ROBERT T. FRANCOEUR, PH.D., A.C.S. (General Editor) Trained in embryology, evolution, theology, and the humanities, Dr. Francoeur's main work has been to synthesize and integrate the findings of primary sexological researchers. He is the author of twenty-two books, contributor to seventy-eight textbooks, handbooks, and encyclopedias, and the author of fifty-eight technical papers on various aspects of sexuality. His books include The Scent of Eros: Mysteries of Odor in Human Sexuality (1995), Becoming a Sexual Person (1982, 1984, 1991) and Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in Human Sexuality (1987, 1989, 1991, 1993, 1997) - two college textbooks, Utopian Motherhood: New Trends in Human Reproduction (1970, 1974, 1977), Eve's New Rib: 20 Faces of Sex, Marriage, and Family (1972), Hot and Cool Sex: Cultures in Conflict (1974), and The Future of Sexual Relations (1974). He is editor-in-chief of The Complete Dictionary of Sexology (1991, 1995). A fellow of the Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality and past president of the Society's Eastern Region, he is also a charter member of the American College of Sexology. He is currently professor of biological and allied health sciences at Fairleigh Dickinson University, Madison, New Jersey, U.S.A., adjunct professor in the doctoral Program in Human Sexuality at New York University, and professor in the New York University Sexuality in Two Cultures program in Copenhagen.
Authors of Individual Chapters
TIMOTHY PERPER, PH.D. Dr. Perper is a Philadelphia-based, independent sex researcher and writer. Trained as a biologist, with his doctorate from City University of New York, he has studied human courtship and flirtation behaviors for over a decade, assisted by full-support grants from the Harry Guggenheim Foundation. He is author of Sex Signals: The Biology of Love (1985), coauthor of For Sex Education, See Librarian (1996), author of numerous articles on human and animal sexual behavior, and coeditor of The Complete Dictionary of Sexology (1991, 1995). He has served variously as associate, consulting, and book review editor for the Journal of Sex Research. He is a long-time member of the Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality and an elected fellow of the American Anthropological Association.
IRA L. REISS, PH.D. Professor of sociology at the University of Minnesota, Dr. Reiss is the former president of the International Academy of Sex Research, the National Council on Family Relations, and the Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality, recipient of the 1990 Kinsey Award for Distinguished Scientific Achievement, and author of eleven books and more than a hundred professional articles. His latest books are Journey Into Sexuality: An Exploratory Voyage (1986) and An End to Shame: Shaping Our Next Sexual Involution (1990).
SOPHIA KAMENETZKY, M.D. Early in her work as a gynecologist in her native Argentina, Dr. Kamenetzky dedicated herself to increasing the sexual knowledge of women. Teaching biology at an Argentine university, she collaborated with other educators in organizing sexual education courses. Post-graduate studies in France and study visits to African, Asian, and Latin American countries provided her with an understanding of the roles and problems of women in different societies. Her acquaintance with contraceptive practices led her to become medical advisor and director of public relations with Latin American Universities for the Population Information Program then based at the George Washington University in Washington, D.C. Her further studies at the Institute for the Advanced Study of Human Sexuality in San Francisco were guided by Dr. John Money. Now retired, Dr. Kamenetzky facilitates seminars on sexuality and the role of emotions in the health of the immune system.
ROSEMARY COATES, PH.D. An honorary life member for the Western Australia Sexology Society, Dr. Coates is an associate professor of physiotherapy in the Division of Health Sciences at Curtin University in Western Australia. She is vice-president of the Family Planning Association of Western Australia and also founding member, inaugural president, and an honorary life member of the Western Australia Sexology Society. The author of Sexual Awareness Manual, Teacher's Survival Manual, and comparative studies of sexual knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among college-aged people, she is also interested in transvestism, transsexualism, and medical ethics.
Acknowledgments: ANN RITCHIE, librarian at the PIVET Medical Centre and former librarian for the Family Planning Association of Western Australia, provided research and editorial assistance. ROBERT TONKINSON, PH.D., provided advice on Australian aboriginal cultures, and editorial assistance.
JULANNE MCCARTHY, M.A. M.S.N., holds a master's degree in anthropology from Indiana University (Bloomington campus) where she took her first course in human sexuality. She also holds a master's degree in adult health nursing from the University of Illinois (Urbana campus). For nine years, between 1988 and 1996, she lived and worked in the State of Bahrain. The author of several articles and a monograph on nursing care for Japanese patients, she now resides in Bloomington, Illinois. In writing this chapter, she supported her comprehensive literature of sexual customs and behavior in Bahrain and neighboring Arabic and Islamic countries with insights and observations provided by twenty Bahraini professionals and eight expatriates in a variety of disciplines, as well as with anecdotal insights from personal contacts and local popular print media.
SÉRGIO LUIZ GONÇALVES DE FREITAS, M.D. President of Associação Brasileira de Sexologia (AB-SEX), scientific director of the Sociedade Brasileira de Estudos da Impotência Sexual, Dr. Freitas has also organized three national sexological conferences in Brazil and the First Pan-American Congress of Sexology in 1986. A gynecologist and surgeon, he has served for twenty-two years in the National Institute of Public Health (INSS) in which he founded the Department of Sexology in 1986. In 1984, Dr. de Freitas founded The Journal of Sexology, serving five years as its editor. Among his many publications on sex therapy and sexology, Dr. de Freitas is the author-editor of Sangue no Chao and Os Especiais.
ELÍ FERNANDES DE OLIVEIRA Reverend de Oliveira combines his theological and psychological training as a counselor working with couples, children, and homosexuals. He is president of the São Paulo Baptist Convention, second vice-president of the Brazilian Baptist Convention, and pastor of the Baptist Church of Liberty in São Paulo, Brazil.
LOURENÇO STÉLIO REGA, M.TH. Professor Stelio Rega's research interest is in the anthropological perspectives of sexual ethics. His recent publications in this area include Perspectiva, Crista do Sexo (1990), Libertação e Sexualidade, uma Abalise (1991), Aspectos Éticos da Pena de Morte (1991), and Avaliação Ética do Jeito Brasileiro (1992). He is a professor of sexual and medical ethics and dean of the Baptist Theological Faculty of São Paulo, Brazil.
Translated by LUIS CARREGA, who is a native of Portugal and a former student of the Encyclopedia's editor. Additional information by RAYMOND J. NOONAN, whose biographical sketch can be found in the U.S.A. section, and SANDRA ALMEIDA, who is a Brazilian lawyer and women's rights advocate currently living in New York.
MICHAEL BARRETT, PH.D. Dr. Barrett is a professor in the Department of Zoology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada; executive director of the Sex Information and Education Council of Canada (SIECCAN); editor of the Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality; and the author of Population and Canada (1982).
