Index EuropeGreece Ancient Greece

[Partially reproduced from page on Europe, Historical Matters]



As mentioned by Plato, there was a discourse on sexual abuse of children in classical Athens, and acts of an erotic nature were considered hubris (Cohen, 1993:p8)[1], which was to cover for the apparent absence of a statutory rape provision (p14-5). Specifically, their were a range of laws pertaining to circumstances which could lead to the corruption of boys, and the law of hubris “may have made prosecution at least a theoretical possibility for any consummated act of intercourse with minors” (Cohen, 1991 [1994:p182])[2]. A genuine age of consent, although perhaps a meaningful argument, is not known (p15). A further legal note is found in Macdowell (2000)[3].



Greek Love[4] (with a Specific Reference to Age)


By the Laius Complex, named after Oedipus’s father, Ross (1982,1985/6; Ross and Herzog, 1985)[5] means the  “pederastic and filicidal inclinations that I [Ross] believe to be universal among fathers”[6]. The concept has received little impetus in psychodynamic theory, and the place of the erotic within the parental remains a rather pressing theoretical-ethical impasse. “Philia”, as is argued, was donated by Zeus to mortals to safeguard their humanity (Nicolaiedis and Nicolaiedis, 1993)[7]. Its legitimate use as a suffix the para”philia”, however, appears to be unchallenged.


Booth (1991)[8], sketching the dangers of Greek symposia, where “eating, drinking and sexual indulgence constitute an intimate and unholy trinity”, tried to establish the legal “drinking age” of boys. In Rome “assumption of the toga virilis was on the one hand recognized to bestow freedom to recline and on the other to render desirable some restraint and guidance”. This does not mean children were excluded from parties, but that “in proper imperial practice, before assumption of the toga virilis, princes did not recline but sat, and they did not participate fully in the convivium”.

In ancient Greece, the boy was loved from pubescence, at age 14, to the beard, appearing “at least four years later in life than it does in a modern population” (Moller, 1987)[9], or somewhere around 21.

The only precaution taken was to depilate boys’ anuses, stated Martial and Suetonius. “At least in comedies and satyr plays, admittedly a raunchier environment then everyday Athens, boys were identified as sexual beings from an early age […]. Aristotle […] observes that boys enjoy rubbing their penises before (though only shortly before) they are able to ejaculate […]. Awareness of boys’ interest in the subject leads Xenophon to approve of the Persian reluctance to discuss sex in front of the very young lest their lack of discipline lead to excess […]”. Plato[10] argued for sexual segregation at age 6 and valued heterosexual self-control[11]. There seems to have been a law that referred to the age of 25 as the minimum of sexual responsibility, but there is no record of its use[12]. Whoring was the only method of obtaining sexual intimacy, says Golden (1990)[13], who is rather optimistic about the positive elements of this “institution” (p59). At least, Athenian pederasty brought the meirakion “into the orbit of a wider adult male world than his father’s” (Strauss, 1993:p94-5)[14]. It may also be argued that pederasty functioned to support the family and the continued primacy of masculine values and ethics, where traditional views of warriorhood were degenerating (Ungaretti, 1978)[15].

Contemporary others are not so optimistic about what happened to “children” (e.g., Bloch, 2001)[16]. It may be reasoned that “this [universal] sexual abuse of boys and young men by older men (who had themselves been abused) reflected a desired gender reversal designed to subsume women’s feared powers and increase male control” (Atlas, 2000)[17]. Kahr, who seems to draw conclusions of the absence of erections in the younger party as depicted on surviving vases[18], makes the significant, yet bluntly put, argument that “we have no first-hand accounts from the youths themselves about the ravages of Greek abuse” [sic].


The involvement of prepubescents in ritualised or habitual acts relative to the “sexual” sphere may largely be overshadowed by concepts of warrior pederasty and homosexuality pertaining to ephebes. Johansson (1990:p959-60)[19] argues that “pederasty” is about children aged twelve to seventeen, and not to be polluted with the contemporary stigma of “paedophilia”. DeMause (The Emotional Life of Nations, Ch.7), however, argues that “as soon as boys reached puberty, they were felt to be useless for sexual purposes, and all pederastic poetry[20] mentions the first hairs terminate the boy’s attractiveness”. The alignment of the Greek with contemporary “paraphiliac” categories would be facilitated by their manifest “trichophobia”[21]. DeMause’s ill grasp of “puberty” is indicative enough of this tendency.


