later a trope in Latin, English and Russian. Recorded from ca. 130.
Bacchus is another name for *Dionysus. In Greek he is referred to in poetry in the * Mousa Paidike (e.g., xii 50). The date is taken from the 'Mousa Paidike (ca. 130) but he may have appeared in homopoetry earlier; see Liddell and Scott, Greek-English Lexicon, 303. Latin. Bacchus appears in the poetry of *Horace and *Virgil (see Oxford Latin Dictionary, 223) and is extensively depicted on sarcophagi from the early Christian era. For the artistic depiction see * Lexicon iconographicum mythologiae classicae under Dionysos. English. See *Ralph Waldo Emerson, *Edmund Spenser. A painting by the homosexual *Simeon Solomon, who wrote prose poems, dome as an illustration to the journal * Century Guild Hobby Horse shows him as a beautiful youth. Russian. See 'Calling out for Bacchus' by 'Vyacheslav Ivanov in * Out of the Blue, 140-41. The Russian saints Serge and Bacchus are regarded by some as a gay pair: see the entry "Serge and Bacchus" in Who's Who in Gay and Lesbian History: From Antiquity.
Poet from Greece who wrote in Greek. Born 400 B.C.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Classical Dictionary, 158. Bibliographies. Welter, Bibliographie Freundschaftseros, 39: poem "Der Friede (Walter der Friede)". Gay Poetry Anthologies. Garland of Meleager. Lieblingminne und Freundesliebe, 28: see entry *Wilamowitz-Moellendorf. Brandt, "Der paidon eros in der griechischen Dichtung", Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen 8
(1906), 658. Brandt, Sittengeschichte griechenlands, volume 2, 191. Licht, Sexual Life in Ancient Greece, 477.
Poet from France who wrote in French. 1524-1702.
Not in Cassell's Encyclopaedia of World Literature.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Les Amours masculines, 139: poem written in relation to *Charles Coypeau d'Assoucy (1604-79) with *Claude Chapelle. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 1, 410. 86: same poem as in the preceding anthologies, Voyage en Languedoc, about a page boy.
Historian and autobiographer from Great Britain who wrote in English; he lived for most of his life in China. 1873-1944.
A graduate of *Oxford he afterwards lived in *Beijing and became a Chinese scholar. He gave a large collection of Chinese books to the Bodleian Library, *Oxford University. He published in English two books on the Manchu court: China Under the Empress Dowager
(1910) and Annals and Memoirs of the Court of Peking (1914).
See the biography by Hugh Trevor-Roper, Hermit of Peking, New York, 1977: the book discusses Backhouse's homosexuality extensively. On pp. 238-77 Trevor-Roper discusses a manuscript of Memoirs said to be by Backhouse which he examined in 1973 and which was to be given to the Bodleian Library; he concluded that the Memoirs were largely made up by Backhouse and that claims that he knew such persons as *Wilde, the French poet *Verlaine and *Beardsley are false. Compare *Frederick Rolfe.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Dictionary of National Biography; by Hope Danby.
Philosopher and poet from Great Britain who wrote in English; translator from Hebrew to English. 1561-1626.
Bacon is most famous as a philosopher and was also Lord Chancellor of England in 1618. His homosexuality was noted by John Aubrey and by his contemporary Sir Simonds D'Ewes (born 1602) in his Autobiography. His mother reproved him for homosexual practices in a letter (see Garde, Jonathan to Gide, 343); this is quoted in Spedding's Life of Bacon. He married in 1606 aged forty-six.
His Essays are some of his most widely read literary works. Most importantly from a gay point of view is his essay "On Friendship".
His essay on "Beauty" deals exclusively with the masculine kind. He translated some of the Hebrew * Psalms into English and wrote a fine poem in English, "The world's a bubble" (in Poems, edited by Reverend A. B. Grossart, Privately printed, 1870, pp. 49-52), and he possibly wrote "The man of life upright" (ibid., pp. 53-54). As Chancellor of England he was assisted in his rise by the Earl of Buckingham, the homosexual favorite of James I. Accused of bribery, he was disgraced, retired to the country and later married. Intrigues against him must be considered in relation to his homosexuality.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Garde, Jonathan to Gide, 339-43. Oxford Companion to English Literature. Dictionary of National Biography. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 103. Howes, Broadcasting It. Dictionnaire Gay. Summers, Gay and Lesbian Literary Heritage. Who's Who in Gay and Lesbian History: From Antiquity. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Ioläus (1902), 136-38: from the essay "On *Friendship". Iolaus(1935), 220-230: essay on friendship. Eros: An Anthology of Friendship, 188-92: essay, "Of Friendship". Criticism. Hirschfeld, Die Homosexualität des Mannes und des Weibes, 659. Dawes, Study of Erotic Literature in England, 229A-229B. Norton, Homosexual Literary Tradition, 287-323.
Poet from the United States who wrote in English. Active 1934.
Bibliographies. Bullough, Annotated Bibliography of Homosexuality, volume 2, item 10449: Dream and Action, New York: Harper, 1934. Young, Male Homosexual in Literature, second edition, item 145: cites the same book.
Critic from India who wrote in Persian. Active before 1884.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition. Dynes, Homosexuality: A Research Guide, item 1017: states his Selections from Histories (translated from Persian into English and first published in English, Calcutta, 1884; repr. 1925) lists pederastic poets and rulers of India. (A copy is in the *Library of Congress: for poets see vol. 1 of the Library of Congress edition [Karachi, 1976; repr. from 1925 edition], pp. 610-13, vol. 2, 12-17, vol. 3, 242-49, 255-57, 265, 331-33, 338-340.)
Anthology in English from the United States. New York: Badboy, 1996, 399 pages.
An excellent volume of gay erotic poetry compiled by *David Laurents which features poetry by sixty-one poets from the *gay liberation period through to the 1990s; poems are very well chosen; biographical notes pp. 383-93. There are many new poets who write fine gay poems and many from *New York and *San Francisco with a few from *Boston. The anthology has only been published in paperback and the quality of the paper is poor. Review: James White Review vol.13 no. 2 (Spring 1996), 21-22.
Poets (see entries): Antler (pseud.), Robin Wayne Bailey, David Bergman, Dick Bettis, Walta Borawski, William Bory, Jonxavier Bradshaw, Eric Brandt, Perry Brass, James Broughton, Regie Cabico, Rafael Campo, Marsh Cassady, Steven Cordova, Alfred Corn, Peter Daniels, Gavin Dillard, Mark Doty, David Eberly, Edward Field, Allen Ginsberg, Thom Gunn, Peter Hale, Trebor Healey, Scott Hightower, Richard Howard, Abraham Katzman, Dennis Kelly, Rudy Kikel, Victor King, Wayne Koestenbaum, Michael Lassell, David Laurents, Timothy Liu, Michael Lowenthal, John McFarland, Rondo Mieczkowski, Edmund Miller, M. S. Montgomery, Carl Morse, Christopher Murray, Harold Norse, Scott O'hara, Carl Phillips, Felice Picano, Mason Powell, Steven Reil, Eric Robertson, Leigh W. Rutledge, Lawrence Schimel, Jay Shaffer (pseud.), Alden Shaw, Reginald Shepherd, Simon Shepherd, David Trinidad, Jonathan Wald, Paul O. Welles, L. E. Wilson, Gregory Woods, Ian Young.
Poet from Afghanistan who wrote in Tajik. Ca. 1470-1529.
In the Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, p. 17, *S. W. Foster states he wrote poems about beautiful boys. For information on him see Rypka, History of Iranian Literature, pp. 500-501, where he is called Badridin Hiloli. See also his * mathnavi, Shohu Darvesh, about the tragic love of a dervish for his ruler.
Poet from Spain who wrote in Spanish. Active before 1992.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 2, 331: gay poet included in the *journal Cantico (published in *Cordoba).
Poet from Italy who wrote in Italian. 1694-1768.
A *Venetian dialect poet who wrote erotic poems which were banned; many were *sonnets and contained explicit homosexual references. His poems are believed to have been called "the most erotic poems ever written" by *J. A. Symonds (source not traced; *Anthony Reid to the author). In the Lisieux printing see the poems in vol. 1, pp. 28, 29 and in vol. 2, pp. 101, 153, 155, 160, 166, 170, 172. Compare *Belli.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Bilder-lexikon. Cassell's Encyclopaedia of World Literature. Dizionario biografico degli Italiani. Bibliographies. Bullough, Annotated Bibliography of Homosexuality, volume 2, item 10450: cites Poésies complète de Giorgio Baffo, Paris: *Lisieux, 3 volumes. Pia, Les Livres de l'Enfer, vol. 1, column le Poesie di Giorfio Baffo, London: no publisher, 1721 (stated to contain only a part of his oeuvre) and Poésies complètes de Giorgio Baffo, 4 volumes, Paris: Isidore Lisieux, 1884, with a translation into French by Alcide Bonneau. Gay Poetry Anthologies. L'amicizia amorosa, 145-48; biog., 143. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 1, 238-39: translations of poems vol. 2, 288, 326, vol. 3, 196, vol. 4, 248
City in Iraq in which Arabic is the main spoken language. It is the capital of Iraq. Gay poetry associated with the city dates from 800.
Baghdad was the capital of the *Abbasid caliphate; however, the city is very ancient. *Abu Nuwas and *al-Bahila (both active 800) are the first notable homopoets associated with the city; *Ibn al-Hadjdjadj was later associated with it. *Di'bil ibn 'Ali wrote a satire on the gays of the city in the ninth century. It has been estimated to have had 27,000 public bathhouses in the tenth century (see *Sexologists - Islamic). The city was sacked by the Mongols in 1292.
Many stories in the * Arabian Nights are set in Baghdad and the *Sufi philosopher *Al-Ghazali also taught there. A modern poet who has written a notable poem is *Muhammed Qassim. The city contains important libraries. See also ibn al-Rumi. Hebrew: see isaac
Ibn Ezra and 'al-Harizi.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition. Encyclopædia Britannica.
Translator from Latin to English from Great Britain. Born 1917.
Editor and translator of a new edition of *Martial in the *Loeb classics, 3 volumes, 1993, using contemporary and readable English. This is the first edition with a complete English translation since the * Index Expurgatorius and is the finest English translation to date. The homosexual poems are uncensored. He is the former Professor of Latin at *Harvard; see his entry in Who's Who 1993.
Historian from Great Britain writing in English. 1910-1984.
Author of Homosexuality and the Western Christian Tradition (London, 1955). Despite it's title, this is a major study of the laws in the west and how they emerge from the Judeo-Christian background, the *Roman background and the Justinian statutes; it is a pioneering work setting the stage for the work of *Michael Goodich and John Boswell and reveals the legal and religious background against which the poetry was written, especially Latin and Greek poetry. Chapter 1: *"Sodom and Gomorrah". Chapter 2: "The Bible and Homosexual Practice". Chapter 3: "Roman *Law to the Time of Justinian". Chapter 4: "Legislation, Teaching and Opinion in the Church". Chapter 5: "The Medieval Situation". Chapter 6: "The *Law in England".
The dust-jacket states that it is the author's personal contribution to the Wolfenden Committee (which produced the report leading to the partial decriminalization of consenting male homosexual acts for males over 21 in Great Britain) and that the author is an Anglican priest, Ph. D. from Edinburgh, Central Lecturer for the Church of England Moral Welfare council from 1951, and married with three children. See Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, p. 104.
Poet from the United States writing in English. Active 1995. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Badboy Book, 33-38; biog., 393.
Poet from Great Britain writing in English. Active 1990. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Beyond Paradise, 41; biog. 77.
Poet from Great Britain writing in English. 1891-1918.
A friend of Charles Kenneth Scott-Moncrief, the English language translator of *Marcel Proust, he attended *Cambridge and died in the war. "If I should die" (see Lads below) is a brilliant *parody of *Rupert Brooke and was published in the autobiography of the Australian novelist Nevil Shute, Slide Rule (1954), a former pupil.
Bibliographies. Bullough, Annotated Bibliography of Homosexuality, volume 2, item 10451: Achilles in Scyros, a classical comedy, London: Cayme Press, 1927. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Penguin Book of Homosexual Verse, 345-46: from the poem Achilles in Scyros, about women who live without men (very witty). Lads: Love Poetry of the Trenches, 69 ("If I should die, be not concerned to know" states he wishes to be thought of as one who liked "Beethoven, Botticelli, beer and boys"); biog., 229. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 2, 152. Criticism. Smith, Love in Earnest: see index; bibl. 240, citing Achilles in Scyros, London, Cayme Press, 1927.
Translator from Russian to Slovenian possibly from Slovenia. Active 1989.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Drobci stekla v ustih, 14 (trans. of *Mikhail Kuzmin), 26 (*Nikolai Klyuev) , 46 (*Sergei Esenin), 135-37 (*Gennady Trifonov).
Critic and poet from Great Britain who wrote in English. Ca. 1945-ca.1995.
An openly gay writer and journalist who wrote widely and wittily for * Gay News, including poetry criticism (see *Lorenz Hart, * Love and Death) and a book on *transvestism. He retired from life in London to live in the country in Scotland and died of emphysema ca. 1995. *Laurence Collinson was a close friend (Roger Baker was executor of his will); he and Laurence Collinson were involved in the drama group Gay Sweatshop.
Bibliographies. Bullough, Annotated Bibliography of Homosexuality, volume 2, item 10452: three poems in Gay News 42: 10, March 14, 1974). Gay Poetry Anthologies. Gay Verse.
Poet from Turkey who wrote in Turkish. 1526-1600.
He wrote a famous *elegy on the death of *Suleyman the Magnificent and is regarded as the greatest * ghazal writer of Turkish and one of the great * divan poets. He appears gay. Many poems are very ambiguous (Dr Chris Murphy, Turcologist. School of Oriental and African Studies, London, to the author). On the poet see Gibb, History of Ottoman Poetry, volume 3, pp. 133-59 (name spelt Baqi).
Text: edited by R. Dvorak, Leiden 1908-11; by S. N. Ergun, Istanbul, 1935. Criticism: see Jan Rypka. Translation. German: Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall (ca. 1828)
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopaedia of Islam, first edition. Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition. Duroc, Homosexuels et lesbiennes illustrés, 43. Mitler, Ottoman Turkish Writers. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Anthologie de l'amour turc : trans. into French. Penguin Book of Turkish Verse, 91-94: fine homosexual poems with *wine and *cupbearer tropes; biog., 10.
Critic from Saudi Arabia writing in Arabic. Active ca. 1987.
Author of Love Poetry in the Second Century (written in Arabic; this is a translation of the title) published before 1987. It discusses homosexual love which it claims entered Arabic poetry via the Persians when the Caliphate moved to *Baghdad; see pp. 187-243. (information from Dr Yousef Khailif, University of Cairo, to the author February 1987). The author works in Saudi Arabia and has written several books, including one on *Omar Khayyam.
Poet from Russia who wrote in Russian; translator from English and Georgian to Russian. He also lived in France. 1867-1942.
He published twenty-nine volumes influenced by *Symbolism and the *Decadent Movement. He translated from English to Russian *Oscar Wilde's Ballad of Reading Goal (1904) and *Whitman's Leaves of Grass: Pobiegi Travy (Moscow, 1911, 216 pages). He translated from Georgian to Russian *Shota Rustaveli. He was in exile in France from 1920.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Terras, Handbook of Russian Literature.
Critic from Germany writing in German. Active 1985.