ALAN KING, ED.D. Dr. King is director of the Social Policy Evaluation Group at Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.
JOSEPH LEW, PH.D. Dr. Levy is a professor in the Department of Sexology at the University of Quebec, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
ELEANOR MATICKA-TYNDALE, PH.D. Dr. Maticka-Tyndale is a professor in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at the University of Windsor, Ontario, Canada.
ALEX MCKAY, PH.D. Dr. McKay is research coordinator for the Sex Information and Education Council of Canada, and associate editor of the Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality.
FANG-FU RUAN, M.D., PH.D. A physician and medical historian, Dr. Fang-fu Ruan was on the faculty at the Beijing Medical University until 1985. Editor and major author of Xingzhishi Shiuce (Guide to Sexuality) (1985), prepared for the People's Republic of China, he has also written Sex in China: Studies in Sexology in Chinese Culture (1991) and coauthored with Professor Vern Bullough Chinese Erotic and Sexual Classics in Translation, Book 1: The Fragrant Flower: Classic Chinese Erotic in Art and Poetry (1990). He has also published on sex education, transsexualism, sexual repression, and gender orientations in China in such journals as Archives of Sexual Behavior, Journal of Gender Studies, Health Education, Journal of Sex Research, Health Education, Journal of Homosexuality, and Medical Aspects of Human Sexuality. A visiting professor at several American universities, Dr. Ruan is currently chairperson of the department of Oriental Studies at the Institute for the Advanced Study of Human Sexuality in San Francisco, and professor and dean of instruction at the Academy of Chinese Culture and Health Sciences in Oakland, California. He is also a diplomate of the American Board of Sexology, and a founding fellow of the American Academy of Clinical Sexologists.
M. P. LAU, M.D. A psychiatrist, Dr. Lau was born and lived in Hong Kong for thirty years, before moving to Canada, where he has lived for the past three decades while maintaining close ties with colleagues in China. Dr. Lau, the author of a major analysis of the nationwide survey conducted in China by Professor Liu Dalin included in this Encyclopedia chapter, is a faculty member in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and an active member of the Culture, Community, and Health Program at Toronto's Clarke Institute of Psychiatry. His research interests range from psychiatry, geriatrics, epidemiology, and substance abuse to sexology, Sinology, and cultural anthropology. A member of the Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality, he was also an executive of the Section of Sexology at the Ontario Psychiatric Association from 1979 to 1988.
The Czech Republic and Slovakia:
JAROSLAV ZVERINA, M.D. Dr. Zverina is director of the Institute of Sexology and a member of the First Medical Faculty at Charles University, Prague, in the Czech Republic. President of the Sexological Society of Prague and member of the executive committee of the European Federation of Sexology, he has authored Advice for Intimate Life (1991) and Medical Sexology (1992), both in Czech. His research focuses on the behavioral and biological aspects of sexology and reproductive medicine, mainly andrology. He has published in Archives of Sexual Behavior and authored a chapter on Sexuelle Teaktionen auf Optische Stimuli bei Frauen in Prakitische Sexualmedizin, edited by W. Eicher (Weisbaden, 1988).
ANTON ROS, a native of the Czech Republic and physician in Weirton, West Virginia, and LYNNE ROS, a former student of the editor of this Encyclopedia with extensive experience in the health-care professions, worked together to provide a translation of difficult sections in Dr. Zverina's manuscript.
OSMO KONTULA, D.SOC.SCI., PH.D. As research director of Docent at the Department of Public Health, the University of Helsinki, Dr. Kontula had directed two national surveys of sexual life in Finland. He is coauthor, with Elina Haavio-Mannila, of Suomalainen Seksi: Tietoa Suomalaisten Sukupuolielämän Muutoksesta (Finnish Sex: Information of Changes in Sexual Life in Finland) (WSOY, Juva 1993). Since 1986, Dr. Kontula has authored or coauthored about 25 books on sexology, drug use, and the health impacts of economic recession.
ELINA HAAVIO-MANNILA, PH.D. Dr. Haavio-Mannila is coauthor with Osmo Kontula of Suomalainen Seksi: Tietoa Suomalaisten Sukupuolielämän Muutoksesta (Finnish Sex: Information of Changes in Sexual Life in Finland) (1993-1994, published in both Finnish and English), Tyopaikan Rakkausuhteet (Love Relations in the Work Place) (1987), and Unfinished Democracy - Women in Nordic Politics (with Drude Dahberup and others, 1985). Her many publications cover her research on drug and alcohol use and gender roles in family, work, politics, and dancing. With Osmo Kontula, she was responsible for national sociological surveys of sexual life in Finland. She is currently professor of sociology at the University of Helsinki, vice president of the Finnish Sociological Association (Westermarck Society), board member of the European Sociological Association Steering Group, and vice chairperson of the Finnish Academy of Science and Letters.
RUEDIGER LAUTMANN, PH.D. Professor of sociology and sociology of law at the University of Breman, Dr. Lautmann has published widely on the social controls of sexual behavior in Germany since the Nazi period.
KURT STARKE, PH.D. Dr. Starke, a sociologist and political scientist, has served for twenty years as department head, head of research in sexology, and vice-director of the Central Institute of Youth Research in Leipzig.
AUGUSTINE K. ANKOMAH, PH.D. A graduate of the University of Ghana and the University of Ife, Nigeria, Dr. Ankomah received a doctorate from the Institute of Population Studies, the University of Exeter (U.K.), where he currently is a lecturer. Between 1986 and 1989, he taught sociology at the University of Cape Coast in Ghana. His research has focused on the sexual behavior of young women in Ghana and its implications for AIDS, family planning service provision, contraceptive use, and reproductive health as they relate to sexual behavior and HIV infection. He is currently comparing sociocultural determinants of induced abortion in Kenya, Peru, and the Philippines. As a consultant for the Population Council (New York), he trains health personnel for the Ministry of Health in Nigeria.
DIMOSTHENIS AGRAFIOTIS, PH.D. Dr. Agrafiotis, a sociologist, teaches and conducts sexological research at the Athens School of Public Health. He also works with the Collaborating Center for the Global Program on AIDS and the Sociology of AIDS of the World Health Organization.
PANGIOTA MANDI, PH.D. Dr. Mandi, a sociologist, teaches and conducts sexological research at the Athens School of Public Health. She also works with the Collaborating Center for the Global Program on AIDS and the Sociology of AIDS of the World Health Organization.
Reading and comments by MARIA BAKAROUDIS. A native of Greece, Ms. Bakaroudis earned a Master of Arts degree in the Human Sexuality Program at New York University and is currently a community health educator for Planned Parenthood in Jamaica, New York.