The dating of the eromenos’ age is hampered by the cultural genres of resources, mostly poetry, legal records and drawings. The Greeks seemed to have had a specific distaste for sprouting beards (horror barbae), as is seen in paiderastia’s Arabic counterpart, but less is known for their alleged pubophobia. Data suggest that contemporary semantic corruptions of the pornographic concepts of “boy” and “young” already existed in pederastic Greece (Dover, 1978:p84-6)[22]. However, most scholars make a more or less sharp phenomenological distinction on the basis of the younger participant’s pubertal status (e.g., Eglinton, 1964:p23-4, 244ff; Brongersma, 1987, [I]:p68-75; cf. Halperin, 1990[23]:p90; Hupperts, 2000[24], I:p23-4; Freese/Licht, 1932 [1976:p72][25]). Licht argues that “ When discussing the Greek love of boys, one thing especially must not be forgotten: that it is never a question of boys (as we mostly use the word), that is, of children of tender age, but always of boys who are sexually matured, that is, who have reached the age of puberty”. However: “[…] We must also bear in mind that in Greece, as in all counties of the so-called Sotadic zone, puberty sets in earlier than in the north […]”. Percy III argues that “[…] as far as prepubescents are concerned, we have no evidence whatsoever in Greek sources to suggest that they were the object of attention of Greek men” (p8). Buffière (1980:p7)[26] argues: “Aimer un enfant avant la puberté serait un grave délit, une sorte d’attentat à l’innocence; l’aimer quand déjà les poils lui hérissent le menton change tout à fait les choses; c’est mettre face à face deux partenaires adultes, pouvant se donner la réplique!”. Pubescent children, however, may have their loves (p287-8, 609).


Insofar as pederastic aesthetics were based on somatic appearance, it might not have been what we call pubescence. As referred to supra, DeMause (1992/1994)[27] ventures: “The common notion that [buggery of boys in Greece / Rome] occurred only at “adolescence” is quite mistaken. It began around age seven, continued for several years and ended by puberty, when the boy’s facial and pubic hairs began to appear- actually at about age 21, very late, since most children suffered from “psychological retardation” from being so severely abused”[28]. Of course, the coincidence of male pubarche (pubes) and barbarche (beard) is contested by all elementary sources, and is to be considered erroneous. Secondly, with the scarcity of factual hints in this direction, the critical issue of “trauma” remains more or less open to debate.


In Sparta, boys associated with their mentors from age 12 (Bethe, 1907:p444/1983:p13). Cantarella (1988 [1992:p36-44])[29] concludes that there were three socially distinct age groups. Until 12, the boy should not be interfered with in “any kind” of relationship, though no punishment is known to have been institutional. Until 14/15, relationships were permissible but only in the context of a lasting emotional link. Until 18, then, a freeborn boy was considered to be able to choose his lovers freely. In his Historia Animalium, Aristotle mentions the age of 14 at which sexual control needs to take its place: “Girls who abandon themselves to pleasures when they are still very young become ever more lascivious, and the same is true for boys […] This happens because on the one hand the passages are dilated, facilitating bodily secretions along these paths, and on the other hand because the memory of pleasure experienced brings forth the desire to renew the connection which accompanied this pleasure”[30].


Female Paiderastia?


Calame[31] believes that in Sparta homosexual relationships existed between girls and older women. His best piece of evidence is a passage in Plutarch’s Life of Lycurgus 18.9, where Plutarch reports that the Spartans were so impressed by the beneficial effects of the male pederastic relationships that they encouraged “noble women” (kalas kai agathas gunaikas) to have erotic relations with girls (parthenon eran). The question is, however, how reliable this report is. In the French original Calame adduced as evidence another passage by the fourth century B.C.E. philosopher Hagnon, who maintains that it was the custom in Sparta to have intercourse with girls before their marriage as with paidika, but Calame now admits that this passage most likely refers to intercourse by men with young women (p254n169). It is not impossible that Plutarch, or his source, misread such statements by Hagnon or others in the same way, and inferred that the Spartans had instituted pederastic relationships between older women and girls similar to those of the men. Plato, in his Symposium, recognised female bisexuality, as did Plutarch when he remarked that “at Sparta love was held in such honor that even the most respectable women became infatuated with girls”.


A similar note from Pomeroy (2002:p29, orig. footnotes)[32]:

“Plutarch (Lyc. 18.4) reports that erotic ties between older and younger women were common. In Alcman, Parthenion 1.73, the girls mention visiting Aenesimbrota, who is probably a purveyor of love magic. She would provide drugs, spells, and magical devices to attract the object of desire[33]. Hagnon of Tarsus, an Academic philosopher of the second century B.C.E., states that before marriage it was customary for Spartans to associate with virgin girls as with paidika (young boyfriends)[34]”.