Author of Die Knabenliebe in Mittelasien (Boy Love in Central Asia), Berlin: Verl. Das Arabische Buch, 1988, 116 pp. (the book is sold by the publisher Das Arabische Buch, Wundstrasse 13/15, Berlin 1019). There is an English Abstract on "Bagabozlik-bagabozi" - as love between boys and men is called - pp. 115-116, discussing the contents of the book. The book discusses *boy love especially among the Uzbek speakers of Afghanistan and is the first extended study of Uzbek boy love. The boy frequently dances and sings for his adult lover: see *Singing and Dancing Boys. For translation into English of part of the book: see * Paidika vol. 2 no. 5 (1992). The poems sung by the boys relate to Persian and Turkish poetry and records of the practice exist in Russian (cited in the work). The author was associated with the Freie Universität, Berlin.
These boys are called bachas and a photograph of one in Bukhara in the Uzbek Republic is on p. 91 of Vitaly V. Naumkin, Bukhara, London, 1993 - a work which consists of photographs of Bukhara from Russian archives (the photgraph on p. 91 of the work was taken by the Russian L. S. Barshchevsky and dates from the early 1890s).
Poet from Germany writing in German. Active 1985.
Author of a book of gay free verse poems bound in *purple with purple endpapers titled Krasis (Berlin: *Verlag rosa Winkel, 1985), 63 pp. All copies are signed and numbered but no statement of limitation is given; the copy used was no.142.
Poet from Germany who wrote in German. 1959-1993.
Chapbook of gay poems illustrated with photographs: Breitseite (Berlin, Maldoror FlugSchriften, 1980), edited by *Nico Wurtz. He died of *Aids.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Milchsilber, 46-7; biog., 179 (with photo).
Novelist and poet from the United States who wrote in English; he also lived in France. 1924-1987.
A *black writer famous as a novelist and for publishing, in 1956, a novel dealing openly with a male homosexual relationship,
Giovanni's Room. The first openly gay black writer of the period after 1945. He spoke up on black injustice in the civil rights struggle in the 1960s (the black power movement) as well as being open about his homosexuality: see the film on him, James Baldwin, by Karen Thorsen (1989).
James Baldwin lived in France from his early writing career and died in the south of France at St Paul de Vence. See James Baldwin: The Legacy, edited by Quincy Troupe (1987).
Text of his poems. In Jimmy's Blues: Selected Poems (1983), see the poems "Munich, Winter 1973", pp. 30-33 and "Mirrors", pp. 6263. This is a modest volume of poems and not all his poems may have been published. Gypsy and other poems, Gehenna Press, 1989 (225 copies), has an etching of the poet by Leonard Baskin. Interviews: Gay News no. 181 (1979), 21; The Advocate no. 447 (27 May, 1986), 42-46.
Translation. German. Thomas Stegers (1984; Jimmy's Blues - see details in Bibliographies below). Biography. W. J. Weatherby, James Baldwin, Artist on Fire, 1990, does not deal adequately with Baldwin's homosexuality. A second biography is by James Campbell, Talking at the Gates: A Life of James Baldwin (1991). See also *Wole Soyinka.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Companion to English Literature. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 104. Howes, Broadcasting It. Dictionnaire Gay. Malinowski, Gay and Lesbian Literature. Summers, Gay and Lesbian Literary Heritage. Gay Histories and Cultures. Who's Who in Contemporary Gay and Lesbian History. Bibliographies. Bestandsverzeichnis der August von Platen-Bibliothek Siegen, item 46: Jimmy's Blues (trans. into German by Thomas Stegers), Reinbek bei Hbg.: Rowohlt, 1984. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Fra mann til mann, 79-71. Gay and Lesbian Poetry in Our Time, 38-42; biog 38. Eros in Boystown, 7-8.
Oral poem in English from Ireland and Australia. In existence from ca. 1922.
This poem can be dated from some stanzas which appear in James Joyce's novel Ulysses, 1922 (in the Penguin corrected edition, 1986, p. 22). The poem was obviously current from this time at least.
A stanza referring to Jesus Christ as gay is alleged to have been composed by Professor John Anderson, Professor of Philosophy at University of Sydney, and other members of the loosely structured Sydney Bohemian group The Push, and is known to be in existence ca. 1950 (Humphrey McQueen, letter to the author, 14 January, 1988; also Nation Review, 20-26 February 1976, 470-71). The stanza reads: "Of all my apostles/ I love John the best/ And nestle his head / to my *lily white breast/ Now Judas is smitten with jealousy/ and that's why I'm on calvary." This stanza is not included in the version of the poem in The Combined Universities Songbook (Chippendale, New South Wales, September 1965), p. 27, or in Don Laycock The Best Bawdry (1982), though the version in The Best Bawdry has gay references (p. 25, stanza 7).
The reference in the poem is to *John the Beloved Disciple.
Oral poem, song and poetic genre in English in Great Britain, the United States and Australia in existence with specific gay reference from 1698. Ballads have also been written in other *European languages such as Danish and German.
Great Britain and the United States. Ballads are poems composed orally, originally sung and usually verses of consisting of stanzas of four lines, usually rhyming ABAB.
It has been claimed by Stephen Knight that the British outlaw who lived in the forest with his "Merry Men", Robin Hood, about whom many ballads survive from apparently before the sixteenth century, may have been gay: see Stephen Knight, Robin Hood: a Complete Study of the English Outlaw, 1994 and his article "Out! Damned Robin", by Stephen Knight, Sydney Morning Herald, 12 February 2000, Specturm p. 5s. He is compiling an anthology of works on Robin Hood. There are a large number of ballads on Robin Hood, first printed in 1510, but probably dating back to the early fifteenth century: see, for example, Arthur Quiller-Couch, The Oxford Book of Ballads, 1910, 462-639. See the entries for Robin Hood in Encyclopedia Britannica and in Encyclopedia Britanica, eleventh edition. Robin Hood's close companions were all men and he was especially close to Little John. The ballad "Robin Hood and Guy of Gisborne" may be relevant. There are *phallic suggestions in the bow Robin Hood carries. A female companion, Marian, only appeared in post-mediaeval ballads. On Robin Hood see also the entry in Howes, Broadcasting It; deals with homo implications in films.
Ballads composed by men at sea are a likely source of works with homosexual reference; references to transvestism exist in some revealed as the song proceeds (information from a US anthropologist). Works by the shantyman Stan Hughill the "last singer" of sea shanties may contain relevant material (information from a US anthropologist).
*Women's Complaint to Venus (1698) is the first known directly homosexual ballad. * The Women-Hater's Lament (1707) is the second known in English so far. Both were distributed in *broadsheet form (which practice may date to the *Elizabethan period from when printed ballads exist).
Literary ballads, using the ballad verse form, occurred later: see *Oscar Wilde who wrote The Ballad of Reading Goal and *Alfred Douglas who wrote a splendid gay ballad of love. *A. E. Housman and *W. H. Auden wrote ballads as has, more recently, *Ivor Treby. *Barry Took and others of the radio show Round the Horn were also inspired by the birth of *gay liberation to write ballads. "The Ballad of Ben Bree" by *Ben Madigan is a recent non-literary ballad. *"Ballad of Joking Jesus" is a work of *bawdry.
Overall see Alan Bold, The Ballad, 1979; the last chapter, Chapter 5, deals with ballads in the United States and Australia. Natascha Wurzbach, The Rise of the English Street Ballad (1991) has sources on early material regarded as lewd and filthy.
United States. *Vance Randolph has collected more ballads of relevance so far than anyone else. United States bawdy ballads in oral circulation mostly descend from British ones. *Gershon Legman's masterly bibliography of published and manuscript sources, the product of a lifetime's research into erotica, "Erotic Folksongs and Ballads" in Journal of American Folklore, volume 103 (October-December, 1990), 417-501, is an essential bibliography (the majority of items relate to English). *Gershon Legman left a manuscript titled The Ballad, a collection of erotic folksongs in English, which is being edited for publication by his partner Judith Legman.
References. See Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics.
Australia. Australian ballads grew out of the ballad traditions of Great Britain. They were first published in the late nineteenth century but those of a *bawdry nature were not collected until the 1960s: see *Don Laycock, *Brad Tate. The first surviving ballad referring directly to homosexuality is "Hail sons of freedom hail" (1847) by *Christianos (pseud.).
Some ballads refer to known homosexuals: e.g., those to the bushranger Captain Moonlight; others are based on men thought by some to have been gay, such as members of the Ned Kelly Gang. The ballad *"Botany Bay: A New Song" (ca. 1790?) has undertones of the milieu of the London world of dandies and fops and of the underworld, including the homosexual underworld (see *Randolph Trumbach for information on this).
The first literary ballads date from 1870 with the publication of *Adam Lindsay Gordon's Bush Ballads and Galloping Rhymes. Homoeroticism in ballads is relevant: they were composed by males primarily for a male audience and were usually about males: for instance, "The Wild Colonial Boy". *Henry Lawson wrote such ballads. The tradition has continued in the * Songs of the Gay Liberation Quire and a poem on *outing by *Adrian Rawlins.
See also *E. J. Brady, *R. F. Brissnenden, *"Ballad of Joking Jesus", *Henry Lawson, *"Banjo" Paterson, Mateship, *Peter Wesley-Smith, *Robert Hughes.
References. Oxford Companion to Australian Literature: "Folk Song and Ballad" (includes bibl.). In G. B. Davey and G. Seal, The Oxford Companion to Australian Folklore, 1993, see "Broadside Ballads".
Poet from Cuba who wrote in Spanish. 1908-1954.
He married in 1948 and had one son. An article by *Virgilio Piñera, "Ballagas en persona", in Ciclón, Havana, vol. 1. no. 5 (September 1955) discusses his homosexuality. Love poems in his 1939 book Sabor eterno (Eternal Taste) are some of the finest in twentieth century Cuban poetry.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopedia of Latin American Literature; with bibl. (lists the article by Virgilio Piñera on his homosexuality). Gay Poetry Anthologies. Columbia Anthology of Gay Literature, 514-17.
Lover from France relating to works in French. 1587-1654.
A sometime lover of *Théophile de Viau who was influential in the development of French prose and was a noted letter writer.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Cassell's Encyclopaedia of World Literature. Who's Who in Gay and Lesbian History: From Antiquity; see under Guez de Balzac; notes he was de Viau's "sometime lover".
Poet and prose writer from Italy who wrote in Italian. 1485-1561.
In a comic tale by Matteo Bandello, the poet Porcellio states "to divert myself with boys is more natural than eating and
drinking" (quoted in James M. Saslow "'A Veil of Ice Between My Heart and the Fire': Michelangelo's Sexual Identity" in Genders 2,
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Cassell's Encyclopaedia of World Literature. Dizionario biografico degli Italiani.
Poet and novelist from Denmark who wrote in Danish; he lived in later life in the United States. 1857-1912.
Active as a novelist from 1880, Herman Bang is a major Danish writer who was tortured by his homosexuality; an essay on the subject by him was only published after his death in 1922. He died in the United States, in Utah. His novel Mikael (1904) was made into the first gay film, Wings (1916). He was effeminate in aspect.
See Paul Bjorby, "The Prison House of Sexuality: Homosexuality in Herman Bang Scholarship", Scandinavian Studies 58 (1986), 223-55 (examines his novels in the light of theories about homosexuality in his lifetime). Text: Udvalgte Digte (Selected poems), Copenhagen, 1982, 33 pp. Criticism and biography: see various works by Harry Jacobsen, 1954-74.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Cassell's Encyclopaedia of World Literature. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 106-07. Who's Who in Gay and Lesbian History: From Antiquity. Bibliographies. Nordisk Bibliografi, 5-6: lists several biographies (e.g. by Harry Jacobsen). Gay Poetry Anthologies. Fra mann til mann, 18-20. "Matrosen sind der Liebe Schwingen", 96-98. three poems to Max Eisfeldt. Criticism. Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen 12 (1911-12), 335-39: article by Hans Land. Rossel, History of Scandinavian Literature, 36-40.
Language family from South Africa and countries to the north of it, including Zulu and Swahili. Material of relevance dates from 1937.
Bantu languages form a major language family in southern Africa and the languages occupy most of the land south of the equator. They are related to other African languages but their relationship has not been adequately determined. Very little work has been done so far on recording the oral literatures of these languages and material only dates from 1937 (see *J. B. Laubscher).
Important languages are Swahili, the principal trading language of east Africa (see *"Love does not know secrets"), Zulu. Xhosa (see *Oral Poems - Xhosa), and the Sotho cluster. There are more than 300 Bantu languages in all. The term Bantu is sometimes loosely used to mean a single language but this is incorrect.
Praise poems (existing in Zulu Xhosa and the Sotho cluster) exist in abundance in these languages See entries for *Initiation ceremonies, *Ritualized homosexuality, *Performance traditions with homoerotic basis.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Parlett, Short Dictionary of Languages. Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Baraheni, Reza
Poet from Iran writing in Persian. Born 1935.
God's Shadow (1976) (translations of his poems into English from Persian), describes the author's experiences in prison in Iran in
1973, including torture and *rape: see "Ass Poem" p. 69 - "two rape-kings politely offer each other your ass saying, 'You first'" (English translation from Persian by the author, Reza Baraheni). The founder of modern literary criticism in Iran and author of over twenty books of poems. His The Crowned Cannibals: Writings on Repression in Iran (New York, 1977) discusses the repressive literary situation in Iran.
For information on him see the index to 'Ehsan Yarshater, Persian Literature.
Bibliographies. Young, Male Homosexual in Literature, second edition, item 127: God's Shadow: *Prison Poems, Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1976.
Poet from the United States writing in English. Born 1934.
Very contradictory feelings about homosexuality are expressed in his poetry. Early in his career he wrote a gay poem, "One Night Stand", which was published in the first edition of *Donald Allen's New American Poetry (1960), pp. 360-61 under the name he used then LeRoi Jones; the poem was withdrawn from the second edition.
He is a major *black separatist poet who has espoused contradictory positions in his work. Though he has not included "One Night Stand" in his Selected Poetry (1979), poems in this book, such as "Black Art," pp. 106-07 ("Let there be no love poems written/ until love can exist freely and/ cleanly") and "Revolutionary Love" p. 214 (which equates heterosexual love with comradely love - "my woman, I'd call you companion comrade") can be read as gay poems and supportive of *gay liberation at the time of writing.
He is overall very *homophobic in his later poetry and his work shows the influence of *Communism (see the discussion in Brother to Brother by *Ron Simmons which states his homophobia is a reaction to homosexual desires); see poems "A Poem for Black Hearts", "Black Art" (the phrase "Put it on him, poem" uses sexual teminology), "Civil Rights Poem", "The Black Man is Making New Gods "(Jesus Christ), "Hegel", all poems exhibiting violently anti-gay feelings against "*faggots" (United States English for gays). "Black *Dada Nihilismus" is a famous poem showing another direction of his work.
He changed his name from LeRoi Jones to Amiri Baraka in 1969 and is married with children. His novel The System of Dante's Hell (1966), features homosexual feelings in the narrator. *David H. Perkins, History of Modern Poetry, volume 2, pp. 609-12, has a fine overview of this complex poet concluding, p. 612, "Baraka will be remembered for his work of the 1960s".
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Contemporary Poets, fourth edition: "the leading revolutionary poet in America. Change is his constant belief, progress his preoccupation." Gay Poetry Anthologies. Fra mann til mann, 89. Brother to Brother, 217-21: discussion of *homophobia in his work; see also p. 227 f. 29 with corroboration from his first wife that Baraka confessed to "homosexual feelings".