JAYAJI K. NATH, M.D., is the director of the National Institute for Research in Sex Education, Counseling, and Therapy (NIRSECT-India). A fellow of the Indian Academy of Juvenile and Adolescent Gynaecology and Obstetrics and the International Council of Sex Education and Parenthood of the American University, Dr. Nath is also a consultant on sexual medicine at the Mahatma Gandhi Mission Hospital in Bombay. He is working with his coauthor of the chapter on India, Vishwarath R. Nayar, on a training curriculum for sexuality teachers in India.
VISHWARATH R. NAYAR is the founder-director of the National Institute for Research in Sex Education, Counseling, and Therapy (NIRSECT-India), organizer of two national sexological conferences in India, and editor of the English news fortnightly Raigad Observer. He is working with his coauthor of the chapter on India, J. K. Nath, on a training curriculum for sexuality teachers in India.
WIMPIE PANGKAHILA, M.D. Dr. Wimpie Pangkahila, a lecturer in the Medical School and secretary of the Study Group on Human Reproduction of Udayana University (Bali, Indonesia), is also chairperson of the Indonesian Society of Andrology in Bali. As an andrologist and sexologist, he specializes in infertility, adolescent sexuality, and sexual dysfunctions. He is author of What You Should Know about Sex (1981), About the Sexual Problem in the Family (1988), Discussing Sexual Problems in the Family (1991), We and Sex (1991), and Some Sexual Problems in the Female (1991).
J. ALEX PANGKAHILA, M.D. Dr. J. Alex Pangkahila is a medical sexologist at the Institute of Family and Sexological Sciences at the Catholic University of Louvain, Belgium, an andrologist, and a lecturer in the Medical School at Udayana University in Bali, Indonesia. His research focuses on sexual fitness and perineometry. He is the author of Gymnastics and Sexual Impotency (1986), Premature Ejaculation (1979), Misorgasm (Anorgasm) Among Balinese Women (1979), and Impotentia Erectionis (1979).
PAULA E. DREW, PH.D. Dr. Paula Drew, a British-born cultural anthropologist, held consecutive tenured positions at the University of Tabriz in northern Iran and the National University of Tehran for fourteen years between 1964 and the fall of the Shah in 1978. In these universities, she taught Iranian women French, German, English, and psychology in Persian. For three years, she served as academic and personal advisor to female students in the humanities. She also ran a clinic for mothers and babies in an Iranian oasis community for almost ten years. Field-note observations formed the basis for her doctoral thesis in anthropology, Arranging Marriages in Iran, at Rutgers University, New Jersey. At present, she teaches anthropology and a cross-cultural humanities core course at Fairleigh Dickinson University, Madison, New Jersey.
THOMAS PHELIM KELLY, M.B. A physician and medical coordinator for Family Planning Services in Dublin, Dr. Kelly also has a private practice as a psychosexual therapist.
Additional comments by HARRY A. WALSH. Born and raised in Ireland, Dr. Walsh is a Catholic priest, and the executive director of the Institute for Child and Adolescent Sexual Health, in Monticelle, Minnesota.
RONNY A. SHTARKSHALL, PH.D. Dr. Shtarkshall is a professor in the Department of Social Medicine, the Hebrew University, and Hadassah, Braun School of Public Health and Community Medicine, in Jerusalem. He is also a member of the board of directors for the Israeli Family Planning Association, and an honorary member of the Polish Academy of Sexual Medicine. He is coauthor of Avoiding AIDS: Preventing AIDS While Preserving Sex and Youth, Sexuality and Relations Between the Sexes: A Facilitator's Handbook, and program modules, published by the Israeli Ministry of Education and Culture (1987). He is currently researching sexual function and dysfunction in old age in Israel, the sexual attitudes and behaviors of adolescents, and sex, sexuality, and relationships in a national Israeli sample.
MINAH ZEMACH, PH.D., a native of Israel, holds bachelor's degrees in statistics and psychology from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and master's and doctoral degrees in psychology from Yale University. She is currently the director and senior researcher at the Dachaf Research Institute in Tel Aviv (since 1979). She is an expert in developing surveys and making population analyses and predictions for social, political, and commercial purposes. She coauthored the chapter on Surveys in Research Methods in Social Sciences (The Open University, 1986), and Zug O Peret (Odds or Even), an analysis of relationships among Israeli couples (Am Oved, 1990).
YOSHIRO HATANO, PH.D. received his Ph.D. degree from the University of Oregon in the United States and is currently a professor at Tokyo Gakugei University. He is also a board member and director of the Japanese Association for Sex Education, an advisory committee member of W.A.S. (the World Association of Sexology), secretary general of W.A.S. Organizing Committee for the Twelfth World Congress of Sexology, vice president of the Asian Federation of Sexology, International vice president of ICHPERESD (International Council for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, Sport and Dance), and a member of the National Committee of Japanese YMCAs.
TSUGUO SHIMAZAKI is a graduate of Waseda University and a journalist and staff member of Shogakukan Press, Tokyo. He serves as secretary general and a board member and director of the Japanese Association for Sex Education, and deputy secretary general of Twelfth World Congress of Sexology (W.C.S.) Organizing Committee. In addition to being editor of Monthly Report Sex Education Today, he is a visiting professor at Chiba University and an adjunct professor at Roanoke College in the state of Virginia in the United States.
Additional comments by YOSHIMl KAJI, M.A., who is an educator working to promote knowledge about gay and lesbian issues in the Japanese community in both Japan and the United States.
NORBERT BROCKMAN, PH.D. Associate professor of politics and AASECT-certified sex educator, Dr. Brockman teaches at St. Mary's University in San Antonio, Texas. His research interests focus on African studies and political psychology. In sexology, he concentrates on the relationship between power and sexual behavior, professional incest, and power and sex roles in the women's and men's movements. He has taught in Kenya and worked at the Amani Counselling Centre in Nairobi.
EUSEBIO RUBIO, PH.D. Dr. Rubio is founder of Asociacion Mexicana para la Salud Sexual A.C., Mexico City, Mexico, a non-profit organization that provides low-cost medical and psychological help to low-income persons, and training in sex therapy for professionals. He also conducts some research projects at AMSSAC.
JELTO J. DRENTH, PH.D. Dr. Drenth, president and chairman of the Dutch Society for Sexology (Nederlandse Vereniging voor Seksuologie), is a member of the Sexology Department of the Rutgers Foundation and Consultation Bureau for Contraceptive and Sexological Advice in the Hague, the Netherlands.
A. KOOS SLOB, PH.D. Dr. Slob is senior scientist and professor of pathophysiology of sexuality in the Department of Endocrinology and Reproduction, the Faculty of Medicine, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Editor-in-chief of the Dutch Journal of Sexology (Tijdschrift voor Seksuologie), Dr. Slob was the first recipient of the Van Emde Boas-Van Ussel Award (1987) from the Dutch Society for Sexology. He also holds the special chair for physiology and pathophysiology of sexuality, the Trustfund, Erasmus University. He is coeditor of Facetten van Seksualiteit: Een Inleiding tot de Seksuologie (1990), Seksuologie voor de Arts (1992), and numerous professional articles.