Argues Klinck (2005)[35],

“Although many modern scholars believe Sappho's relationships were egalitarian and same-age, the collective evidence of her own poetry together with the ancient testimonia and commentaries does not support that inference”.


Further refs.:


§  Reames-Zimmerman, J. (1999) An Atypical Affair? Alexander the Great, Hephaistion Amyntoros and the Nature of their Relationship, Ancient Hist Bull 13,3:81-96




See also Europe, Historical Matters page



Selected additional refs.:


For an excellent bibliography consider “Bibliotheca Erotica Graeca et Latina: Erotismo y Sexualidad en la Antigüedad Clásica: Ensayo de un Repertorio Bibliográfico” [ et seq.]. Also consider the exhaustive Thomas K. Hubbard’s HOMOSEXUALITY IN GREECE AND ROME: a sourcebook of basic documents in translation, University of California Press, 2003 []. See also bibliography 3 in Volume 3.


§  Arkins, B. (1994) Sexuality in fifth-century Athens, Classics Ireland 1:18-34 []

§  Bethe, E. (1907) Die dorische Knabenliebe. Ihre Ethik und ihre Idee, Rheinisches Mus f Philol [Frankfurt am Main] 62:438-76. Reprinted in Dynes, W. R. & Donaldson, S. (Eds.) Homosexuality in the Ancient World, New York / London: Garland, p10-48; and in Siems, A. K. (Ed.) Sexualität und Erotik in der Antike. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, p17-57

§  Beyer, R. (1910) Fabulae Graecae quatenus quave aetate puerorum amore commutatae sint. Dissertation, Leipzig [Latin]

§  Bleibtreu-Ehrenberg, G. (1987) New research into the Greek institution of pederasty, in One-off Publication of the International Scientific Conference on Gay and Lesbian Studies «Homosexuality: Which Homosexuality?» December 15-18 1987, Amsterdam, 1987 (= History, vol. 2), p50-8

§  Bremmer, J. M. (1988) Greek pederasty and modern homosexuality, in Bremmer, J. (Ed.) Van Sappho tot De Sade: Momenten in de Geschiedenis van de Seksualiteit. Amsterdam: Wereldbibliotheek, p1-14

§  Bremmer, J. M. (1990) Adolescents, Symposion, and Pederasty, in Murray, O. (Ed.) Sympotica: A Symposium on the Symposion, Oxford, p135-48

§  Brioso Sanchez, M. (1999) La pederastia en la novela griega antigua, Excerpta Philologica [Servicio de publicaciones de la Universidad, Cádiz] 9:7-50

§  Cartledge, P. (1981) The politics of Spartan pederasty, PCPhS 207 (N. S. 27:17-36. Reprinted with Addendum in Siems, A. K. (Ed.) Sexualität und Erotik in der Antike. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, p385-415

§  Cohen David (Nov., 1991) Law, Society and Homosexuality in Classical Athens: Reply, Past & Present 133:184-94

§  Davidson, J. (forthc.) The Greeks and Greek Love. Weidenfeld & Nicolson

§  Devereux, G. (1967) Greek Pseudo-Homosexuality and the “Greek Miracle”, Symbolae Osloenses 42:69-92. French reprint: La pseudo homosexualité grecque et le “miracle grec”, Ethnopsychiatrica 2(1979),2:211-41

§  DeVries, Keith (1997) The 'Frigid Eromenoi' and Their Wooers Revisited: A Closer Look at Greek Homosexuality in Vase Painting, in Duberman, Martin (Ed.) Queer Representations: Reading Lives, Reading Cultures. New York: New York University Press, p14-24

§  Döbler, H. (1971) Kultur- und Sittengeschichte der Welt. Eros Sexus Sitte. Verlagsgruppe Bertelsmann

§  Ellis, H. (1927) Studies in the Psychology of Sex, Volume II: Sexual Inversion. 3rd ed.  []

§  Foucault, Michel & Hurley, Robert (Summer, 1985) Erotics, October 33:3-30

§  Halperin, D. M. (1989) Sex before sexuality: Pederasty, politics and power in classical Athens, in M. Duberman, M. Vicinus, G. Chauncey (Eds.) Hidden from History: Reclaiming the Gay and Lesbian Past, p37-53

§  Halperin, David M. (1997) Questions of Evidence: Commentary on Koehl, DeVries, and Williams, in Duberman, Martin (Ed.) Queer Representations: Reading Lives, Reading Cultures. New York: New York University Press, p39-54