Pseudonym of a poet from Columbia who wrote in Spanish; he travelled extensively in South America and died in Mexico in *Mexico City. 1883-1942.
The pseudonym of Miguel Angel Osorio Benitez (information taken from Columbia Anthology of Gay Literature, p. 501). Jewish background.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Foster, Latin American Writers on Gay and Lesbian Themes. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Orgasms of Light, 26-27 trans. Erskine Lane; biog., 248. Now the Volcano, 278-79; biog., 277. Drobci stekla v ustih, 24. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 2, 335 (fine poem). Columbia Anthology of Gay Literature, 501-04. Criticism. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, vol. 2, 1008: highly rated.
Poet from the United States writing in English. Active 1991.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Unending Dialogue, 22-23, 30, 51, 54-55, 65-67, 79-81 - excellent poems by a gay man on having *Aids.
Poet from the United States who wrote in English. 1946-1992.
His poem "Explanation" is something of a gay classic ("We have burned the closet door in effigy/.... I love men."). Raised in *Boston he moved to *San Francisco in 1965 and is highly rated by *Ian Young. He has used the pseudonym Billy Farout for prose (Young, Male Homosexual in Literature, items 1210-1214).
Diary: see "The Diary of a *New York *Queen", in James White Review vol. 4 no.4 (Summer 1987), 10-15; the biographical note in this issue states he is working on a collection of verse entitled A Classic Voice in Contemporary Gay Poetry, believed to be an anthology. His death was recorded in James White Review vol. 10 no. 2 (Winter 1993), 2. Fifteen Poems (1982), is a stapled *chapbook and most of his poetry seems to have been published in this form.
Bibliographies. Bullough, Annotated Bibliography of Homosexuality, volume 2, items 10453-55: Abyss, San Francisco: Empty Elevator Shaft Press, 1974 and two poems in journals Vector (no date given) and Gay Sunshine 7: 11, June-July 1971. Young, Male Homosexual in Literature, second edition, items 173-74: Abyss: A Collection of Poems, San Francisco: Empty Elevator Shaft Press,
1974, and Getting Over It. Eight Sonnets, San Francisco: Hoddypoll Press, 1975; items 1210-1214 are prose works published under the pseudonym Billy Farout. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Male Muse, 12-13 (fine poem "Explanation" about gay identity); biog., 118. Angels of the Lyre, 15-18; biog., 237. Orgasms of Light, 28-30; biog., 249. Gay Poetry, 3. Amerikanike homophylophile poiese, 1112: trans. into Greek; biog., 69. Penguin Book of Homosexual Verse, 373-74 (poem "Explanation"). Gay Roots: Twenty Years of Gay Sunshine, 636 (fine poem "Hustler Joe"). Columbia Anthology of Gay Literature, 733-34. A Day for a Lay, 180-83; biog., 180 (year of his death given incorrectly as 1994).
City in Spain in which Catalan is the main spoken language; Spanish is also spoken. Material of relevance dates from ca. 1900.
Barcelona is the capital of the Catalan-speaking province of Spain, Catalunya, where there has been considerable opposition to central rule from *Madrid; it is particularly aware of new trends in the countries to the north (Catalunya is adjacent to France). The city has been a center of *surrealism and *modernism and is especially important as a publishing center (the same number of books are published in Catalan as are published in Spanish in Spain). The decadent journal Juventut (published 1900) was published there.
During the Republic period (1932-36) openly gay material was published: see *Antonio Velilla. The *Institut Lambda, which has a gay library, is situated there. The poet *E. A. Lacey lived for a time in the city. In 2000 Barcelona has a large gay scene. See also Professor Max-Bembo, La mala vida en Barcelona, Madrid, published prior to 1917 (very rare: copy sighted, *Library of Congress); contains various gay references about the city's gay underworld. There is an article on the city in Gay Times, June 1999, 30-33.
References. Babilonia no. 16 (1984), 16-19.
Poet from Great Britain, who wrote in English; translator from Latin, French and Dutch to English. 1475-1552.
His Eclogues, of which numbers one to three were written in 1515 and four to six in 1521, are the earliest *eclogues in English. The first three are dialogues between *Corydon, the homosexual shepherd in *Virgil, and Cornix and are translations of the Latin prose satire De Curialium Miseriis of *Piccolomini (source: *Gilbert Highet, Juvenal the Satirist, London, 1960, pp. 320-21). He was a cleric educated at *Oxford who became a Bendictine monk at Ely where he wrote his eclogues and was *Scottish. He published the first English translation from Latin, French and Dutch versions of *Sebastian Brant's Das Narrenschiff, titled The Ship of Fools (1509); this was a very free translation with additions added by Barclay.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Companion to English Literature. Handbook of Elizabethan and Stuart Literature. Criticism. Norton, Homosexual Literary Tradition, 146: re *misogyny in his Certayne Ecloges (1570).
Poet from Great Britain writing in English. Active from 1985.
See the poem "Some of My best Friends", p. 6 of the anthology * Turning Points : a very fine poem about *homophobia; biog., note p.102. He lives in Glasgow and writes for Mancunian Gay (a *Manchester gay paper).
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Beyond Paradise, 16, 20, 32, 53, 76; biog. 77 - states he is "built like a Greek god" but also tells lies.
Poet from Germany writing in German. Active 1992.
Book of poems: Aus dir Wunder (1992). Source: *Prinz Eisenherz catalog 1992/5, p. 6.
Barford, John Leslie
Poet from Great Britain who wrote in English. 1886-ca. 1934.
He published from 1918 to 1934 and all books used the pseudonym *Philebus. His work strongly defends homosexuality.
Bibliographies. Murray, Catalogue of Selected Books, items 54-56: poetry books using the pseudonym Philebus - Fantasies, 1923, Ladslove Lyrics, 1918, Young Things, 1921. Bullough, Annotated Bibliography of Homosexuality, volume 2, item 10917-20: the same three books as in Murray, Catalogue of Selected Books; Fantasies is stated to have been privately published by *F. E. Murray; also lists Whimsies, London, 1934. Young, Male Homosexual in Literature, second edition, item 3041-44: the same books as in Bullough published under the pseudonym of Philebus - Fantasies, London: privately printed, 1923, Ladslove Lyrics, Edinburgh: Theo. Book Shop, 1918, Whimsies, London: Roberts and Newton, 1934 and Young Things, Edinburgh: Theo. Book Shop, 1921. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Men and Boys, 58 (includes his poem "Alec", a famous *boy love poem). Penguin Book of Homosexual Verse, 286-90: including "Whom Jesus Loved" implying Jesus and John were lovers. Blue Boys. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 2, 144-45: poems, including "To Gainsborough's *Blue Boys". Smith, Love in Earnest, 146-47; 240 (bibl. of his works).
Poet from Great Britain who wrote in English. 1874-1945.
In P. Horgan, editor, Maurice Baring Restored (1970), see "Icarus" (homoerotic feelings). "The Dying Reservist", "We Drifted to Each Other", "We Drift Apart" and "Vale", in this volume, are all *non gender specific. All poems are reprinted from his Collected Poems
(1911); in this volume see "We drifted to each other" p. 6 re "cities of the plain" i.e. *Sodom and Gomorrah. Many poems in the Collected Poems are heterosexual in subject matter.
The Dictionary of National Biography entry states he left *Cambridge without taking a degree, lived abroad, learnt Russian, friendships were important to him, he was received into the *Catholic church and died unmarried.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Companion to English Literature. Dictionary of National Biography.
Editor from Great Britain of works in English. Active 1974.
Compiler of The Lure of the Limerick (London: *Hart-Davis, 1969). The book contains a valuable history of the limerick Chapters 1-8, pp.12-60, a collection of limericks, pp. 61-134, and has a valuable annotated bibliography pp. 137-43. For gay related limericks see pp. 46, 80, 90, 99, 106, 109, 114, 129 and 132. He states limericks have been dated from the 14th century (p. 22). See also the general entry *limericks.
Bibliographies. Bullough, Annotated Bibliography of Homosexuality, volume 2, item 10456: The Lure of the Limerick, London: HartDavis, 1974 - states "about thirty contain gay (or anti-gay) passages".
Poet from Great Britain who wrote in English. 1913-1991.
His poetic career started in 1933 when he was both a *surrealist and an "Augustan *anarchist". He wrote an autobiography in verse, The True Confessions (1950; augmented edition 1965) inspired by *Byron's Don Juan in which the author narrates his sexual adventures. This is a complex work and can be read on many levels. In the 1965 edition see p.12 (bisexual worm) and p.16 (homosexual priest who possibly has sex with the author).
In Collected Poems 1930-65 (1965), see "Narcissus" p. 21, "To *David Gascoyne" p. 103, "In Memory of a Friend" pp. 183-86, "Epithalamium for Two Friends" pp. 219-20. His Collected Poems, 1987 edition, included The True Confessions which was omitted from his first Collected Poems, at the request of his publisher Faber and Faber. He married Elspeth Langlands in 1964. See *David H. Perkins, A History of Modern Poetry, volume 2, 1987, pp. 182-84, for an overview of career.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Companion to English Literature. Cassell's Encyclopaedia of World Literature. Contemporary Poets, fourth edition. Bibliographies. Bullough, Annotated Bibliography of Homosexuality, volume 2, item 10457: Selected Poems, New York: Macmillan, 1941. Young, Male Homosexual in Literature, second edition, items 177-78: In Memory of David Archer, London: Faber, 1973 and Selected Poems, New York: Macmillan, 1941. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Eros: An Anthology of Friendship, 374-76: three poems,"The Seal Boy", "A Love Poem" (from Eros in Dogma, 1944) and "A Memorial Sonnet" revealing strong homosexual feeling. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 2, 164: "The Seal Boy".
Translator from Latin to Russian from Russia. 1732-1768.
He translated *Horace from Latin. Obscene poems were circulated in manuscript; contents not known. Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Great Soviet Encyclopedia. Terras, Handbook of Russian Literature.
Critic from Great Britain who wrote in English. Active 1925.
The author, with *Edward Carpenter, of The Psychology of the Poet Shelley (1925); his essay, on pp. 53-125, is one of the finest discussions of homosexuality in relation to a poet so far. On p. 64 he states, on "the question of Shelley's inversion", that "We have to remember that Shelley was not conscious of having homosexual impulses; he had never admitted them to himself"; see also pp. 65 (relationship with Thomas Hogg), 69 (states Shelley "loved to create androgynous types"), 71 (romantic nature of male attachments), 82 (attachment to two older men Trelawney and Peacock), 88 ("Scattered throughout Shelley's writings we find many indications of his bisexual disposition"), 94 (re his translation of *Plato's Symposium, 1817-18, which omits all definitely homosexual passages but which, p. 96, "he only did because it fascinated him"). On p. 105 he states: "there was certainly a homosexual component in his make-up". See pp. 112 re the *long poems Alastor and 114-19 re The Triumph of Life. Other poems are referred to throughout.
This is one of the finest homosexual readings of a poet yet attempted.
Poet from Great Britain who wrote in English. 1571-1609.
Educated at *Oxford. Author of a *sonnet sequence Parthenophe andParthenophil (1593). The name Parthenophil occurs in an *epitaph in Palatine Anthology book vii poem 346 where it has homoerotic connotations.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Companion to English Literature. Criticism. Norton, Homosexual Literary Tradition, 26064: re his *sonnet sequence Parthenophe and Parthenophil (1593); it is more about two faithful friends than a heterosexual love and "*Cupid is the central character of the sequence" (p. 260); quotes the "Twelfth Ode".
Poet from Great Britain writing in English. Active 1992.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Of Eros and Dust, 62: "Talking Blues" (about waking up with a pickup of the night before); biog., 85.
Poet from Great Britain who wrote in English. 1574-1620.
The first openly homosexual poet in English. The Affectionate Shepherd Containing the Complaint of Daphnis for the love of Ganymede, London, 1594 (originally published anonymously), consists of two long poems describing the love of Daphnis for *Ganymede (compare *Spenser) and featuring the *Eros trope used homosexually. The *British Library General Catalogue entry states this work was "Printed by John Danter for Thomas Gubbin" and it is due to these two men that the first openly homosexual poems in English were printed, though Barnfield's name did not appear on the title page. (On Danter see H. R. Plomer, Dictionaries of the Printers....1557-1775, pp. 83-84).
Barnfield also published Cynthia, with certaine Sonnets, in 1595, containing a sonnet sequence of which the twenty sonnets are openly homosexual and feature Ganymede (3, 9, 10, 12, 15, 19) and other gay tropes. The * British Library General Catalogue entry states of this work that it was "Printed by Humphrey Lownes" and that Barnfield attached his name to this work. Shakespeare's sonnets were not printed until 1609, so, in the Elizabethan period, these two sonnet sequences were the most accessible gay works to literate readers. The two sequences were in fact the first openly gay poetry *sequences in English.
Biography. The Dictionary of National Biography entry states that Barnfield later married; however, this has now been disproved and he seems to have been a lifelong bachelor: see "Richard Barnfield: A New Biography" in Notes and Queries vol. 237, 370-71 by Andrew Worrall (author of Richard Barnfield (1574-1620): A modern spelling edition of his poetry together with a new biography, University of Keele, 1988; unpublished thesis). Andrew Worrall has amended his death date to 1620 (from 1627 as the Dictionary of National Biography states).
Text. See The Poems (London, Fortune Press, 1936), with an introduction, xii-xxiii, placing him in the long tradition of homosexual poets from *Theognis onwards by *Montague Summers. The most recent edition by *George Klawitter has a biographical note and a brilliant scholarly reading which suggests *Charles Blount as the addressee of the sonnets and notes that he and Barnfield were the same age and the situation depicted in the sonnets is totally homosexual (unlike Shakespeare's sonnets). For other criticism, see *Bruce R. Smith.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Garde, Jonathan to Gide, 329-30. Dictionary of National Biography: stating "he formed an intimate friendship with *Thomas Watson, the poet, and later with *Drayton and Francis Meres"; by E. G. (*Edmund Gosse). Oxford Companion to English Literature. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 109. Summers, Gay and Lesbian Literary Heritage. Gay Histories and Cultures. Bibliographies. Murray, Catalogue of Selected Books, item 4: Collected Poems, reprinted 1882 and 1896. Welter, Bibliographie Freundschaftseros, 39: Liebesgedichte ["Love poem"; no other details]. Bullough, Annotated Bibliography of Homosexuality, volume 2, items 10460-61: The Affectionate Shepherd, London, 1594, and Sonnets, London, 1594. Young, Male Homosexual in Literature, second edition, item 183: The Poems, London: Fortune Press, 1936. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Iolaus (1902), 133-36. Men and Boys, 30-31. Eros: An Anthology of Friendship, 179-87. L'amour bleu, 99-102. Rosen, Gay Life and Gay Writers, 14-15. Hidden Heritage, 141-44. Penguin Book of Homosexual Verse, 162-67: Sonnets 1, 4, 6-8, 10-12, 14, 17, 19-20. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 2, 39; biog., 114. Name of Love, 14; biog., 69. "Matrosen sind der Liebe Schwingen", 73-74. Art of Gay Love, 16. Powell, Gay Love Poetry, 22-30, 141. Columbia Anthology of Gay Literature, 184-89. Criticism. Norton, Homosexual Literary Tradition, Chapter 9, 172-89. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 109. Bredbeck, Sodomy and Interpretation, 149-160.
Poet who wrote in Persian. Before 1800.