ANNA SIERZPOWSKA-KETNER, M.D., PH.D. A psychiatrist and sexologist, Dr. Sierzpowska-Ketner is senior lecturer and consultant forensic expert in sexology in the Department of Sexology at the Postgraduate Medical Education Center. She is also the vice-president of the Polish Sexological Society and secretary of the Sexological Section of the Polish Medical Association. Specializing in sexual dysfunctions, paraphilias, sexual fantasies, and sex offenders and their victims, Dr. Sierzpowska-Ketner is also coauthor of a just-published Encyclopedia of Sexology.
ANNE BOLIN, PH.D. A cultural anthropologist, Dr. Bolin is assistant professor of anthropology at Elon College, North Carolina. Her book, In Search of Eve: Transsexual Rites of Passage, won the Choice Award for Outstanding Academic Book for 1988-1989. Coauthor of a college text, The Anthropology of Human Sexuality (1992), Dr. Bolin has done extensive fieldwork and published on male-to-female transsexual and transvestite subcultures, ethnomedicine in the Marshall Islands, and ethnographic research in a gay community and among competitive women and men bodybuilders. She is currently working on a textbook on the anthropology of human sexuality.
Puerto Rico (The United States of America)
LUIS MONTESINOS, PH.D. Dr. Montesinos is an assistant professor at Montclair State College in New Jersey, where he teaches undergraduate and graduate courses in human sexuality, health psychology, and behavioral modification. His major research interest is in the area of health psychology applied to different ethnic groups and cultures.
JUAN PRECIADO, PH.D. Dr. Preciado, an associate professor in the Department of Urban and Community Health at Hostos Community College of the City University of New York, has given numerous presentations on sexual health and cultural issues in Europe and Latin America. His research interests are in the area of health education and bilingualism.
IGOR S. KON, PH.D. Dr. Kon, sociologist, psychologist, and anthropologist, has been chief researcher at the Institute for Ethnography and Anthropology, the Russian Academy of Sciences, since 1974. A member of the Russian Academy of Education, Dr. Kon was also A. D. White Professor-at-Large at Cornell University (1990-1995), a member of the International Academy of Sex Research, and a member of the Polish Sexological Academy. In addition to over 300 professional articles, he has authored Introduction to Sexology, published in Hungarian, German, Ukrainian, Estonian, and Chinese. A Russian edition was published in 1988 after being banned for ten years. Among his numerous other books are Taste of the Forbidden Fruit (1992 in Russian), Sex and the Soviet Society (1993; coeditor with James Riordan), and The Sexual Revolution in Russia (1995). Between 1985 and the present, he held short-term lecture appointments at the universities of Stanford, Johns Hopkins, Minnesota, Chicago, Harvard, Princeton, Indiana, Rutgers, Notre Dame, Paris, London, Kent, Oslo, Helsinki, Amsterdam, Berlin, Leipzig, Tubingen, Tel Aviv, Prague, Budapest, Warsaw, Krakow, Beijing, and others.
LIONEL JOHN NICHOLAS, PH.D. Dr. Nicholas is senior psychologist and senior lecturer at the University of the Western Cape, Bellville, South Africa, and an adjunct professor at the Institute for the Advanced Study of Human Sexuality in San Francisco. He earned his master's degree in psychology at Boston University and his doctorate at the University of the Western Cape. His main research interests are in political psychology, sexual counseling, racism, and AIDS. Since 1990, he has conducted an annual survey of sexual experience, attitudes, and AIDS knowledge among black South African first-year university students. In addition to these annual survey reports, his 1994 journal publications include: The Experience of Black South African First-Year Students of First Intercourse and Contraception (International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling), Lying as a Factor in Sexuality Research (Psychological Reports), and AIDS Knowledge and Attitudes Toward Homosexuality of Black South African Freshmen 1990-1992. (Psychological Reports). The author/editor of Sex Counseling in Educational Settings (1994), he is coeditor of Psychology and Apartheid (1990) and editor of Psychology and Oppression: Critiques and Proposals (1993).
PRISCILLA SANDRA DANIELS, M.S. Ms. Daniels is senior lecturer and departmental chairperson of Human Ecology and Dietetics, as well as vice-dean of the Faculty of Community and Health Sciences at the University of the Western Cape in Bellville, South Africa. She holds a master's degree in science from Cornell University in the United States. Her research interests are in sexuality, family, and women's issues. She is coauthor of chapters on Sexual Harassment and Rape in Educational Settings, Sexual Attitudes and Behaviours of University Students, and Sex in South Africa in Sex Counseling in University Settings (1994). Among her journal publications, she coauthored AIDS, Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Homosexuals of Black First-Year Students, 1990-1992 (Psychological Reports).
MERVYN BERNARD HURWITZ, M.D. A diplomate and fellow of the South African College of Gynaecologists and fellow of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, Dr. Hurwitz is head of the Sexual Dysfunction Clinic at Johannesburg Hospital in South Africa, and lecturer and examiner in the Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. A member of the editorial board of the Medical Sex Journal of South Africa, Dr. Hurwitz is the author of Educating the Doctor and Patient in Human Sexuality (1986), The Problem of Deep Dyspareunia (1986), Sexuality in the Professional-Patient Relationship (1987), Sex and the Disabled (1987), Sexual Dysfunction Associated with Infertility (1989), and Breast Feeding and Sexuality (1992).
JOSE ANTONIO NIETO, PH.D. (Chapter Coordinator) Since receiving his doctorate from the New School for Social Research in New York, Dr. Nieto has specialized in the anthropology of sexuality. Currently head professor and director of the Human Sexuality Program at the Universidad Nacional de Educacio a Distancia, he has authored Cultura y Sociedad en las Practicas Sexuales (1989), La Sexualidad en la Sociedad Contemporanea: Lecturas Antropologicas (1991), and Sexualidad y Deseo: Critica Anthropologica de la Cultura (1992). Among his research interests are Polynesian sexual customs, and sexual behavior and HIV infections in Europe.
JOSE ANTONIO CARROBLES, PH.D. Dr. Carrobles is full professor and director of the Department of Biological Psychology and Health at the Universidad Autonoma in Madrid, and professor of sexology and sexual therapy in the Master's Program in Human Sexuality at the Universidad Nacional de Educacio a Distancia in Madrid. His publications include Biologia y Psicofisiologia de la Conducta Sexual (1990), Terapia Sexual (1991), Analisis y Modificacion de la Conducta (1985, 1991), and La Practica de la Terapia de Conducta (1978, 1991). His interests focus on sexual dysfunctions, sexual differences, sex therapy, and the psychology of health.