§  Haworth, M. (2005) The Grooming of Athletes: Seeing in the Greek Symposium. “Building knowledge of the past and present through acts of seeing”, A conference hosted by the Archaeology Center at Stanford University, February 4–6, 2005 []

§  Hindley, C. (Nov., 1991) Law, Society and Homosexuality in Classical Athens, Past & Present 133:167-83

§  Hubbard, Thomas (2005) Pindar’s Tenth Olympian and Athlete-Trainer Pederasty, Journal of Homosexuality, Vol. 49, Nos. 3/4. Published simultaneously as Same-Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition of the West. Edited by Beert C. Verstraete. Haworth Press

§  Hupperts, Ch. A. M.  (1988) Greek Love: Homosexuality or Paederasty? Greek Love in Black Figure Vase-Painting, in Christiansen, J. & Melander, T. (Eds.) Proceedings of the 3rd Symposium on Ancient Greek and Related Pottery. Copenhague, p255-68

§  Klabunde, M. (1998) Symmetry Braking: The Discussion of the Advantages and Disadvantages of Boys vs. Women as Sex Partners in the Second Century. Thesis, University of Cincinnati

§  Koehl, Robert B. (1997) "Ephoros and Ritualized Homosexuality in Bronze Age Crete, in Duberman, Martin (Ed.) Queer Representations: Reading Lives, Reading Cultures. New York: New York University Press, p7-13

§  Konstan, D. (2000a) The Pre-pubescent Lover in Greek Literature <> [forthcoming as “El amante adolescente”, in López, J. A. F. (Ed.) El Amor en la Literatura Griega. Madrid, 2001?] [p3 missing]

§  Konstan, D. (2000b) Enacting Eros <> [forthcoming in Nussbaum, M. & Sihvola, J. (Eds.) The Nights of Reason: Erotic Experience and Sexual Ethics in Ancient Greece and Rome. Chicago, 2001?]

§  Konstan, D. (2002) The prehistory of sexuality: Foucault's route to classical antiquity, Intertexts 6,1:8 et seq.

§  Krenkel, W. A. (1979) Paederastie, Der Kleine Pauly [Stuttgart] 4:1583-4

§  Krenkel, W. A. (1979) Pueri meritorii, WZ Rostock 28:179-89

§  Kroll, W. (1922) Knabenliebe, Pauly’s Realencycl Classisch Altertumswiss 11,1:897-906

§  Kroll, W. (1927) Freundschaft und Knabenliebe. Munich. Tusculum-Schriften; 4

§  Lambert, M. (2004) Cruel boys and ageing men. The paederastic poems in the Theocritean corpus, AClass 47:75-85

§  Marrou, H. (1965) Histoire de l’Éducation dans l’Antiquité. Paris: Points-Seuil [p61-73]

§  Patzer, H. (1982) Die Griechische Knabenliebe. Wiesbaden: Steiner

§  Percy III, William Armstrong (2005) Reconsiderations About Greek Homosexuality, Journal of Homosexuality, Vol. 49, Nos. 3/4. Published simultaneously as Same-Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition of the West. Edited by Beert C. Verstraete. Haworth Press

§  Provencal, Vernon (2005) Glukus Himeros: Pederastic Influence on the Myth of Ganymede, Journal of Homosexuality, Vol. 49, Nos. 3/4. Published simultaneously as Same-Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition of the West. Edited by Beert C. Verstraete. Haworth Press

§  Rettig, G. F. (1882) Knabenliebe und Frauenliebe in Platons Symposion, Philologus 41:414-44

§  Reynen, H. (1967) Philosophie und Knabenliebe, Hermes [Stuttgart] 95:308-16

§  Rind, Bruce (2005) Pederasty: An Integration of Cross-Cultural, Cross-Species, and Empirical Data, Journal of Homosexuality, Vol. 49, Nos. 3/4. Published simultaneously as Same-Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition of the West. Edited by Beert C. Verstraete. Haworth Press

§  Scanlon, Thomas (2005) The Dispersion of Pederasty and the Athletic Revolution in Sixth-Century BC Greece, Journal of Homosexuality, Vol. 49, Nos. 3/4. Published simultaneously as Same-Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition of the West. Edited by Beert C. Verstraete. Haworth Press

§  Schertel, E. [ca. 1920] Knabenliebe und Erziehung. Berlin: Pergamon

§  Semenov, A. (1911) Zur dorischen Knabenliebe, Philologus 70:146-50

§  Skinner, M. (2005) Sexuality in Greek and Roman Culture. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