Criticism. Rahman, "Boy love in the Urdu ghazal", Paidika vol. 2 no. 1 (1989), 13: a poem, Tarikh-e-Firoz Shahi, about a king who fell in love with a beautiful youth. Rypka, History of Persian Literature, 449.
Translator from Greek to English from the United States. Active 1962.
Author of Greek Lyric Poetry, New York: Bantam, 1962 - a selection of poems including some gay ones.
Bibliographies. Bullough, Annotated Bibliography of Homosexuality, volume 2, item 10462: Greek Lyric Poetry, New York: Bantam, 1962. Young, Male Homosexual in Literature, second edition, item 184: same book.
Poet from the United States writing in English. Born 1916.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 2, 519: poem "Hustler" about a *bikie.
Poet from the United States writing in English. Born 1946.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 2, 553: fine poem "Erotic Song".
Poet from the United States writing in English. Apparently active 1989.
Book of stories and poems: Genocide, Knights Press, no year given (probably 1989), 211 pages: see the review in James White Review vol. 6 no. 4, p.13, by Mark Patrick.
Poet from Germany writing in German. Active 1925.
Bibliographies. Welter, Bibliographie Freundschaftseros, 39: poem "Die Verfemten" (see also "Die Gezeichneten") and the book (possibly of poems) Knaben im Sommer (Berlin, 1925).
Poet and critic from France who wrote in French. 1915-1980.
Barthes was a leading gay French theoretician of culture who was a founder of *semiotics, a way of examining literature from several viewpoints at the same time. Key works are Elements de semiologie (1964; trans. into English as Elements of Semiology, 1967), L'Empire des signes (1970; trans. as Empire of Signs, 1982) and such critical works as Le Plaisir du texte (1973; trans. as The Pleasure of the Text, 1975). See Jonathan Culler, Barthes (1983).
A concise summary of his life and achievement is in Irena Makaryk, Encyclopedia of Contemporary Literary Theory (1993).
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 112-13. Dictionnaire Gay. Summers, Gay and Lesbian Literary Heritage. A-Z Guide to Modern Literary and Cultural Theorists. Gay Histories and Cultures. Who's Who in Contemporary Gay and Lesbian History. Anthologies. Fra mann til mann, 57-58.
Historian from Great Britain writing in English. Born 1958.
Author of Who Was That Man?, (London, 1988), an attempt to recreate the times and milieu of 'Oscar Wilde. Technically, it is a series of chapters of extracts of works on such themes as '"Flowers" (Chapter 2) and "Words" (Chapter 4). In Chapter Five, "Evidence", there is an important series of extracts of little known gay poems by 'decadent, 'aesthete and 'eighteen nineties writers: see pp. 102, 105, 109, 111, 113-114, 116-17, 119-20 (review: 'Jim Davidson, Meanjin no. 48, 1989, 785-95). As a biographical study compare 'A. J. A. Symons. He has written a play on 'Simeon Solomon, A Vision of Love Revealed in Sleep (see Gay News, March 1989, 3637) and is also a novelist.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Howes, Broadcasting It. Malinowski, Gay and Lesbian Literature. Summers, Gay and Lesbian Literary Heritage.
Poet from the United States writing in English. Active from 1983.
A *black poet who is the author of a *sequence of six poems, "Midnight in the Republic of Praise", in James White Review vol. 4 no. 3 (Spring 1987), 9, about the homosexual poet *Beddoe and including reference to his first lover Bernard Reich; biog., note p.16 - this states his first book was published by Quarterly Review of Literature in 1980 and he lives in Long Beach, California. Various sexual practises are discussed in the sequence: *Masturbation (section 4: "Vienna"), *S/M (section 4: "Naples")
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Voices Against the Wilderness, 48-52; from South Hadley, Massachusetts.
Poet from Canada writing in English. Active 1991.
His volume Great Men (1991, 82 pages), consists of poems which explore the author's feelings from private fear about being gay to self acceptance; see, for example, "Au Garage, Montréal". Designs from Interior (Concord: Anansi, 1994) deals with his life from childhood to middle age and such issues as *patriarchy (section 2) and ecology (section 3). In 1994 he was librarian at the National Aviation Museum, Ottawa, and co-editor of Arc magazine. Notes Toward a Family Tree (1995) speaks from a gay perspective, outside any family structure.
Poet from India writing in Kannada. 1106-1167.
See Speaking of Shiva, trans. A. K. Ramanujan, Penguin, 1963, pp. 67-75: homoerotic poems to *Siva. Kannada is a *Dravidian language from south India.
Poet from Germany writing in German. Active 1957.
He wrote the poem which gave the anthology Milchsilber its title ("silver milk", that is semen). Book of poems: Sucking Boys (Berlin: *Verlag rosa Winkel and *Maldoror FlugSchriften, 1980); it has a photograph of a pubescent boy on the cover by Lukas Strebel, Zurich, and fine drawings on *pedophile themes accompanying the poems; see pp. 37-38 re *Narcissus trope, p. 46 *Saint Sebastian trope. A supporter of *anarchism.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Milchsilber, 9, 113-17 (including prose); biog., 181, photo, 180.
Editor and anthologist from Australia of works in English. Born 1963.
Co-editor of the *queer *journal hell bent (1990-91) and a co-editor of the anthology * Pink Ink. Biographical: see Pink Ink, p. 293. Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Hurley, Guide to Gay and Lesbian Writing in Australia.
Pseudonym of a poet from Japan who wrote in Japanese. 1644-1694.
The most famous Japanese *haiku poet. His best work is the sequence The Narrow Road to the Deep North (written 1687-89) - a poetic diary of prose and haiku about his journey to northern Japan - which, being a mixture of prose and poetry, is a *prosimetrum.
He stated famously, "There was a time when I was fascinated with the ways of homosexual love" (quoted in Makoto Ueda's biography Matsuo Basho, 1982, p. 22). Takahashi Mutsuo states he believes he was gay in his * Gay Sunshine inteview. His companion for The Narrow Road and co-author was his disciple *Sora who collaborated on some poems. There is no direct evidence Basho had sexual relations with any women. Amongst western writers, the poet *Cid Corman commented on Basho's homosexuality in 1963. *Kitamura Kigin, who compiled the first Japanese gay anthology, * Iwatsutsuji, published in 1713, taught Basho for a time.
Basho means "banana tree" and may have *phallic suggestions; the name was adopted by the poet in 1681 after moving into a hut with banana trees around it. He was active as a poet from 1662. Wordplay and earthy humour characterize his poems. indirect language needs to be considered in them, as many of the poems, innocent enough on the surface, appear to have erotic undertones. *Gary Leupp, Male Colors: The Construction of Homosexuality in Tokugawa Japan, 125-27, cites two poems with English translations.
Text: consult his entry in Kodansha Encyclopedia of Japan. There have been many printings; illustration should also be considered. Biography: see Makoto Ueda, Matsuo Basho, 1970 (repr. 1982). Criticism: see Makoto Ueda, Basho and His Interpretors (Tokyo,
1991). See also *Pupils of Basho.
Translation. The Narrow Road. Translated into English: Nobuyuki Yuasa (1965); Dorothy Britton (Kodansha, Tokyo, 1974; revised edition 1980); Lucien Stryk (1985 - selection of haikus titled On Love and Barley: Haiku of Basko, *Penguin; repr.); Robert Hass (1994 - see his The Essential Haiku); *Sato Hiroaki (1996); Donald Keene (1997); see also Henderson, Introduction to Haiku, pp. 15-52. French: Georges Bonneau (Paris and Kobe, 1935); German: Hans Ueberschaar (Tokyo, 1935); Italian: Trans, not known, Poesie (Florence, 19441: Spanish: Jaime Tello (Bagota, 1941).
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Kodansha Encyclopedia of Japan. Princeton Companion to Classical Japanese Literature. Other references. De Bary, Guide to Oriental Classics, 304-05.
Poet from Iraq who wrote in Arabic. Ca. 714-after 784.
He was a blind poet born in *Basra who lived in *Baghdad who is second in fame regarding homosexuality to *Abu Nuwas. It is very clear that the sex in some love poems is male and they are not *Platonic (*Arno Schmitt to the author, 1989). He wrote many love poems to women and also wrote satires. Panegyrics to male leaders were written for money and seeming homoeroticism in these poems was only inspired by payment.
Text: Selections (with English translation) by A. F. L. Beeston, 1977; no poems of great importance, but referred to by Arno Schmitt. His name is also spelt Bachar, Bashir and Bassar.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Dictionary of Oriental Literatures. Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Orgasms of Light, 129: a gay love poem.
Poet from Canada writing in French. Born 1932.
A sixties writer involved with the *Québec counterculture.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Companion to Canadian Literature. Bibliographies. Homosexuality in Canada, second edition (1984), 1936: book Iconostasis pour *Pier Paolo Pasolini, Montreal: VLB Editeur, 1983.
City in Iraq in which Arabic is the main spoken language. Gay poetry associated with the city dates from 750.
The second largest city in Iraq, Basra is a port city at the mouth of the Euphrates River; it is frequently mentioned in the Arabian Nights. Poets associated with the city include *Bashshar (active 750), *al-Farazdak, *al-Bahili, *Abu Mohammed el Kasim. There was a licentious school of poets associated with the city in the *Abbasid period.
Poet from Afghanistan who posssibly wrote in Persian. Active 1535.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Eros: Die Männerliebe der Griechen, 81-82 (from Herat in Afghanistan; he appears to be a Persian poet).
Poet from the Netherlands who wrote in Dutch. 1868-1947.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Naar vriendscaap zulk een mateloos verlangen, 22-23: two poems from Verzamelde Gedichten I, Utrecht: A. W. Bruna & zoon, 1947) (book cited, 115). Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 2, 273: fine gay poem.
Public bathhouses were and are arenas for homosexual sex in all parts of the world where they exist. In the *Islamic world they are called hammams. They arose in the Mediterranean area in the ancient world due to a scarcity of water. Gay poetic reference exists in Latin in Italy from *Catullus in 64 B.C. and later in other languages.
The Baths of Caracalla were the largest and most famous in *Rome and their ruins exist as do the Roman baths of *Paris in the Latin Quarter which now house the Cluny Museum. Bathhouses which are exclusively gay exist and probably have for centuries (they possibly go back to ancient times); the *Naples area is likely for such bathhouses. A *poetry reading was held in a bathhouse in the contemporary period. *Graffiti on bathhouses may contain poetry.
Peter of Eboli (active 1250) wrote a poem in Latin on the Baths of Pozzuoli near Naples, some parts of which may be relevant: see C. M. Kauffmann, The Baths of Pozzuoli: A Study of the Medieval Illuminations of Peter of Eboli's Poem (Oxford, 1959); this has an extensive and important bibliography on pp. 88-97 on books in European languages on bathhouses and some homoerotic illustrations (e.g., the frontispiece). On Islamic bathhouses of the *middle ages see Heinz Grotzfeld, Das Bad im arabisch-islamischen Mittelalter (1970).
Arabic: see *Cordoba, *1 bn Daniyal, *Henri Peres, 'Sexologists - Islamic. Czech: see *Richard Weiner. English. The earliest poem dates from 1823, *Dr. Collyer, Piper and the Baths; see also *J. L. Flecker (for a poem supposedly translated from Turkish but probably written by Flecker), *Michael Rumacker, *Graeme Kinross Smith, *August Kleinzahler, *Henri Cole. French: *Raoul Ponchon. Greek. See the chapter "Das Bad in der Literatur" in Albrecht Berger, Das Bad in der byzantinischen Zeit, Munich, 1982, pp. 126-131; the author notes, p. 126, that poems in the * Palatine Anthology, Book 9, numbers 606 to 640 are inscriptions on baths (in this group poems 614, by *Leontius Scholasticus, and 639 - reference to *Dionysus - are relevant); other relevant poems cited by the author here are Book 9, poem 783 (*Hermaphrodite reference) and Book 11 poems 243 and 411 (possibly relevant). These inscriptions could be from the *Byzantine period but might be earlier. On Byzantine baths see the article "Baths" in Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium ; there were several public bathhouses in 'Istanbul, including a large bathhouse near the Palace, now destroyed. Latin: See *Catullus (active 64 B.C. and the first poet to refer); see Reade, Sexual Heretics, p. 169 in *Richard Burton's Terminal essay (though no poem is given; Burton states "As in modern Egypt pathic boys, we learn from Catullus, haunted the baths"), *Martial, *E. Courtney (re Juvenal), *Naples (which has a continuous history of public bathhouses in the hot spring area to the west of the city since ancient times), *Pompeii, *Rome. Persian: *Sa'di. See also *Bathing poems. Russian. *Mikhail Kuzmin refers to gay activity in Russian bathhouses in his novel Wings. Turkish: *Zati. There are many bathhouses in Turkey; some in Istanbul were designed by the famous architect Sinan. Japanese. Public bathhouses are widespread in Japan and earlier homosexual poems relating to them may exist apart from the contemporary * tanka sequence by *Ishii Tatsuhiko.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopedia of Islam, second edition: see "Hammam". Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 113-15. Howes, Broadcasting It. Ullstein Enzyklopädie der Sexualität: see "Bad". Gay Histories and Cultures: see "Bathhouses and Sex Clubs". Bibliographies. Simes, Bibliography of Homosexuality, 71-72.
Trope in Italian from Italy and English from Great Britain. The sight of naked or near naked men bathing was bound to inspire homosexual feelings. Poems are known so far from ca. 1550.
English. *Marlowe's Hero and Leander, ca. 1593, features a famous episode where Jove chases the male Leander in the sea. *Whitman began the theme in the modern period where it is a trope in the poetry of the *Uranians from ca. 1900 onwards: see *Archie Austin Coates, *G. H. Hopkins, *S. S. Saale, *Frederick Rolfe, *C. Morley, *R. Middleton, *E. Meyers, *R. D. Greenway, James Liddy, *P. W. R. Russell, *Wilfred Owen, *H. S. Tuke (also a famous painter of nude youths bathing and on boats) and later *F. T. Prince and *Vivian Smith. Compare 'Bathhouses. Italian: *Anton Grazzini (active 1550), *D'Annunzio.
Possible lover from Greece and later trope originally in Greek and in Latin, French and English. Active ca. 570 B.C.
Bathyllus was referred to in poems by *Anacreon (active 570 B.C.) and imputedly was a lover of the poet, though this can perhaps never be known; no poems survive. French: Courouve, Vocabulaire de l'homosexualité masculine, 66: citing usage in French meaning a generic term for homosexual lover in *Agrippa d'Aubigné and also in this sense by *Mérard de Saint-Just. Latin: Courouve, op. cit., 66 re Juvenal's "Satire 6". See also *Words - Greek and *Words - French. English: see * Anacreon done into English.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Iolaus (1902), 77. Eros: An Anthology of Friendship, 46-47.
Poem from Great Britain in English. Composed ca. 1000.
A 325 line poem dealing with the battle fought in 991 at Maldon against Danish invaders. See lines 309-25 (where Bryhtwold says courage will be the greater when his lord lies defeated); these lines show close *male bonding and the master/lord relationship. Compare *Pobratim. Text: see the edition by E. V. Gordon (1937).
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Companion to English Literature: see under "Maldon".
Poet from France who wrote in French. 1821-1867.
A French poet who is credited with introducing "low life" and "sordid" themes into modern poetry, including *lesbianism: six poems from his volume Les Fleurs de mal on this theme were condemned by the French government in 1857 (the condemnation was only annulled in 1949). He had several mistresses.