MANUEL DELGADO RUIZ, PH.D. Dr. Delgado Ruiz is professor of anthropology at the University of Barcelona and the Master's Program in Human Sexuality at the Universidad Nacional de Educacio a Distancia in Madrid. His publications include De la Muerta de un Dios (1986), La Festa de Catalunya (1992), La Ira Sagrada (1992), and La Reconquista del Cuerpo, Ideologias Sexuales in La Sexualidad en la Sociedad Contemporanea (1991).
FELIX LOPEZ SANCHEZ, PH.D. Dr. Lopez Sanches, a full professor of psychology of sexuality and director of the Sexology Doctoral Program at the University of Salamanca, is also a professor in the Master's Program in Human Sexuality at the Universidad Nacional de Educacio a Distancia in Madrid and director of the Center for Sexual Documentation in Salamanca. His publications include Principios Basicos de Educacion Sexual (1984), Educacion Sexual en la Adolescencia (1986), Para Comprender la Sexualidad (1989), and Educacion Sexual en el Aula (1990).
VIRGINA MAQUIEIRA D'ANGELO, PH.L.D. Dr. Maquieira D'Angelo, Doctor of Philosophy and Letters, is professor in the Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology at the Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, and a professor in the Master's Program in Human Sexuality at the Universidad Nacional de Educacio a Distancia in Madrid. A member of the Consejo del Instituto Universitario de Estudio de la Mujer and an international editor for Gender and Society, she is also editor of Mujer y Hombres en la Formacion del Pensamiento Occidental (1989) and coeditor of Violencia y Sociedad Patriarcal (1990).
JOSEP-VICENT MARQUES, PH.D. Dr. Marques is professor in the Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology at the University of Valencia, and a professor in the Master's Program in Human Sexuality at the Universidad Nacional de Educacio a Distancia.
FERNARDO MORENO JIMINEZ, PH.D. Dr. Moreno Jimenez, a psychologist with a Licenciado in Philosophy and Letters, studies sexology at the Interdisciplinary Institute of Ciencias Sexologicas at Louvain, Belgium. He is professor of biological psychology and health at the Universidad Autonoma in Madrid and a professor in the Master's Program in Human Sexuality at the Universidad Nacional de Educacio a Distancia. He is author of La Sexualidad Humana: Estudio y Perspectiva Historica (1990).
RAQUEL OSBORNE VERDUGO, PH.D. Dr. Osborne Verdugo is professor of sociology at the Universidad Nacional de Educacio a Distancia and in the Master's Program in Human Sexuality at the same university. Her publications include Las Prostitutas (1978), Las Mujeres en la Encrucijada de la Sexualidad (1989), and Sexualidad y Sexismo (1991; in collaboration with Josep V. Marques).
CARMELA SANZ RUEDA, PH.D. Dr. Sanz Rueda is a professor in the Department of Social Psychology at the Universidad Complutense in Madrid, and a professor in the Master's Program in Human Sexuality at the Universidad Nacional de Educacio a Distancia. A founding member of the Instituto de Investigaciones Feministas de la Universidad Complutense, she has also been a visiting scholar at Wellesley College in Boston. She has authored La Comunicacion Interpersonal en el Matrimonio: El Punto de Vista de la Mujer (1982), Nuevas Perspectivas Sobre la Mujer (1982), and Genero y Sexualidad (1991).
CARMELO VASQUEZ VALVERDE, PH.D. Dr. Vasquez Valverde is professor of psychology at the Universidad Complutense in Madrid and a professor in the Master's Program in Human Sexuality at the Universidad Nacional de Educacio a Distancia. He was a Fulbright Visiting Scholar in the Psychology Department at Northwestern University in Illinois (1984-1986).
Translation by LAURA BERMAN and JOSE NANIN. Ms. Berman earned a master's degree in the Human Sexuality Program at New York University, and has traveled extensively in Spain and Gibralta. She works as a health educator and counselor at the Hunter College Center on AIDS, Drugs and Community Health in New York City. A Cuban by birth, Mr. Nanin also earned a master's degree in the Human Sexuality Program at New York University and works in AIDS-education programs on the university level.
JAN TROST, PH.D. Professor of sociology at Sweden's Uppsala University, Dr. Trost has served on the editorial staffs of numerous professional publications, including Nordisk Sexologi, Journal of Marriage and the Family, and Alternative Lifestyles, as an expert on revision of Family Law for the Swedish Government. He has edited seven books, including The Family in Change, and authored or coauthored 11 books, including To Cohabit and to Marry: Facts and Foibles.
MAI-BRIHT BERGSTROM-WALAN, PH.D. Dr. Bergstrom-Walan, a psychologist, is founder and director of the Swedish Institute for Sexual Research, a diplomate of sexology, and certified sex therapist. She organized the 1976 International Symposium of Sex Education and Therapy in Stockholm and is currently vice-president of the European Federation of Sexology. A registered midwife, she has been involved in films and has authored several books on sex education, including The Swedish Hite Report.
KITTIWUT JOD TAYWADITEP, M.D., M.A., is currently a doctoral candidate in clinical psychology at the University of Illinois at Chicago (U.I.C.). He grew up in northern Thailand and received an M.D. from the Chiang Mai University (C.M.U.) in 1989 where, during his work as a faculty member in immunology, he became involved in HIV/AIDS education, prevention, counseling, and research on human sexuality and HIV-risk. His work in Thailand has been funded by the Center for AIDS Prevention Studies (C.A.P.S.) at the University of California in San Francisco. After attending the graduate program at U.I.C. in 1992, he has worked in a series of C.D.C.-funded studies focusing on the sexual behavior of behaviorally bisexual men and African-American men who have sex with men in the Chicago area. During his training as a clinical psychologist, he has worked as a psychotherapist and diagnostician at a U.I.C.-based clinic for psychological services and at the HIV Primary Care, Cook County Hospital. More recently, he has worked as a group facilitator in a NIDA-funded research project at the Howard Brown Health Center in Chicago which assesses the impact of cognitive-behavioral workshops designed to address substance use and sexual risk in men at risk for HIV. His clinical interests are on applying cognitive-behavioral theories and technology to various health-risk behaviors, such as cigarette smoking and HIV infection, and his dissertation on the automatic cognitive processes in depression reflects such interface between social-cognitive and clinical psychology.
ELI COLEMAN, PH.D. Dr. Coleman is director and professor in the Program in Human Sexuality at the University of Minnesota Medical School. He is a past president and fellow of the Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality, secretary of the World Association for Sexology, and editor of the Journal of Psychology and Human Sexuality. In addition to many professional papers, Dr. Coleman has authored or edited Psychotherapy for Homosexual Men and Women (1988), Chemical Dependency and Intimacy Dysfunction (1987), Sex Offender Treatment: Approaches for Clinical Practice (1992), and Sex Offender Treatment: Interpersonal Violence, Intrapsychic Conflict, and Biological Dysfunction (1995). He has done field research in sexology in Thailand.
