Abbreviations used in An Encyclopedia of Male Homosexual Poetry (2002)


Abbreviations not listed here may be found in The Concise Oxford Dictionary, sixth

edition, Oxford, 1976, edited by J. B. Sykes.


A.D.  = after Christ (Latin, anno domini, “in the year of the lord”); refers to time

counted in years from the birth of Christ)

B.C. = before Christ; refers to time counted in years from before the birth of Christ

bibl. = bibliography

biog. = biography, biographical

ca. = about, approximately (Latin, circa)

Dr. = doctor

ed. = edited by

e. g. = for example (Latin, exempli gratia)

et al. = and others (Latin, et alia)

etc. = and the rest (Latin, et cetera)

f. = footnote

f. [when referring to a manuscript] = folio, page

ff. = and pages following (used when the exact citation is not known)

fl. = flourished, was active

fr., frs. = fragment, fragments

ibid. = the same book work, chapter, passage etc. (Latin, ibidem)

n. = number

no. = number

op. cit. = in the work already quoted  (Latin, opere  citato)

p. = page

pp. = pages

pseud. = pseudonym

repr. = reprinted

trans. = translator, translated or translation depending on the context

UK = United Kingdom

US = United State

v. = volume

vol. = volume


The Latin letters

i = 1

ii = 2

iii = 3

iv = 4

v = 5

vi = 6

vii = 7

viii = 8

ix = 9

 x = 10


Abbrevations for the States of the United States

Abbreviations for the states of the United States (e. g., NY for New York State) are

normally the first two initials of the name (e.g., CA for California, IN for Indiana) or,

if the state consists of two words, the first initial of each word (e. g., NJ for New




The minus sign before a date (e.g., -1200BC) has been used to enable dates to be

brought up in chronological order.


The plus sign after a date (e.g. -1200BC+) indicates the entry refers to dates afer the

given date.


Fullstops have not been put in after abbreviations (e.g., B.C.; c.; fl.) when used after