The publication of Les Fleurs du mal marks the beginning of the *decadent movement in France and opened the way for the open expression of gay male themes in the poetry of *Rimbaud and *Verlaine (who first published poems on lesbianism in 1868). *Marcel Proust regarded him as being gay (see George Painter, Marcel Proust, 1967, volume 2, p. 313).
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Garde, Jonathan to Gide, 604-05. Duroc, Homosexuels et lesbiennes illustrés, 48-49. Encyclopædia Britannica. Cassell's Encyclopaedia of World Literature. Summers, Gay and Lesbian Literary Heritage. Bibliographies. Bullough, Annotated Bibliography of Homosexuality, volume 2, items 10463-65: Flowers of Evil, New York: Harper, 1936 and Norfolk: New Directions, 1946, 1947, Poèmes condemnés, Paris: Plaisir du Bibliophile, 1950 and Prose and Poetry, New York: Boni, 1926 "Translated by Symons". Cuaderno bibliográfico gay, 13: Las flores del mal, Madrid: Visor, 1982 (probably a Spanish translation). Gay Poetry Anthologies. Eros: An Anthology of Friendship, 265: stating *Proust regarded him as homosexual. Penguin Book of Homosexual Verse, 205-06: poem on lesbianism.
Poet from France who wrote in Latin. 1046-1130.
Baudri was a Benedictine monk who became an abbot. His poems name several lovers: Alexander of Tours, Walter, Maiolus, Vitalis. Of his 255 surviving poems most are written to men, frequently professing love. He was Archbishop of Dol and defended his writing of love poems to men, saying his own life was pure. For letters in poetry to various lovers see My Dear Boy: Gay Love Letters through the Centuries, 39-41. Text: Les Oeuvres poétiques, edited by Phylis Abrahams (Paris, 1926).
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Penguin Companion to World Literature. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Medieval Latin Poems of Male Love and Friendship, 38-55: several passionate sexual poems, revealing a deep knowledge of the classical tropes of male homosexuality such as *Orpheus, *Ganymede, *Narcissus and possibly *Alexander; biog., 150-51. Wilhelm, Gay and Lesbian Poetry, 154-57. Columbia Anthology of Gay Literature, 106. Criticism. Goodich, The Unmentionable Vice, 6. Journal of Homosexuality, vol. 8 no. 3-4 (Spring 1983), 154-57: discussion by *Thomas Stehling.
Genre of songs from India written in Bengali. From ca. 1500.
Baul means "madman" and the songs were and are sung by mendicant *folk singers who wandered the countryside and also dance (compare *Whirling Dervishes). The songs are mystical with stong homoerotic feelings. They are quite earthy. Reference to physical homosexuality in their content; physical homosexual relations may have occurred amongst some performers. These songs influenced *Tagore. They may go back much earlier than 1500.
Translation. English: see The Mirror of the Sky, 1969 (trans. Deben Bhattacharya); see also Soul Within Soul Without in Baul, edited by Prithvindra Chakravarti (Port Moresby, 1970), 10 - strong homoeroticism.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Dictionary of Oriental Literatures. vol. 2, 21-22: "Spiritual songs".
Sexologist from Germany writing in German. Active 1955.
Author of Das doppelte Geschlecht: Studien zur Bisexualitat in Ritus und Mythos (The Double Sex: Studies in bisexuality in rite and myth), Berlin, 1955 (reprinted 1986), a classic study on 'bisexuality and 'homosexual images in comparative symbology, religion and myth in cultures all over the world especially 'tribal cultures (with important bibliography pp. 383-96). This book should be consulted in relation to bisexuality and homosexuality and poetry in any culture as it lists sources extensively back to the eighteenth century. As it centers on ritual and myth these sources will almost certainly yield oral poems, chants and songs in tribal cultures.
A writer on art including *Michelangelo: see *British Library General Catalogue.
Bibliographies. Welter, Bibliographie Freundschaftseros, 40: poem "Ich suche dich (Im Alten Park...)" [no other details given]. Bullough, Annotated Bibliography of Homosexuality, volume 2, item 10466: Ich suche dich (Im alten Park...) [this is the only information given].
Historian from Italy of Persian and Pashto writing in Italian. Born 1921.
Persian. He was co-author, with Antonio Pagliaro, of La Letteratura persiana (Milan, 1968). He wrote the section on modern Persian (i.e., from 1000 onwards), pp. 131-578; bibl. p. 567. Chapter 2, pp. 182-318 is on the * qasida and *ghazai, Chapter 3, pp. 319-355, is on the * rubai, and Chapter 4, pp. 356-490, is on the * masnavi. He worked at the Oriental Institute, *Naples, and has written other books on Persia: I Persiani(1962), and Persia Reiigiosa (1959). Pashto. Author of Storia della letteratura del Pakistan (Milano, 1958).
Poet from France who wrote in French. 15BB-1665.
A member of the Academie Française and poet. Author of a satire in Cabinet satyrique (1666).
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Biographie universelle. Duroc, Homosexuels et lesbiennes illustrés, 49: stated to be gay.
Bawdry is sexually explicit orally circulating material, frequently with scatological references; sometimes it is written down, frequently on toilet walls. Material with gay reference survives in Japanese from ca. 1629 from Japan.
See *Singing and Dancing - Chinese, Japanese. *Actors are especially relevant and Japanese theater was strongly influenced by Chinese conventions. Japanese. Poems about *Onnagata (1629+) are very relevant. Chinese: little work has been done on oral traditions in the Chinese languages (see also *Sinitic languages) but given the huge history of Chinese culture it seems likely.
Bawdry is sexually explicit orally circulating material frequently with scatological references, sometimes written down, e.g., on toilet walls or in public places. Poems survive in English from ca. 1600 from Great Britain, the United States and Australia. Some times the word bawdy is used.
Bawdry is to be distinguished from erotic homosexual writing in that, with bawdry, there is a strong element of provocation caused by the material going against prevailing taboos. Bawdry is normally material which is more ephemeral. (Sometimes the word bawdy is used instead of bawdry.)
Great Britain. Material is largely part of an oral tradition before the twentieth century. Being oral it was not subject to *censorship, so sexual references could be more prominent; however, its oral nature means a lot has been *lost. *Censorship was probably responsible for much material not being printed before the 1980s. On bawdy song see Legman, Horn Book, pp. 336-426: "The Bawdy Song in Fact and in Print".
The major problem for gay material has been collection by heterosexuals of the material; it was only largely after *gay liberation (from 1969) - when homosexuality became prominently public - that homosexual material has been printed. Most reference to homosexuality is slight and negative and sexual boasting (including reference to anal sex with men as a variation) is a frequent sexual motif. The *Elizabethan poets *Kemp and *Tarlton who did a dance called the obscene jig used poems which contain homosexual bawdy suggestions.
*Ballads with homosexual reference may have existed in the Elizabethan period or before (most of the population could not read and write). In the next century *Rochester's poems have bawdy undertones as do the poems of *Sir John Mennes and James Smith (1656). *"Religion has now become a mere farce" (1757) is an excellent rare eighteenth century sample. Examination of the major surviving sources - Thomas d'Urfrey, Wit and Mirth: or Pills to Purge Melancholy, 6 volumes, 1719-20 (initially edited by Henry Playford, 1698-1706), Frederick J. Furnivall, Bishop Percy's Folio Manuscript, Supplement: Loose and Humourous Songs, 1867 (reprinted), and Henry S. Farmer, editor, Merry Songs and Ballads, 5 volumes, 1895-97 (reprinted) - has not revealed anything of relevance: all are uncompromisingly heterosexual in their published material. The underground Victorian journal * The Pearl (1879), contained material. The all male context of most bawdry from the *Victorian period on is a factor militating in favor of homosexual reference.
In the nineteenth century homobawdry is related to Music Hall traditions where songs contain innuendos: see *"Let's all be fairies" (surviving from the early twentieth century). Men's drinking songs are a promising field of research (this tradition goes back to ancient Greece - see *Bawdry - Greek). *Limericks also contain bawdry and the most accessible collection of limericks on "Buggery" is by Gershon Legman in The Limerick (Paris, 1953; reprinted, San Diego, 1967). *Norman Douglas's Some Limericks (Florence,
1928; many reprintings) is a brilliant example of the literary genre. Material survives from the First World War and especially the Second World War: see *Martin Page.
Very few complete works of homosexual bawdry have come to light so far, one example being * The Platonic Blow (now sourced to *W. H. Auden and dated 1948). On the other hand, reference to homosexuality can be quite candid in poems referring to sexual practices in general as, for instance in the poem "Abdul Abul Bul Amir" - see *Alan Bold regarding this poem (he has also written a concise history of British bawdry). *Ballads with bawdry reference survive from the late eighteenth century; one poem collected by *Robert Burns can be read homosexually. Manuscript collections of *broadsheet ballads may yield homobawdry. *Graffiti, especially on toilet walls, are another source though no Great Britain originated homo graffiti are known to have been recorded.
Bibliography. For a list of possible sources see *Ed Cray, whose bibliography in The Erotic Muse, 1992, pp. 415-24 is a basic starting point. Gershon Legman has done much basic research in his various books and articles and remains the greatest English language authority on bawdry in general; his introduction to John S. Farmer's Merry Songs and Ballads (New York, 1964) surveys the field. Bawdry poems have frequently travelled widely - for instance, from Great Britain to the United States, Canada and Australia - and especially in wars (see *Don Laycock, *Martin Page); this makes their genealogy very complex.
Ed Cray has compiled the most scholarly edition to date of bawdry poems in English, though Gershon Legman's edition of *Vance Randolph's Unprintable Songs of the Ozarks brilliantly sources the United States poems it deals with to the British sources. Both *Chaucer and *Shakespeare used bawdry in their work.
A properly edited edition of British homosexual bawdry is urgently needed in which the genealogy of poems is traced and variant versions are given (including those surviving in other countries); editions usually suffer from poor editing with imprecise dating and lack of sourcing for material. Strict censorship in Great Britain, though lessened from 1959, is inhibiting the publication of homobawdry. *Manuscript material in *archives and libraries undoubtedly exists; finding it is hindered by poor accession and by the fact that individual poems are not cataloged separately even when they appear in broadsheet form.
United States. United States homobawdry dates from *Eugene Field (1888) who wrote poetry recitations with gay aspects for men's clubs. Homosexual reference is usually slight and strongly negative; sexual boasting with reference to anal sex is a frequent motif (as it is all over the world). *Cowboy bawdry is known though none referring to homosex has come to light so far.
*Immortalia (1927; reprinted) is the first general publication containing some material. *Bessie Smith and *Ma Rainey, the blues singers, had references in their songs. *A. W. Read's Classic American *Graffiti (1935), unfortunately records only one homopoem. *Gershon Legman, the first serious researcher, compiled the first collection of bawdry *limericks (discussed above) and this has some United States material; he has also written an article on rhymed bawdry. *Censorship has prevented much material reaching print until ca. 1970 when censorship was relaxed.
The work of *black Americans presents a promising field little researched: see the songs "Sissy Man" and "Sissy Man Blues" on Stash Record 118 called Straight and Gay; see also a record called AC/DC Blues. The *Toast Tradition entry lists major sources of gay negro homosexual reference in oral poems. *Randolph Vance uncovered material from the Ozark Mountains first published in 1992 after a long attempt to censor its appearance.
The collection of *Robert W. Gordon in the Library of Congress, *Washington, has material and the Library of Congress's music collection may yield material. *Ed Cray is the current expert on United States bawdry though he states that little homobawdry existed (certainly comparatively little has come to light and little has been published in Ed Cray's The Erotic Muse, 1992, one of the the most scholarly works to date). Gershon Legman's edition of the Ozark songs of Vance Randolph cited above is outstanding and highlights much gay material. *"Gas, Grass or Ass" is a poem seen in trucks for the benefit of hitchhikers and an example of contemporary bawdry.
The strongly regional folk traditions of the United States result in rich diversification of oral material and a huge corpus of material with homosexual reference is potentially in existence. Many collections of bawdy poems contains homosexual reference: see e.g., Poems Lewd and Lusty, edited by Harold Hart, New York, 1982: see pp. 32, 52 (possible reference only), 62-74 "The Ball of Kerrimuir", 86, 128-32 "Aboard the Good Ship Venus".
Bawdry crosses borders especially during war, and versions of the same poem exist in many countries - for instance, some United States material has appeared in Australian collections: see *Don Laycock. The Journal of American Folklore is a source of references. The journal *Maledicta specializes in verbal aggression and bawdry and include poems. A scholarly collection of United States .0gay homobawdry is urgently needed; most collections to date have been compiled by heterosexuals or are heterosexually orientated. Material may exist in gay *archives and in libraries in the form of *manuscripts. *Broadsheet collections also need to be examined.
Australia. Australian homobawdry grew out of British traditions. So far, homobawdry has been found in Australian English documented only from World War II: see *Mess Songs and Rhymes of the RAAF (1944) and *Patrick White as quoted below (material from 1941). Collecting began from ca. 1950.
In *Don Laycock, The Best Bawdry (Sydney, 1982), see "Tight as a drum" (Australian army song ca. 1955), pp. 47-49; important bibliography pp. 7-9. See also: "If I were the marrying kind", in Sebastian Hogbotel and Simon Ffuckes, More Snatches and Lays (Melbourne: Sun Books, 1983), pp. 50-51: a football poem (ambiguous), nearly identical with the same authors' version in Snatches and Lays, 1973. See further Ross Edwards, Australian Bawdy Ballads, 1973, "The new People's Flag" (pp. 21 and 52) and "Lakeside Lament" p. 30 - slight derogatory references to male anal sex. These poems are *ballads.
Bawdry poems of this type are known to have circulated in typescript in hotels and in the army at least from the 1940s; the *"Ballad of Joking Jesus" was probably of this type. Don Laycock states he began collecting material in the 1950s ( The Best bawdry, 1). Another important collector is *Brad Tate (active 1982).
*David Marr, Patrick White: A Life (Sydney, 1991), 211 quotes the following song sung at Patrick White's 29th birthday in 1941, recalled by *Patrick White: "We called on the major to sing us a song,/ We called on the major to sing us a song,/ So sing you bastard sing,/ Or show your fucking ring." *Martin Page, Kiss Me Goodnight Sergeant Major (London, 1973), though basically a British collection, includes Australian army material from World War II: see pp. 29, 50, 113-14 (material dating in a less "rude" form to World War I).
*Student songs include bawdry e.g. the SUMS (Sydney University Musical Society) sculling song, as quoted to the author by Jennifer Sayers, 1991: "SUMS are poofters, SUMs are queens/ Doo-dah, Doo-dah,/ In SUMS we spill beer down our jeans/ Oh doo-dah day". There is also the following couplet sung in SUMS: "Stick it up your bum/ If you scull with SUMS" (ca. 1990 - though it may be earlier).
The Combined Universities Songbook (1965), has only slight reference (e.g., "Life presents a dismal picture", p. 65) due probably to *censorship at the time; only after 1971, when *censorship laws were lessened, did more explicit material get into print (see * The Platonic Blow). The Engineer's Songbook (University of New South Wales, ca. 1970) may yield material (no copy found and the title may not be correct). It is possible homobawdry dating from World War I existed, but none has so far come to light and been conclusively identified as Australian in origin.