PACHARIN DUMMRONGGITTIGULE, M.SC. has been an instructor in biology at Payap University, Thailand, since 1986. She began researching gender and sexuality in 1991 and has been the principle investigator on an HIV-prevention project among married couples in northern Thai villages. Currently she is a senior program officer at the Thailand Research Fund in Bangkok. In addition, she continues her research on HIV prevention and women's sexuality.
TAMARA GOVORUN, PH.D. Dr. Gorovun is chair of the psychology department, assistant professor, and post-doctoral researcher at the Ukrainian Pedagogical University in Kiev, Ukraine. She is also the head of the psychological department of Kiev's Research Sexology and Andrology Center, a member of the Ukrainian Psychologists' Society, and chairman of Sexual Education in the Ukrainian Sexologists Society. Her major degree is from the Department of Psychology at Kiev's State University and her Ph.D. from the Ukrainian Institute of Psychology. Her research in sex education, psychosexual development, and psychotherapy of sexual disorders has led to many publications.
BORYS M. VORNIK, PH.D. Dr. Vornik is director of Kiev's Research Sexology and Andrology Center, vice-president of the All-Union Sexologists' Association (Ukraine), and chief of the Ukrainian Commission for Transsexual Persons. He is a graduate of the Medical University of the Ukraine (Kiev) and the Institute of Andrology.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
KEVAN R. WYLIE, M.B., CH.B., M.MED.SC., M.R.C.PSYCH., D.S.M., the coordinator and author of several sections for this chapter, is a consultant psychiatrist at the Whiteley Wood Clinic and specialist in sexual medicine at the Clinic, Community Mental Health Care Directorate in Sheffield. An honorary (clinical) lecturer in the Department of Psychiatry at Sheffield University, his current in-press publication is Physical Treatments of Sexual Dysfunction in the Royal College of Psychiatry Monograph Series. In addition to recruiting and coordinating the specialists who contributed to this chapter, Dr. Wylie authored Section 5C5 on heterosexual behaviors, Section 8 on significant unconventional sexual behaviors, Section 12 on sexual dysfunctions and therapies, and Section 13 on advanced education, research, and sexological organizations.
ANTHONY BAINS, B.A., is a gay men's community worker at the Centre for HIV and Sexual Health in Sheffield. His interests include HIV prevention in gay and bisexual men. He authored Section 6 on homosexual, lesbian, and bisexual issues.
TINA BALL, PH.D., is a consultant clinical psychologist in learning disabilities at the Sheffield Consulting and Clinical Psychologists, Community Health, Sheffield. She also works as a member of the clinical team at the Porter-brook Clinic, a National Health Service for sexual and relationship difficulties. A specialist working with people with disabilities and sexual problems, she authored Section 5D on sexuality and persons with disabilities.
PATRICIA BARNES, M.A., C.Q.S.W., BASMT (ACCRED.), UKCP-registered psychotherapist, is director and clinician of the sex and marital therapy clinic at the Psychiatric and Psychological Consultant Service in London. Editor of a 1994 special issue of the journal of the British Association for Sex and Marital Therapy on sex education, she also coauthored Woman's Guide to Loving Sex. She coauthored Section 3 on sexual knowledge and education.
ROHAN COLLIER, PH.D., principal women's advisor at the London Borough of Hendon, specializes in issues of sexual harassment and domestic violence. She coauthored Section 8B of sexual harassment.
JANE CRAIG, M.B., CH.B., MRCP (UK), is registrar in genitourinary medicine. Her work at the Royal Hallamshire Hospital in Sheffield focuses on the clinical aspects of genital herpes and HIV/AIDS. She coauthored Section 11 on HIV/AIDS.
LINDA DELANY, L.L.B., M.JUR., Solicitor, is a senior lecturer in the School of Law at Manchester Metropolitan University, where her interests focus of legal issues of health care. She coauthored Section 9C on abortion.
JULIA FIELD, B.A., works at Social and Community Planning Research in Northampton Square, London, and is one of four authors of Sexual Behaviour in Britain: The National Survey of Attitudes and Lifestyles (1994). She coauthored Section 5C on interpersonal heterosexual adult behavior.
DANYA GLASER, MBBS, D.CH., FRCPSYCH, is a consultant child and adolescent psychiatrist working with the victims of child sexual and emotional abuse. Her publications include coauthoring Child Sexual Abuse (1993), as well as authoring Section 5A/B on heterosexual behavior of children and adolescents.
PETER GREENHOUSE, M.A., MRCOG, MFFP, is a consultant in sexual health at Ipswich Hospital where he develops and integrates sexual health education with holistic clinical care, particularly in the management of sexually transmitted diseases. He authored Section 10 on sexually transmitted diseases.
MARY GRIFFIN, M.B., M.SC., MFFP, is joint academic coordinator in the diploma program in couple relationship and sexual dysfunction at London's Institute of Psychiatry, and clinical assistant in the Sexual Therapy Clinic at the Maudsley Hospital. In addition to publishing on the sexual health of women and sexuality training, she authored Section 9B on teenage pregnancy.
MARGOT HUISH, B.A., BASMT (ACCRED.), holds a diploma in human sexuality from St. George's Hospital Medical School, the University of London, where she continues her work as a course tutor and a sexual relationship therapist at Barnet General Hospital. She authored Section 4 on autoerotic behaviors and patterns.
ANNE M. JOHNSON, M.A., M.SC., M.D., MRCGP, FFPHM, is a staff member of the Academic Department of Genitourinary Medicine, Mortimer Market Centre, in London and one of the four coauthors of Sexual Behaviour in Britain: The National Survey of Attitudes and Lifestyles (1994). Section 5 on Interpersonal Heterosexual Adult Behavior.
GEORGE KINGHORN, M.D. FRCP, is clinical director for communicable diseases in the Central Sheffield University Hospitals. Chairman of the Royal College of Physicians Genitourinary Medicine Committee, he has published widely and has broad research interests, particularly in genital ulcer diseases, the control of sexually transmitted diseases, and the treatment of HIV infection and AIDS. He coauthored Section 11 on HIV/AIDS.
HELEN MOTT earned her B.A. (Hons.) in social psychology at the University of Sussex and is currently a doctoral student in psychology at Lancaster University, specializing in sexual harassment. She coauthored Section 8B on sexual harassment, a topic she has published on professionally.