See also *Robert Brissenden, John Meredith (collector of pornographic songs) and *children's play rhymes. (Hogbotel and Ffuckes referred to above are Ken Gott and Stephen Murray-Smith: see Nation Review, 20-26 February 1976, 470-71. They state their collection was begun in 1960-61: Nation Review 24 February-4 March, 503.)
Bawdry is sexually explicit orally circulating material frequently with scatological references, sometimes written down, e.g., on toilet walls or in public places (see *graffiti); some material appears in dramatic works. Material in Greek survives from Greece and Turkey from ca. 450 B.C.
For Attic comedy see Jeffrey Henderson, The Maculate Muse: Obscene Language in Attic Comedy (1991). Latterly bawdry has been recorded in books notably by *Elias Petropoulos and *Mary Koukoules who have recorded poems and songs dealing with homosexuality. Greek gay bawdry is the oldest documented in the world and there may be a continuous tradition in Greek since ancient Greece. Some ancient poems survive: see *cinaedic poetry, *skolia, *Songs - Greek. For the modern period see *rebetika, *The Trojan War.
Bawdry is sexually explicit orally circulating material frequently with scatological references, sometimes written down, e. g., on toilet walls or in public places. Poems survive in Latin from ca. 50 B.C. from France and later in Latin from Italy and Germany.
Latin has one of the oldest bawdry traditions in the world, recorded in *songs originating in France from ca. 50 B.C. about Julius Caesar, in *graffiti from *Pompeii in Italy (before 79), and in later oral sources such as *student songs from universities (see * Carmina Burana) surviving from Germany. However, the evidence from each of these sources regarding homosexuality is not extensive. See the entry "Invective" by Lindsay Watson in the Oxford Classical Dictionary, third edition, 1996.
Bawdry is sexually explicit orally circulating material frequently with scatological references, sometimes written down, e.g., on toilet walls or in public places. from ca. 1900?
Romany is the Gypsy language which is north Indo-Aryan in origin; it descends from an ancient Sanskrit dialect first spoken in ancient India and the word "rom" means man. Romany has a rich oral tradition and bawdy homo material is likely from at least 1900 due to the wide currency of the language and its largely oral character. Several East European countries have published Romany poems and folk material. There are many gypsy cultures extending from India to the United States and Australia. The separation of the sexes is common.
A book by Franz von Miklosich referred to by *Koukoulos or *Petropoulos may yield relevant material. Several dictionaries of the language exist and *Omar Khayyam has been translated into the language. See Harry E. Wedeck, Dictionary of Gipsy Life and Lore, New York, 1993.
Bawdry is sexually explicit orally circulating material frequently with scatological references, sometimes written down, e.g., on toilet walls or in public places. Poems in Russian from Russia survive from ca. 1840.
See *Songs - Russian, * Eros Russe (poems from 1840) and *Bernard Stern-Stanza for possible sources. It is suspected that much more oral material exists than has come to light so far (see *Dictionaries and Words - Russian for other possible sources) since Russian has a huge volume of bawdry. Material from the Russian gulags (prison camps) seems likely: see *Oral Poems - Russian, *Libraries and Archives - Russian.
Poet from the United States writing in English. Active 1993.
Book of gay poems: Coast to Coast, 1993 - sighted in the gay section of Giovanni's Room Bookshop, the gay bookshop in *Philadelphia in 1995. He is also a critic.
Editor from the United States of works in English. Active 1949.
Bibliographies. Bullough, Annotated Bibliography of Homosexuality, volume 2, item 11036: The Distaff Muse, London: Hollis and Carter, 1949 (edited with *Meum Stewart).
Poet and critic from New Zealand who wrote in English. 1926-1972.
Regarded by many as the finest poet who has written in English from New Zealand, James K. Baxter was a bohemian, a reformed alcoholic and a member of the alternative society who had several relationships with women - almost all unsatisfactory - and several homosexual episodes. He converted to *Catholicism in 1958.
His output was prodigious and not anywhere near all his poems have been published in the Collected Poems (1979), edited by J. E. Weir. Only published books and broadsheets and fifty unpublished poems are included in this edition of his poems; what Baxter called his "bar-room" verse (i.e. *bawdry), of which he wrote much, was omitted. Manuscripts are in the Hocken Library, University of Otago, Dunedin.
In the Collected Poems see "The *Pederasts", p. 343. The major sequence Jerusalem Sonnets refers to *flagellation and shows *S/M tendencies; "perhaps bisexual" crabs in Poem 9 may be, in the context of the sequence, an acknowledgement of *bisexuality in living creatures and certainly shows that Baxter certainly knew something of biology. The title comes from the town of Jerusalem named after Jerusalem in Israel. The sequence is subtitled "Poems for Colin Durning" and shows strong male bonding in its genesis. As a critic he wrote a fine piece on *Oscar Wilde (not located).
Biography. See his biographer *Frank McKay on homosexuality in Baxter's life and unpublished poems. What is certain about Baxter is that he was a very complex person. Censorship: Baxter's wife Jacqui took a court injunction and had the publication of James K. Baxter 1926-72: A memorial Volume (1972), by Alister Taylor stopped.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Contemporary Poets, fourth edition: in the Appendix. Contemporary Authors, vol. 77-80. Oxford Companion to New Zealand Literature.
Pseudonym of a poet and philosopher from Australia who wrote in English; he also lived in Great Britain. 1883-1942. The pseudonym of *William Blocksidge.
Poet from Australia writing in English. Born ca. 1925.
Believed to be the author of a couplet, ca. 1946, "The Empress Poppea said, 'Nero, you're queer.' / He said, 'Like Caligula, I'm a little irregular.'"(*David Ritchie to the author.) He was a Corporal in Colonel Alfred Conlon's unit at Victoria Barracks, Melbourne in World War II and came from Melbourne; Alf Conlon's unit was set up as a "think tank" to supply to politicans ideas about the future direction of Australian civilian society.
Translator from Latin to English from Great Britain. Active before 1902.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Iolaus (1902), 35-36 (re *Orestes and Pylades), 89-90. Men and Boys, 12. Both the last two citations are from his translations of the "Second Eclogue" of the Latin poet *Virgil into English.
Editor, poet and critic from the United States writing in English. Active from 1983.
One of the founding editors of the * James White Review (with *Phil Wilkie and others). See James White Review volume 1 no. 4 (Summer 1984), 16: this states that, as Greg Boeshans, he does the layout and typography. As a poet, see "All I dare say, or: another *Aids poem," James White Review vol. 3 no. 2 (Winter 1986), 10 - a very fine poem. Critic: see *Takahashi Mustuo, Jim Everhard, *John Gill.
Translator from English to French and critic and biographer from France writing in French. 1873-1929.
One of *Whitman's first disciples in France, he was the principal translator of the poet into French publishing Feuilles d'herbe (Leaves of Grass) (Paris, *Mercure de France, 1909, 2 volumes; reprinted 1922). This translation was strongly criticized by *Andre Gidé and others. Calamus poèmes (Geneva, 1919), 104 pp., illustrated by Frans Maseeel (?), is also by him.
He wrote the first biography of Whitman in French: Walt Whitman, L'Homme et son oeuvre (Paris, Mercure de France, 1903; English trans. New York, 1920). He also wrote Le 'Poeme-Evangile' de Walt Whitman (Paris, 1921), 357 pp., a critical work on Leaves of Grass, and a book on Thoreau (translated into English as Henry Thoreau, 1925). Biography: see W. A. Efcke, Leon Bazalgette 19731929, 1937 (in German).
Artist and possibly a poet from Italy who wrote in Italian. 1477-1549.
Famous bisexual Italian artist known as Il Sodoma (which may mean "the sodomite"). It has not been possible to verify if he wrote any poems.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Jonathan to Gide, 267-70. Dizionario biografico degli Italiani. Criticism. Bullough, Sexual Variance, 419-20: states he wrote poems.
Poet who wrote in Urdu. Ca. 1850?; date uncertain.
Criticism. Rahman, "Boy love in the Urdu ghazal", Paidika vol. 2 no. 1 (1989), 20: poem about the boys of Jahan Abad; 22: gay poem cited.
Born in Kannapolis, North Carolina. Two chapbooks: The Golden Legend (Floating Island Publications, 1981) and Two Preludes for the Beautiful (Universal, 1981). Other books of poems: Apostrophe to Stanley and other poems (Catalyst, 1984), The Fountain, 1992 (reviewed James White Review vol.10 no. 3, Spring 1993, 16) and Visions of Dame Kind (Winston-Salem: The Jargon Society, 1995) (reviewed in James White Review vol. 13 no. 4, Fall 1996, 21 by Walter Holland - minimalist poems in the manner of *haiku by *Basho). He lived in Chapel Hill, Carolina, in 1983.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Son of the Male Muse, 212-24; biog 186. Black Men/ White Men, 55-56; biog., 232. Gay Roots: Twenty Years of Gay Sunshine, 685.
Poet, anthologist and editor from the United States writing in English. 1953-1989.
The editor of the first *black gay anthology * In the Life, he died of *Aids. He lived in *Philadelphia and worked in the gay bookshop Giovanni's Room. He was the founding editor of Black/ Out, the journal of the National Coalition of Black Lesbians and Gays (198687). Obituary: by Renee McCoy in the journal Au Courant. An obituary was also published in the Philadelphia Enquirer (sources: Brother to Brother, page vii). His manuscripts for 1967 to 1990 are in the *New York Public Library and are described in its catalog.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Gay Histories and Cultures. Gay Poetry Anthologies. In the Life, 13-18 (prose), 153-56, 160-69 (two interviews with gay men), 230-42 (on his life experiences as a black gay man: he states "Black men loving Black men is the revolutionary act of the eighties" p. 240); biog., 250. Brother to Brother , vii (about his life), xiii (his mother's help with the anthology), 184-86 James Baldwin, 261-62 (important essay, "Making Ourselves from Scratch").
Poet from the United States writing in English. Active 1991.
A *San Francisco *black poet very active in the gay community.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Road Before Us, 10-15: "A Love Poem for White Boys Who Don't Know Who I Am" (a very powerful poem about being a black gay); biog., 172. Milking Black Bull, 137-49; biog., 137.
Artist, book illustrator, poet and letter writer from Great Britain who wrote in English. 1872-1898.
Aubrey Beardsley was perhaps the most famous British black and white * fin de siècle artist. He was art editor of *The *Yellow Book (1894-early 1895) then editor of The Savoy (1896) with *Arthur Symons. He converted to Catholicism in 1897 under the influence of *André Raffalovich and John Gray and died of consumption.
He started work under the influence of the homosexually inspired painter Burne-Jones and then was influenced by the line drawings on ancient Greek vases which were then being cataloged and many of which featured homosexuality. He is most famous for his illustrations for *Wilde's Salome (1894), Lysistrata (1896; published by *Leonard Smithers, "under the counter") - most notably, in Lysistrata, showing a young man touching another's erect penis - and for Under the Hill, published expurgated in The Savoy in 1896 (published by Leonard Smithers), and unexpurgated in 1907 as Venus and Tannhauser (featuring a caricature of Wilde). His drawings characterize the *decadent style and herald the later Art Nouveau and points forward to Art Deco an early modernist style. He was immensely influential in book illustration on the continent of Europe and in Britain. He also did *bookplates including one for *Aleister Crowley (copy: University of Michigan).
Jean de Bosschère in Belgium and Julius Klinger in Germany (who illustrated * Sodom, or the Quintessence of Debauchery) show his influence as illustrators. *Brian Reade wrote two books on him including the Victoria and Albert Museum retrospective catalog,
Aubrey Beardsley: Exhibition at the Victoria and ALbert Museum 1966, where he characterizes him as an "an ironist... of those last years of the Victorian age" (p.11); see also his Beardsley (1967). Osbert Burdett, The Beardsley Period, 1925, is a study of his work. His art works are listed in Mark Samuels Lasner, A Selective Checklist of the Work of Aubrey Beardsley, 1995 and Linda Zatlin is compiling a catalog of all known artworks.
His sexuality is difficult to assess; he may have been asexual and there is no evidence - and may never be - that he was actively homosexual in a physical sense; on the other hand, this cannot be ruled out given the circles he moved in. Ian Fletcher in Aubrey Beardsley (Boston, 1987) states, p. 10: "Beardsley's sexual tastes were either muted or equivocal: he showed no signs of actually 'coming out'" (however, the author gives no evidence for this view). A new biography by Matthew Sturgis, Aubrey Beardsley (London, 1998), suggests that Beardsley's sexual behavior may have been confined to masturbation (see the review of the book in the Times Literary Supplement, 27 March 1998, 18-19). What is sure is that his drawings were strongly homosexual both in subject matter and in capturing the ethos of the time. There is another biography by Stanley Weintraub, Beardsley (London,1967).
Beardsley wrote three poems: see his Under the Hill and Others Essays in Prose and Verse, edited by Edward Lucie-Smith (London,
1977), pp. 62-78, including translation of *Catullus's "Poem 101 ". These poems do not contain explicit gay reference. His Letters were edited by H. Maas and others (1970); these reveal close contact with John Gray, *André Raffalovich (including reading his history of homosexuality) and *Robert Ross though they do not contain any candid disclosures and are very guarded. See also *Herbert Pollitt.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Companion to English Literature.
Movement in English in the United States; there were disciples in France and Germany. They date from ca. 1956 to ca. 1970.
The chief writers were *Ginsberg, *Kerouac, *Corso, *Burroughs, *Ferlinghetti, *Michael McClure, Gary Snyder, Philip Whalen and *Harold Norse. The word comes from the saying of Kerouac "we are the beat generation"; according to some beat meant "defeated" and referred to the development of the atomic bomb and the sense of doom it implied for humanity. Out of this rose the idea of personal liberation and optimism as a counterfoil. Ginsberg's poem Howl (1956) is a crucial work as is Kerouac's novel On the Road (1957). Lawrence Lipton's The Holy Barbarians (1959), popularized the movement.
The beat writers were interested in sexual experimentation, but because some had homosexual experiences, this does not mean that individuals in the movement were necessarily gay. Some had homosexual periods or were bisexual; some were exclusively homosexual (or almost completely homosexual in Ginsberg's case). In opening up new areas for poetry to explore, such as homosexual sex, they, and especially Ginsberg and Kerouac, contributed greatly to the emerging ethos of *gay liberation.
The Beats congregated in the *City Lights bookshop, *San Francisco. By no means all their poetry has been published (for instance, that of Kerouac). Harold Norse's poems of the time were only published in the 1970s; even Ginsberg published some early work only in his Collected Poems (e.g., the masterpiece "Many Loves") so the full picture is not yet clear. Compare *Robert Duncan, a longtime resident of San Francisco, whose relationship with the beats has not been investigated.
The beat poets were included in Donald Allen's famous anthology The *New American Poetry (1960). The influence of *Zen *Buddhism on their work is a major oriental influence. Bibliography: see the Reader's Encyclopedia of American Literature entry. French: see *Bernard Delvaille. German: see *Hubert Fichte. Ginsberg has been very popular in Germany and several translations have been made.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Companion to English Literature: see "Beat Generation". Reader's Encyclopedia of American Literature: see "Beat writing" (a brilliant overview). Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 117-18. Summers, Gay and Lesbian Literary Heritage. Gay Histories and Cultures.
Anthology in French from France. Fribourg, Switzerland: Office du Livre and Paris France: Editions Vilo, 1977, 307 pages; reprinted in 1979 and apparently continuously in print.
Beau petit ami was translated into German in 1977 and English in 1978 with the title * L'amour bleu. It was compiled by a woman, *Cécile Beurdeley. The title, which means "beautiful boyfriend", recalls the fourth line in a poem by Verlaine "Sur une statue", about a statue of *Ganymede and the eagle in a park in Aix-les-Bains, published in the second edition of his 1894 volume, Parallèlement, his first published volume to contain three openly gay male poems: "Beau petit ami, Ganymede [Beautiful boyfriend, Ganymede]."
The French text has not been checked. The poets of the French original are presumably the same as those in the German and English editions as both these editions share the same illustrations, layout and almost the exact text as well as the same authors. This anthology has been one of the most widely disseminated of all gay anthologies, since no other anthologies have been translated into two languages. See *L'Amour bleu for a list of contents and further description.
Poet and dramatist from Great Britain who wrote in English. 1584-1616.
John Aubrey's Lives and an epigram by *Sir John Mennes are the basis for linking Francis Beaumont and his fellow dramatist John Fletcher together as gay lovers. Beaumont and Fletcher collaborated in writing plays in blank verse; their first play The Woman Hater (ca. 1605), reveals *misogyny (compare a later poem *"The Women-Hater's Lamentation" (1707). Beaumont later retired from the theatre and married profitably in 1613, moving to Kent. The anonymously published *Elizabethan *long poem, Salamacis and *Hermaphroditus (1602), has been attributed to him; it features descriptions of the beautiful man Hermaphroditus.
He was educated at Oxford. *Thomas Randolph also implies he was homosexual; see also *Michael Drayton. In their edition of his works, the editors *G. Varley and *J. St Loe Strachey have both alluded to the relationship with Fletcher in guarded terms as being homosexual.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Garde, Jonathan to Gide, 344-45. Oxford Companion to English Literature. Gay Poetry Anthologies. loläus (1906), 191-95. Men and Boys, 34-35: from *Salamacis and Hermaphroditus. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 2, 40: from "Hermaphroditus"; biog., 114. Mayne, The Intersexes, 590. Criticism. Hirschfeld, Die Homosexualität des Mannes und des Weibes, 662.
Poet from Canada who wrote in French. Active 1982.
Bibliographies. Homosexuality in Canada, second edition (1984), 136: book Dans la matière revant comme d'une emeute, Trois-Rivières, Québec: Ecrits des Forges, 1982.
Poet from Australia writing in English. Born 1928.
See the poem "Merging Aspects" from the sequence *Tiresias Sees, in Charmed Lives (St Lucia, Queensland, 1988), pp. 114-15: "There was no intimacy we had not shared/ including several of our own invention" (p. 114) - *Austlit record 106099. See also, in Charmed Lives, p.112, "Checkmate".
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Companion to Australian Literature.
Poet and biographer from Great Britain writing in English. He is best known as a cataloger of ancient Greek vases. 1885-1970.
Sir John Beazley is most famous for his cataloging of the ancient Greek Red Figure and Black Figure vases from *Athens. *A. L. Rowse, in Homosexuals in History, pp. 251-54, states that Sir John Beazley, or J. D. Beazley as he styled himself, had a homosexual relationship with the poet James Elroy Flecker when he was a student at *Oxford University (Flecker at T rinity College, Beazley at Balliol). Beazley also wrote poetry at this time (Rowse, op. cit., pp. 253-566: citing poems, but apparently poems by Flecker).
Beazley's contribution to the study of ancient Greek vase painting of the fifth century B.C. has been unparallelled and he is one of the greatest ancient Greek *scholars: he almost single-handedly cataloged the world's collections of ancient Greek vases of this period. The cataloging of the vases means that the extensive repertoire of homosexual scenes can be assessed, particularly in relation to the *pederastic poetry of the period and especially in relation to the *symposium context in which the poetry was sung. The catalogs appeared as Attic Black-Figure Vase-Painters (Oxford, 1956; repr. New York, 1978) and Attic Red-Figure Vase-Painters, three volumes, (second edition, Oxford, 1963; repr. New York, 1984) and Paralipomena ("things left out") (1971).
Some Greek homopoems have been found on the vases in connection with kalos names and a list of kalos names (names inscribed on vases and referring to beautiful males) appears in Attic Red-figure Vases, volume 2, pp. 1559-1616; for kalos names see further the *David M. Robinson entry. See T. H. Carpenter, Beazley Addenda (Oxford, 1989), for additions to Beazley's lists of authenticated vases.
Beazley's archive of photographs and drawings of the scenes on Greek vases in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, is the finest collection in the world and meticulously catalogs photographs of 450 black-figure potters and painters and 800 red-figure potters and pointers gathered by Beazley and sent to him by scholars from all over the world. Although photographs of some vases are included in *Kenneth Dover's book Greek Homosexuality (1978), the archive awaits intelligent usage from a gay point of view for, great bibliographer that he was, Beazley's weakness as a scholar was that he did not interpret his data in an analytic way: descriptions of the vases never mention homosexuality, for instance.
Beazley was on close terms with the art collector *Edward Perry Warren, whose obituary he wrote for The Times, London. He gave a collection of objects to the Ashmolean Museum, one of which is a vase which depicts a pederastic scene by The Brygos Painter (it shows a man fondling a boy's genitals; this vase is displayed on the upper shelves of a case in the museum so that it can only be seen by adults). This type of vase may have been given as a gift by a man in ancient Athens to his lover, though most Greek vases have been found in Etruscan tombs and their exact social context remains to be elucidated.
The scenes on Greek vases vividly depict the male homosexual acts and milieu of fifth century Athens and thus show the background against which the poetry was written; unfortunately Beazley's muted descriptions are little help in elucidating homosexuality on the vases: e.g., a scene on a vase by a painter in the circle of the Nikosthenes Painter showing homosexual *anal sex and homosexual *fellatio is described as "satyrs misbehaving" (Attic Red Figure Vases, second edition volume 2, 1963 [repr. 1984], p.1700, referring to p.135). "Some Attic Vases in the Cyprus Museum", Proceedings of the British Academy 33 (1947) was an early article in English discussing male "courtship scenes" as homosexual scenes were coyly described by Beazley.
Text of poems: see English Review (April 1911), 5-6, "I have Travelled in Many Lands" (with the advice to "*suck the juice out of things", 5). Oxford Poetry 1910-13, edited G. D. H. C., G. P. D. and W. S. V. (Oxford, 1913), pp. 3-4 has "The Ballad of my Friend".
If Beazley wrote poetry later in life, it has not come to light so far. Obituary: "Sir John Beazley", by Dietrich von Bothmer, Oxford Magazine, 12 June 1970, 299-302: a very fine summary of his career; on p. 301 he states that the "untimely death" of his most gifted pupil Humphrey Payne "was a sorrow Beazley never overcame". See also The Times, 7 May 1970, 15 and Donna Kurtz, editer, Beazley and Oxford (Oxford, 1985), a fine survey of Beazley's contribution to the university he was associated with throughout his life. Beazley married; there were no children.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Dictionary of National Biography: by Martin Robertson. Briggs and Calder, Classical Scholarship.
Poet and letter writer from Italy who wrote in Latin. 1393-1471.
Beccadelli was an Italian *Humanist and one of the founders of the Academy of *Naples. His * Hermaphroditus is a collection of eighty-one Latin epigrams in the manner of *Martial, *Catullus, and the * Priapeia, divided into two books. Several epigrams are homosexual: see in Book One, numbers vii, ix, xii, xiv, xvii, xx, xxvi, xxviii, xxxiii, xxxiv, xxxvi, xxxix; in Book Two, xvii, xxiv, xxvii. The tone of the work towards homosexuality is condemnatory but also, paradoxically, celebratory (compare *Catullus); *anal sex is described from both the active and passive point of view. The work is believed to have been written in 1425 in *Bologna. Later publication in mechanically printed form was placed on the * Index of the Catholic Church. The original fifteenth century mechanically printed edition is very rare and the date seems to be 1473; the *Vatican Library does not contain a copy.
The various early editions listed below seem to have largely circulated sureptitiously until 1791, when the book was republished in *Quinque illustrium poetarum (see *B. Mercier). In 1824, an edition edited by *Friedrich Forberg was published from another manuscript. This became notorious for its notes by Forberg and also its plates. Beccadelli also wrote letters and other poems in Latin. He was known under the pseudonym *Antonius Panormita, from the Latin Panormus (meaning Palermo, Sicily, Italy, where he was born).
Editions of the Hermaphroditus. Various editions exist. The first mechanically printed edition appears to be in 1473 in Naples bound with a work by "Mahomet II" titled Epistolae magni Turci; the same work was reprinted under the same title in Padua, about 1375, Treviso, about 1475, Rome, about 1483, Brescia, about 1494-96, and Rome, about 1500 (information from the British Library's Incunable Short Title Catalogue which has detailed cataloging included bibliographical references). A text is available of the Padua edition in microfiche in the series Incunabula: The Printing Revolution in Europe, Reading, 1997.
In the sixteenth century there was an edition in Venice, 1553, Antonii Bononiae Beccatelli cognomento Panhormitae epistolarum libri V. Eiusdem orationes II. Carmina.. (a copy is held by the British Library); a microfilm of this edition exists made by University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Michigan. *Quinque illustrium Poetarum (1791) has the text edited by *Mercier de Saint-Leger and Molini (see Pia, Les Livres de l'Enfer below); *F. K. Forberg (1824) is illustrated; an 1892 Paris edition by *Lisieux had a French translation with the Latin text; there is one by F. Wolff-Untereichen with commentary by Eolfram Körner and Steffen Dietzsch (Leipzig, 1908; repr. 1986). See descriptions of these editions in Pia, Les Livres de l'Enfer, columns 561-63 and Hayn, Gotendorf, Biblioteca germanorum erotica, volume 6, pp. 19-23. *Paul Brandt wrote a bibliographical study of the Hermaphroditus titled Register zum Hermaphroditus des Antonius Panormita (Leipzig: Weigel, ca. 1910, 56 pp.); rare: a copy is in the University of California, Los Angeles, library.
Recent editions include ones edited in Italy by Jole Tognelli (Rome, 1968) and Donatella Coppini (Rome, 1991) and in Germany (editor not known; Leipzig: Reclam, 1991). There may be other editions than those described - especially in Italian libraries or the *Vatican library - which are not known, due to the book being on the *Catholic Church's * Index.
Beccadelli married twice and was a collector of books; he appears to have been *bisexual if his poetry is to be believed and the Hermaphroditus mentions a mistress, Ursa. See also *Paul Englisch Geschichte der erotischen Literatur, Stuttgart, 1927, pp. 584-87.
Translations. English: *Michael de Cossart (1984) - with a fine life of Beccadelli and introduction (though no Latin text) this is the first and only English translation; *S. W. Foster: see his entry. French: Anonymous translator, Paris: *Lisieux, (1892) - includes the Latin text; reprinted in L'oeuvre priapique des anciens et des moderns (1914). A microfilm of this edition exists made by University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Michigan. German: *F. Forberg (1824; repr. 1991), edited by F. Wolff-Untereichen (with German trans. by *F. Forberg and Latin text), Leipzig, Weigel 1908 - with reproductions of the original illustrations and with commentary by Dr Alfred Kind (see Hayn, Gotendorf Biblioteca germanorum erotica, volume 6, pp. 20-23 for a detailed description). Italian: Anonymous translator, Naples (1920), *A. Ottolini (Milan, 1922), G. Lentini (1928), Jole Tognetti (Rome, 1968).
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Dizionario biografico degli Italiani: important and up to date article with bibl. to 1965. Gay Poetry Anthologies. *Forberg. L'amicizia amorosa, 57-59. Penguin Book of Homosexual Verse, 135-36: called Panormitanus. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 1, 215: from Hermaphroditus i 7, i 20, i 34, i 36, ii 20. "Matrosen sind der Liebe Schwingen", 19-20. Wilhelm, Gay and Lesbian Poetry, 286-89. Bibliographies. Ashbee, Bibliography of Prohibited Books, volume one, 81-82: re the 1824 edition by *F. K. Forberg (noting that the plates are seldom found). Hayn, Gotendorf, Bibliotheca Germanorum Erotica, vi, 19-23: see "Panormitanus"; cites the edition Antonii Panormitae Hermaphroditus... Coburg, 1824, edited by F. K. Forberg and the reprint of this edition with commentary by Dr. Alfred Kind, Leipzig: Adolf Weigel, 1908 (includes a long note on this printing); ix, 446 (re the 1908 printing). Goodland, Bibliography of Sex Rites: see under "Panormita"; lists editions from 1824 onwards. Pia, Les Livres de l'Enfer, vol. 1, columns 561-63: describes the 1824 and Lisieux editions in the *Enfer; consult also the index. Kearney, Private Case, 111: item 216 lists a printing from Naples, ca. 1920.
Poet from Great Britain who wrote in Latin. Active ca. 1200.
See A. G. Rigg, A History of Anglo-Latin Literature 1066-1422 (1992), pp. 125-27: writer of a book on how to behave in a civilized way: Urbanus Magnus, in hexameters. Lines 420-974 contain a digression on unnatural sex, referring to homosexuality (see the index of Rigg). Text: see Urbanus Magnus, edited by J. Gilbart Smyly (Dublin, 1939).
Poet from Italy who wrote in Italian. 1509-1553.
A poet who wrote two poems on the pros and cons of homosexuality. Love sonnets were written to a certain man Bigazzini (called 'Alessi').
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Who's Who in Gay and Lesbian History: From Antiquity. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Wilhelm, Gay and Lesbian Poetry, 315-17: poems about a romance with a young man *Alexis and its breakup.
Poet from Germany who wrote in German. Active 1979.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Milchsilber, 77-81; biog., 183 (in the form of a poem), photo, 182. Schreibende Schwule. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 2, 253.
Editor and translator from Greek to German probably from Germany. Active 1957.
Editor of the latest complete edition of the * Palatine Anthology titled Anthologia Graeca , 4 volumes, (1957-58; reprinted Munich, 1964); it includes translation into German. This edition is the most modern edition of the * Mousa Paidike, as the *Waltz edition (so far) has not included this book. The standard of editing is very high. It includes an important index of poets listing where their poems are found in the Palatine Anthology (volume 4, pp. 754-68).
He has also edited and translated Greek *bucolic poets into German: Die griechischen Bukoliker (Meisenheim am Glan, 1975); this is a translation of *Theocritus, *Bion and *Moschus.
Historian from France writing in French. Active 1964.
Author of L'Erotisme d'en face, 19 (review: Arcadie 124 [avril 1964], pp. 198-203 by *Marc Daniel). The work was translated into English as The Other Face of Love (New York, 1967).
This history of homosexuality in Europe from ancient Egyptian times contains a few unusual references to poetry - e.g., pp. 14-15 Gilgamesh, 62 (fine Moslem poem apparently from Arabic), 74-74 (from *Tagore's Cycle of Spring and dedicated to the boys of his Ashram at Santiniketan), 142-44 *Stefan George. It contains very fine illustrations (of which the French edition contains many more than the United States published English translation; a British edition has still fewer illustrations).
Novelist and book collector from Great Britain who wrote in English; he also lived in Portugal. 1759-1844.
He was a noted collector of books who amassed a large collection including some rare items to do with gay poetry: on his collection see Quaritch, Contributions towards a Dictionary of English Book-Collectors, pp. 1-7. The sale of the collection is recorded in Sotheby's sale catalogs for 30 June and 11 December, 1882 and 2 July and 27 November, 1883. The collection had passed to his
son-in-law, the tenth Duke of Hamilton, who had kept it intact. The catalogs indicate that his library contained much rare gay erotic poetry and copies of works by poets in this Encyclopedia. The total of the book sale was the then enormous sum of 86,000 pounds. See the discussion of his collecting in Timothy Mowl, William Beckford: Composing for Mozart, 1998.