PAULA NICOLSON, PH.D., lectures in health psychology in the Department of Psychiatry, the Centre for Health and Related Research, at Sheffield University. Chair-elect of the British Psychological Society's Psychology of Women Section, she coauthored Applied Psychology for Social Workers (1990), and coedited The Psychology of Women's Health and Health Care (1992) and Female Sexuality (1994). She authored Section 2 on ethnic and religious influences.
JANE READ, B.A. (HONS.), a U.K.C.P. registered psychotherapist accredited by the British Association for Sexual and Marital Therapy, holds diplomas in counseling and in human sexuality. Her publications include Counseling for Fertility Problems (1995) and a 1995 article on Female Sexual Dysfunction in the International Review of Psychiatry. She coauthored of Section 9C on abortion.
FRAN READER, FRCOG, MFFP, BASMT (ACCRED.), is a consultant in family planning and reproductive health in the Reproductive and Sexual Health Care Centre at Ipswich Hospital, NHS Trust, Ipswich, Suffolk. She authored Section 9A on contraception.
GWYNETH SAMPSON, DPM, MRCPSYCH., is an honorary lecturer at the University of Sheffield and a consultant psychiatrist at the Porterbrook Clinic in Sheffield. She coauthored Section 7 on gender-conflicted persons.
PETER SELMAN, PH.D., DPSA, is senior lecturer and head of the department of social policy at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne. He has published extensively on family planning services, population studies, demographic analysis, and comparative social policy. In addition to the books Society and Fertility (1979) and Family Planning (1987), he authored Section 9D on population planning.
JOSÉ M. A. HERBERT-PARDO VON BÜHLER, R.M.N., CPN, DIP.H.S., is a specialist in human sexuality and relationship psychotherapy at the Cardinal Clinic, Bishops Lodge, Oakley Green, Berkshire. Author of Human Sexuality and Relationship Psychotherapy, he also coauthored Section 3 on sexual knowledge and education.
JANE WADSWORTH, B.SC., M.SC., is on staff at the Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, St. Mary's Hospital Medical School, London. She is also coauthor of Sexual Behaviour in Britain: The National Survey of Attitudes and Lifestyles (1994), as well as Section 5 on Interpersonal Heterosexual Adult Behavior.
KAYE WELLINGS, M.A., M.SC., works in the AIDS Public Education in Europe department at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. She is one of the four authors of Sexual Behaviour in Britain: The National Survey of Attitudes and Lifestyles (1994), and coauthored Section 5 on Interpersonal Heterosexual Adult Behavior.
STEPHEN WHITTLE, PH.D., M.A., L.L.B., is a lecturer in law at the School of Law, Manchester Metropolitan University, where he specializes in issues of gender, sex, sexuality, and the law. Vice-president of Press for Change, he coauthored Section 7 on gender-conflicted persons.
The United States of America:
DAVID L. WEIS, PH.D., coeditor, received his Ph.D. in family studies in 1979 from Purdue University. He has taught at Rutgers University, and is currently an associate professor of human development and family studies at Bowling Green State University in Ohio. A member of and officer for the National Council on Family Relations, the Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality, and the International Network on Personal Relationships, he is also an associate editor for the Journal of Sex Research. Weis has published numerous research articles in professional journals in such areas as adolescent sexuality, marital exclusivity, marital and sexual belief systems, sexual interaction processes, peer education programming, social services for the homeless and mentally ill, and adolescent drug use. He has also taught and conducted workshops in these areas, as well as in interpersonal communications, intimacy, flirtation behavior, dual-career marriages, and black families. Weis received the Hugo Beigel Award for Outstanding Sexuality Research for his study of the emotional reactions to first intercourse. (Introduction; Section 1 Basic Sexological Premises; and Section 5 Interpersonal Heterosexual Behaviors.)
PATRICIA BARTHALOW KOCH, PH.D., coeditor of the United States of America chapter, is an associate professor of biobehavioral health and health education at Pennsylvania State University. She earned a master's degree in the Program in Human Sexuality, Marriage and Family Life Education at New York University, during which time she studied in Japan and Sweden. Her doctorate is in health education from Pennsylvania State University, specializing in sexuality education, sexual health issues, human development, and counseling. She has authored over fifty chapters and scientific articles and contributed to several textbooks on sexual topics. She recently authored a textbook, Exploring Our Sexuality: An Interactive Text (Kendall/Hunt). She has conducted numerous research studies in the areas of sexuality education, sexual health issues, and women's health. She is also past president of the Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality, Eastern Region, and has served on the board of directors of SSSS and the Foundation for the Scientific Study of Sexuality. (Section 2C Sexological Research and Advanced Education - Feminist Issues; Section 3 Sexuality Knowledge and Education; and Section 10 Contraception and Abortion.)
Biographical Sketches for Section Authors:
Most of the following contributors are active members of the Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality, and several have held national or regional offices in the Society.
DIANE E. BAKER, M.A., PH.D. (cand.) is completing her doctoral dissertation on child sexual abuse in the Psychology Department at Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York. (Section 7A Incest and Child Sexual Abuse.)
SUSAN BARGAINNIER, ED.D., is a certified athletic trainer and assistant professor at the State University of New York in Oswego specializing in wellness promotion. (A Door to the Future: Sexuality on the Information Superhighway.)
SARAH C. CONKLIN, PH.D., received her first three degrees in her native state of Minnesota, a bachelor of science from the University of Minnesota, a master's degree in guidance and counseling from the University of St. Thomas, and a master's degree in theology from United Theological Seminary of the Twin Cities (Minneapolis - St. Paul). She earned her doctorate in human sexuality education from the University of Pennsylvania. She is currently an assistant professor of health and sexuality education at the University of Wyoming (Laramie), College of Health Sciences, School of Physical Health Education, and has done adjunct education in sexuality in Pennsylvania and Minnesota seminaries. (Section 13 Clergy Education.)
MARTHA CORNOG, M.A., M.S., is a linguist and librarian at the American College of Physicians. Her recent work includes a long article on conducting sexological research in Human Sexuality: An Encyclopedia, coeditor of The Complete Dictionary of Sexology, and coauthoring For Sex Education: See Librarian. (Section 13 Sexuality Research and Advanced Education.)
RICHARD CROSS, M.D., pioneered medical school sexuality education while he was a professor at the Robert Wood Johnson School of Medicine at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey. (Section 13E Medical School Education.)
MARILYN A. FITHIAN, PH.D., is cofounder of the Center for Marital and Sexual Studies, Long Beach, California, and coauthor of Treatment of Sexual Dysfunction, Any Man Can, and other works. (Section 12 Sexual Dysfunctions and Therapies.)
JEANNIE FORREST, M.A., worked for seven years as a family educator with the Church of the Latter-Day Saints and was married to a Mormon. She earned a master's degree in health education in the Human Sexuality Program at New York University. (Section 2A Sexuality and the Church of the Latter-Day Saints.)