By the contents of the collection he is revealed to be the first known serious collector of European gay erotic poetry. In the catalog for 30 June 1882, A to F, the folllowing poets and entries are relevant: Alciati, Alcibiade fanciullo a scuola, Anacreon, Aretino, Baffo, Beze, Byron (including the title, not elsewhere known, Works Including the Suppressed Poems, Paris, 1827).
He was forced into exile in Portugal because of his homosexuality; at this time of being exiled, he was one of the richest men in England. He is the author of the Gothic novel, Vathek.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Companion to English Literature. Lexikon des gesamten Buchwesens, second edition; discussion of his book collection. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 122-23. Howes, Broadcasting It. Dictionnaire Gay. Summers, Gay and Lesbian Literary Heritage. Gay Histories and Cultures. Who's Who in Gay and Lesbian History: From Antiquity. Gay Poetry Anthologies. L'amour bleu, 148-58.
Poet and letter writer from Great Britain who wrote in English; he wrote some poems in German. He lived afterwards in Germany and Switzerland. 1803-1849.
He studied in Oxford and later studied medicine in Germany. He moved to Switzerland and committed suicide in Basel, Switzerland, apparently after an unhappy gay love affair (see the Raffavolich reference below). Death's Jest Book, or The Fool's Tragedy (1850), a tragedy in blank verse, is his most noted work. His Letters were edited with notes by *Edmund Gosse (*Elkin Mathews, 1894; reprinted New York, 1971). Many letters are to his close friend and literary editor, Thomas Forbes Kelsall, who preserved his manuscripts; these were left to *Robert Browning who passed them on to Edmund Gosse.
Editions of his works were edited by Edmund Gosse in 1890 and 1928 (with long introductions); the edition Plays and Poems (1950), by W. H. Donner, has a biographical introduction. A recent selection is Judith Higgens, editor, Thomas Lovell Beddoes: Selected Poetry, 1999. For his German poems see the Oxford University Press edition for German poems published in newspapers; these are *satirical works. An English language gay sequence was written on him by *David Barton.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Companion to English Literature. Dictionary of National Biography: by *Edmund Gosse. Dictionary of Literary Biography. Bibliographies. Young, Male Homosexual in Literature, second edition, items 223-25: Complete Works, London, Fanfrolico Press 1928; The Letters, 1894 and Poems: with a memoir, London: Pickering, 1851. Criticism. Raffalovich, Uranisme et unisexualité, 306-8: states he committed *suicide after an unhappy love affair with a German baker, Degen, and the details are from the biography in *Edmund Gosse's edition of his works, 1890. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, vol. 2, 1008: states he "wrote one of the most beautiful of homosexual love-poems.. on the theme of the lost lover, 'Dream-pedlary.'"
Anthology in German from Germany. Berlin: *Der Eigene, 1923, 31 pages.
The third German gay anthology, compiled by *Adolf Brand. It consists of poetry and prose. The title means: "the significance of the love of friends for the leader and the people". There is a selection of essays on homosexuality pp. 3-16 and an anthology of poems pp. 18-31 (it includes several prose passages). An excellent concise anthology.
Poets (see entries): Anacreon, Adolf Brand, Byron, David, Edda, Walther Ehrenfried, Frederick the Great, Goethe, Hafiz, Herder, Hölderlin, Christian von Kleist, Klopstock, Kupffer, Rüdiger Laubach, Lermontov, Ludwig II (letters to Wagner) Werner Lurman, Marlowe, Eduard von Mayer, Meienreis, Michelangelo, Nietzsche, Platen, Rittershaus, Rückert, Sagitta (pseud.), Schiller, Shakespeare, Swinburne, U. Veem, Verlaine, Olaf Yrsalun.
In the light of the emergence of *Nazism this anthology shows right wing tendencies in its compiler. Information from a photocopy from the copy in the Staatsbibliothek preussischer Kulturbesitz, *Berlin. Very rare.
Poet who wrote in Urdu. Ca. 1850?; date uncertain.
Criticism. Rahman, "Boy love in the Urdu ghazal", Paidika vol. 2 no. 1 (1989), 20: poem about an Afghan boy.
Poet from the United States who wrote in English. 1902-1966.
A journalist who wrote many books. See also *H. A. Beers.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Reader's Encyclopedia of American Literature. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 2, 500: poem "After Horace". Criticism. Foster, "Beauty's Purple Flame: Some Minor American Gay Poets", Gay Books Bulletin no. 7 (1982), 17, 18; on p. 17 the poem "After Horace" is an imitation of *Horace ("about a Roman who consoles himself for the disdain of Ligurinus in the arms of other beautiful youths:); p. 18 cites the book * Corydon and other poems, Boston: Brimmer,
Poet from the United States writing in English. 1904-1980.
In Collected Poems 1924-74 (London and New York, 1974), see "The Polished Cross" pp. 194-95 - "The sin of *sodomy is rife among/ our boys and drastic measures are required". A brilliant poem. He lived mainly in the *south and defended the rights of minorities. He was unmarried.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Contemporary Authors New Revision Series, Volume 8: obituary.
Poet probably from the United States who wrote in English. Active before 1924.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Men and Boys, 70: "The Tenants," about "*queer boyish loves that will not go away". Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 2, 506: same poem.
Poet in English and translator from Greek to English from Great Britain. 1859-1919.
One of the three contributors to the anthology * Love in Idleness (1883) with *J. W. Mackail and *J. B. Nichols. He appears to have been a clergyman as *W. R. Paton calls him Dean Beeching. Paton states (Paton, The Greek Anthology, 1918, volume 1, p. xiv) that "the majority of the versions" of the translations of the * Palatine Anthology in Love in Idleness are by him and that Beeching's contribution was republished, revised, in In a Garden (1895).
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 2, 78.
Poet from the United States who wrote in English. 1847-1926.
A *Yale professor of English who wrote on Romanticism and the *Connecticut Wits. Biography: see Yale Alumni Magazine, June, 1952, by *Lucius Beebe.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Reader's Encyclopedia of American Literature. Criticism. Foster, "Beauty's Purple Flame: Some Minor American Gay Poets", Gay Books Bulletin no. 7 (1982), 15, 18: p.15 poem "*Narcissus" about Phoebus' darling; p. 18 cites the book Odds and Ends, Boston Osgood, 1878.
Poet from Syria who wrote in Arabic. Active ca. 1150.
Not found in Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Duroc, Homosexuels et lesbiennes illustrés, 51: name given as Beha ed-Din Zoheir. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Orgasms of Light, 131: name given as as Beha ed-din Zoheir - a poem about his friend leaving him. Criticism. *Marc Daniel, "Arab Civilization and Male Love", Gay Sunshine 32 (Spring 1977), 10-11: "among the rank of great poets".
Poet from Iran who wrote in Persian. Active ca. 1450.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Duroc, Homosexuels et lesbiennes illustrés, 50-1 : a French translation of a poem and states he is a fifteenth century Persian poet. Criticism. *Marc Daniel, "Arab Civilization and Male Love", Gay Sunshine 32 (Spring 1977), 7: a very good poem (name given as ed-Din el-Amili).
Poet writing in Irish and English from Ireland. 1923-1964.
He is best known as a playwright and was *Irish. See his poem "*Oscar Wilde/ For Sean O'Sullivan" in Brendan Behan's Island (1962), p. 181 (an Irish version is on p. 180 - the poem was written in both languages). His autobiographical Borstal Boy (1958) is about life in a boy's institution. The Quare Fellow (1959) is a play set in an Irish prision on the eve of a hanging; "quare" here may relate in meaning to the word "*queer" in a homosexual sense.
Biography. Ulrick O'Connor, Brendan Behan (London, 1970), states he is "bi-sexual" p. 98 and had homosexual tastes, pp. 96-99 and 301-02.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Oxford Companion to English Literature.
Poet from China writing in Chinese. Born 1949.
Hailed as one of the leading contemporary poets of mainland China from the 1970s and a key member of the Misty School which emerged at this time. Many love poems are *non gender specific: in The August Sleepwalker (trans. English by Bonnie S. McDougall, London, 1988) see "The Orange is Ripe" p. 56; see also "Strangers", p. 98: an interesting poem about *comradeship.
His statement "About Poetry" (in Notes from the City of the Sun: Poems by Bei Dao, trans. into English by Bonnie S. McDougall, Ithaca, Cornell University, 1984, p. 79) urges toleration of all points of view: "There are many truths in the world, and many of them are contradictory. We should allow other people's truths to exist"; in this volume see "You Said" p. 48: non gender specific love poem. His penname means North Island. See also the poem "Bodhisattva" in Notes from the City of the Sun, p. 112: about a sexless creature, possible *Oedipus complex.
Poet from China who wrote in Chinese. Active between 618 and 907 in the *T'ang period.
His name is given here in *Pinyin. No entry found in Indiana Companion to Traditional Chinese Literature.
Criticism. Shasha, History of Homosexuality in China, xxii, 106: poem "The Grand Eulogic Poem of Heaven-Earth and *Yin-Yang".
Beijing has been the Chinese capital since the 'Ming period (from 1368) but the city goes back at least 2,000 years. Material of relevance dates from ca. 1500. The spelling Peking comes from the Chinese postal system; Beijing is in 'Pinyin.
'Emperors lived there in the Imperial Palace, symbolically sited at the center of the city. 'Scholars who were gay and lived in the city are relevant since all scholars wrote poetry. Before 1948 only a tiny elite mastered the complicated Chinese writing system.
The 'pleasure quarter (from ca. 1500) was in the south of the Imperial Palace and there 'singing boys and 'actors congregated and publishers published. The city houses the National Library, one of the largest national 'libraries in the world, though the library of the Emperors (going back to ca. 1100) was evacuated to Taiwan by the Nationalists. The city was modelled on the 'T'ang capital Ch'ang-an. See also 'Edmund Backhouse, 'Harold Acton (who both lived in Beijing). Over fifty homosexual meeting places are known in the city in 1992.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Encyclopedia Britannica.
Poet possibly from Turkey who probably wrote in Turkish. Active before 1838.
Almost certainly a Turkish poet. Not found in Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition. Gay Poetry Anthologies. Eros: Die Männerliebe der Griechen, 53-55.
City in Lebanon, in which Arabic is the main spoken language. Entries of relevance date from ca. 1915.
It is the capital of Lebanon and was an outstanding centre of publishing in the Arabic speaking world (especially 1960-1970) before the beginning of the civil war in Lebanon when the press and publishing industry was the most open in the middle east. The city dates back several thousand years and Turkish and Greek have been spoken at various periods in the past.
See *1 bn Shuyayd, *1 bn Hamdis, ibn al-Zaqqaq regarding publishing their texts from ca. 1960. English: see *James Elroy Flecker (died 1919), *Paul Knobel.
References. Encyclopedia Britannica .
Editor from Germany of works in Greek and critic wrting in Latin. 1785-1871.
He was the editor of the Mutinensis Manuscript of *Theognis, Theognidis Elegi (Leipzig, 1815), which contained, in book two, the overt homosexual poems of the poet; this edition has critical notes in Latin. It was only when this manuscript was published that the homosexual nature of the poet became known; see also *Douglas Young. He was an important translator of *Plato into German (edition published in 1823).
See Sandys, History of Classical Scholarship, volume 2, p. 85, for information on him.
Novelist and poet from Canada writing in French. Active 1944.
Bibliographies. Homosexuality in Canada, second edition (1984), 136: Orage sur mon corps, Montréal: Editions Serge Brosseau,
1944, a novel with five poems.
City in Great Britain, in the province of Northern Ireland, in which English is the main spoken language; Irish is also spoken. Material of relevance dates from 1876.
Belfast is the largest city in the province of Northern Ireland which is part of Great Britain and which has been wracked by civil war between the *Catholic and the Protestant population for several decades. In 1999 negotations for a permanent peace took place. *Forrest Reid (born 1876) lived there all his life; see also *Paul Durcan, *Tom Paulin. The gay journal Gay Star has been published there since 1980.
Poet from Turkey who wrote in Turkish. Died 1758.
Gay Poetry Anthologies. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 1, 374-75: two poems about a *dancing boy and a tailor's boy.
Poet from Great Britain writing in English. Active 1988.
Author of the *chapbook: Cottage Cream, London: *Oscars Press, 1988 (with *Ziggy and *Graham Pyper): see pp. 20-33; biog., p. 20. He lives and works in London.
Poet from Great Britain writing in English. 1908-1937.
The homosexual son of a member of the *Bloomsbury group, Vanessa Bell: see Douglas Blair Turnbaugh, Duncan Grant and the Bloomsbury Group (1987), p. 66 (this records him telling his mother he slept with Anthony Blunt - later an art historian and spy - at *Cambridge); p. 68 states he wrote poems.
He was killed in Spain in the Civil War by shrapnel in an air attack; he had gone to Spain as a volunteer and worked as a stretcher bearer. Text of poems. Julian Bell, Essays, Poems and Letters, edited by Quentin Bell, London: Hogarth Press, 1938, 396 pages. Works of poetry by him are listed in the * British Library General Catalogue.
Poet from Great Britain writing in English. Active 1950.
Bibliographies. Young, Male Homosexual in Literature, second edition, item 237: Mountains Between the Horizons, London: Faber, 1950.
Pseudonym of a poet from Spain who wrote in Spanish; he later lived in Argentina. Born 1880.
A homosexual whose life is given in *Gomez, La Mala Vida en Buenos Aires (requoted in Journal of Homosexuality vol. 24 no. 3 and 4 , 199-201); he was born in *Madrid. He wrote a brief autobiography which includes the gay poem "Del Buen Retiro a La Alameda" about gay life in Madrid. He appears to have lived in later life in *Buenos Aires.
The text of the autobiography and poem is in the Journal of Homosexuality article (the poem is not in Gomez's book though this has the text of the autobiography in Spanish). The poem is also quoted in Horge Salessi, Medicos maleantes y maricas (Rosario, Argentina, 1995), pp. 322-23. His pseudonym means "the beautiful hill".
Poet in French and translator from Greek to French from France. 1528-1577.
His Les Odes anacréontiques (1556) is a nearly complete translation of the Greek * Anacreontea into French. He was a member of the *Pléiade school and close friend of *Ronsard.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Cassell's Encyclopaedia of World Literature. Criticism. Arcadie no. 96 (December 1961), 639-43: article by Jacques Freville.
Poet from Italy writing in Italian. Born 1944.
The author of several volumes of poems, he lives in *Rome. Libro d'amore (Book of Love), Milan, 1982, is his poetic autobiography. He has a decided *masochistic streak in some poems.
Libro di poesia (Milan, 1991) is his sixth book of poetry; review: Times Literary Supplement, 4 October 1991, 32 - the book deals with life in squalid and decadent Rome and the decline of sexual potency. L'avversario was published in 1994. He has written several novels.
Bibliographies. Leggere omosessuale, items 320, 340: Invettive e licenze, Milan: Garzanti, 1971, Libro d' Amore, Milan: Guanda, 1982. Gay Poetry Anthologies. L'amicizia amorosa, 225-27; biog., 283. Drobci stekla v ustih, 129-31; biog., 184. Reid, Eternal Flame, volume 1, 266. Criticism. Babilonia no.19, 15.