ANDREW D. FORSYTH, M.S., is a fifth-year graduate student in clinical psychology in the Department of Psychology at Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York, whose interests include the assessment of high-risk sexual behaviors among at-risk groups. (Section 11 HIV/AIDS.)
ROBERT T. FRANCOEUR, PH.D., A.C.S., worked with coeditors David L. Weis and Patricia Barthalow Koch to integrate the input of some fifty scholars who wrote or consulted on different sections in this chapter. In addition to contributing several sections of his own to this chapter, Dr. Francoeur is General Editor for this International Encyclopedia of Sexuality. His fuller biographical sketch appears at the beginning of this Contributors' section. (Section 2 Religious Values, Section 4 Autoerotic Behavior, Section 5 Sexuality and Older Persons, Section 8 Sexual Harassment, Prostitution, and Pornography, Section 10 STDs, and Section 13 Research Assessment).
BARBARA GARRIS, M.A., earned a bachelor's degree in anthropology and sociology at Mountclair State University and did graduate studies at New York University in women's studies. She works for AT&T. (A Door to the Future: Sexuality on the Information Superhighway.)
PATRICIA GOODSON, PH.D., obtained her bachelor's degree from the Universidade de Campinas, Brazil, and a master's degree in philosophy of education from the Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Campinas, Brazil. After earning a Master of Arts degree in general theological studies from Covenant Theological Seminary in St. Louis, Missouri, she completed her doctorate in health education at the University of Texas at Austin. At present, she is an assistant professor in health at the University of Texas at San Antonio, in the Division of Education. (Section 12 Clergy Education.)
WILLIAM E. HARTMAN, PH.D. is cofounder of the Center for Marital and Sexual Studies, Long Beach, California, and coauthor of Treatment of Sexual Dysfunction, Any Man Can, and other works. (Section 12 Sexual Dysfunctions and Therapies.)
ROBERT O. HAWKINS, PH.D., former associate dean of the School of Allied Health Professions at the Health Sciences Center of the State University of New York at Stony Brook, is also coauthor of Counseling Lesbian Women and Gay Men: A Life-Issues Approach. (Section 6 Homosexual and Lesbian Issues.)
LINDA L. HENDRIXSON, PH.D., completed her undergraduate studies and master's degree in health education at Montclair State University in New Jersey. She did her doctoral studies in the Human Sexuality Program in the Department of Health Education at New York University. Her dissertation examined issues of HIV-positive women in rural northwestern New Jersey. She has taught at various New Jersey universities and colleges, and published on issues related to sexuality and health education. (Section 11B Emerging Issues in HIV/AIDS.)
BARRIE J. HIGHBY, M.A., is a graduate student in clinical psychology at the University of Kansas, where her research has focused on rape. She has worked at several shelters for battered women. (Section 8A Sexual Coercion and Rape.)
ARIADNE KANE, M.ED., is a nationally known gender specialist, author, and educator, as well as a diplomate of the American Board of Sexology. (Section 7 Cross-Gender Issues.)
SHARON KING, M.S.ED., graduated from the Human Sexuality Program at the University of Pennsylvania where she completed all but her dissertation for the doctorate. Her specialty is survivor therapy. (Section 8A Child Sexual Abuse and Incest.)
ROBERT MORGAN LAWRENCE, D.C., is on the board of advisors of San Francisco Sex Information. He lectures extensively about sexuality and health. (Section 6B Bisexuality.)
BRENDA LOVE is author of the Encyclopedia of Unusual Sex and has worked at the Institute for the Advanced Study of Human Sexuality in San Francisco. (Section 8D Paraphilic Behaviors.)
CHARLENE MUEHLENHARD, PH.D., is an associate professor of psychology and women's studies at the University of Kansas. Her research focuses on rape and other forms of sexual coercion, as well as on communication and miscommunication about sex. (Section 8A Sexual Coercion and Rape.)
RAYMOND J. NOONAN, M.A., PH.D. (cand.), is an adjunct instructor of human sexuality and health education at the Fashion Institute of Technology, State University of New York, in Manhattan. He is also director of SexQuest/The Sex Institute, providing educational consulting in human sexuality and educational content for the World Wide Web. He is coeditor and author of Does Anyone Still Remember When Sex Was Fun? Positive Sexuality in the Age of AIDS (3rd edition, 1996). He is completing his doctoral dissertation in the Human Sexuality Program at New York University. (Section 11C Impact of AIDS on the Perception of Sexuality and Section 12E Sex Surrogates.)
MIGUEL A. PERÉZ, PH.D., teaches kinesiology at the University of North Texas, where he also pursues an interest in sexuality. (Section 2B Latino Sexuality.)
TIMOTHY PERPER, PH.D., is a Philadelphia-based, independent sex researcher and writer. Trained as a behavioral biologist, he wrote about his extensive research on human courtship and flirtation in Sex Signals: The Biology of Love. He is also coauthor of For Sex Education: See Librarian (1996) and coeditor of The Complete Dictionary of Sexology (1995). (Section 2A Religious Values and Sexuality.)
HELDA L. PINZÓN, PH.D. is a Colombian-born nurse with wide experience in public health. A professor at Pennsylvania State University, her research interests include Latino health issues, community health, and Latino adolescent health. (Section 2B Latino Sexuality.)
CAROL QUEEN, PH.D. (cand.), has written extensively on bisexuality and other topics related to sexual diversity, including Exhibitionism for the Shy: Show Off, Dress Up, and Talk Hot (1995). She is a cultural sexologist in the doctoral program at the Institute for Advanced Study of Human Sexuality. (Section 6B Bisexuality.)
HERBERT P. SAMUELS, PH.D., is assistant professor of natural and applied sciences at the City University of New York/Laguardia Community College. (Section 2B African-American Sexuality.)
JULIAN SLOWINSKI, PSY.D., is a marital and sex therapist at Pennsylvania Hospital and faculty member at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry. (Section 12 Sexual Dysfunctions and Therapies.)
WILLIAM STACKHOUSE, PH.D., is director of the HIV Prevention Program for the Bureau of HIV Program Services at the New York City Department of Health. He is also an adjunct assistant professor in the Graduate Department of Applied Psychology at New York University and maintains a private psychotherapy practice. (Section 6 Male Homosexuality and Lesbianism.)
WILLIAM R. STAYTON, TH.D., is assistant professor of psychiatry and human behavior at Jefferson Medical College and an adjunct professor in the Human Sexuality Program at the University of Pennsylvania. (Section 12 Sexual Dysfunctions and Therapies.)
MITCHELL S. TEPPER, M.P.H., is completing work on a doctorate at the University of Pennsylvania, Program in Human Sexuality. (Section 5D Sexuality and People with Disabilities.)