§  Stroh, W. (1992) Musa puerilis: Die Knabenliebe in der klassischen Dichtung der Römer, in Stemmler (1992:p69-87). Reprinted in Leonhardt, J. & Ott, G. (Eds., 2000) Apocrypha: Entlegene Schriften. Stuttgart: Steiner, p28-42

§  Symonds, J. A. (1873-1897) A Problem in Greek Ethics. Privately published, expanded and included as an Appendix in Ellis, H. & Symonds, J. A. (1897) Sexual Inversion. London: Wilson & MacMillan

§  Vanggaard, T. (1972) Phallos: A Symbol and its History in the Male World. London: J. Cape

§  Verstraete, Beert C. (Ed.) (2005) Same-Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition of the West. Haworth Press

§  Vrettos, J. (1985) Lehrer-Schüler-Interaktion bei Platon: Die pädagogische Bedeutung von Eros und Dialog. Series Europäische Hochschulschriften: Pädagogik. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Verlag

§  Williams, Craig A. (1997) Pudicitia and Pueri: Roman Concepts of Male Sexual Experience, in Duberman, Martin (Ed.) Queer Representations: Reading Lives, Reading Cultures. New York: New York University Press, p25-38

§  Yates, Velvet Lenore (2005) Anterastai : Competition in Eros and Politics in Classical Athens, Arethusa 38,1:33-47





Janssen, D. F., Growing Up Sexually. Volume I. World Reference Atlas. 0.2 ed. 2004. Berlin: Magnus Hirschfeld Archive for Sexology

Last revised: Jul 2005



[1] Cohen, D. (1993) Consent and sexual relations in classical Athens, in Laiou, A. E. (Ed.) Consent and Coercion to Sex and Marriage in Ancient and Medieval Societies. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library & Collection, p5-16

[2] Cohen, D. (1991) Law, Sexuality, and Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Also cited by Cantarella, E. (2004) Controlling passions orestablishing the rule ofthe law? The functions of punishment in ancient Greece, Punishment & Society 6,4:429–36, at p431

[3] Macdowell, D. M. (2000) Athenian Laws about Homosexuality, Revue Internationale des Droits de L'antiquité XLVII:13-27 []

[4] See Reinsberg, C. (1989 [1993]) Ehe, Hetärentum, und Knabenliebe in Antiken Greichenland. München: Beck; Bethe, E. (1983) Die Dorische Knabenliebe, Rheinisches Mus Philol, N..F. 62:438-75. Reprinted 1983; Koch-Harnack, G. (1983) Knabenliebe und Tiergeschenke. Berlin: Mann; Percy III, W. A. (1996) Pederasty and Pedagogy in Archaic Greece. Urbana [etc.]: University of Illinois Press; Percy, W. A. III (1992) Sexual revolution 600 B.C. - 400 A.D.: the origins of institutionalized pederasty in Greece, in Dynes, W. R. & Donaldson, S. (Eds.) Homosexuality in the Ancient World. New York, NY: Garland, p49-68. Orig. in The Gay Review, 1 (1990) 1 (oct.9), p19-24; Deissmann-Merten, M. (1986) Zur Sozialgeschichte des Kindes im Alten Griechenland, in Martin, J. & Nitschke, Au. (Eds.) Zur Sozialgeschichte der Kindheit. München: Verlag K. Alber, p267-316, see p304-6; Dynes, W. R. & Johansson, W. (1990) Greece, ancient, in Dynes, W. R. (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Homosexuality. New York & London: Garland Publ. Inc. Vol. I, p491-501; Leroi, A. & Sergent, B. (1994) Homosexualité et politique chez les anciens, in Mendès-Leite, R. (Ed.) Sodomites, Invertis, Homosexuels: Perspectives Historiques. Lille: GKC, p43-7. Cf. Sergent, B. (1986) L'Homosexualité initiatique dans l'Europe ancienne. Paris: Payot

[5] Ross, J. M. (1982) Oedipus revisited. Laius and the “Laius complex”, Psychoanal Study Child 37:169-200. Reprinted in Pollock, G. H. & Ross, J. M. (Eds.) The Oedipus Papers. Classics in psychoanalysis, Monograph 6. Madison, CT, US: International Universities Press, Inc., p285-316; Ross, J. M. (1985-6) The darker side of fatherhood: clinical and developmental ramifications of the “Laius motif”, Int J Psychoanal Psychother 11:117-54. Reprinted in Pollock, G. H. & Ross, J. M. (Eds.) The Oedipus Papers. Classics in psychoanalysis, Monograph 6. Madison, CT, US: International Universities Press, Inc., p389-417; Ross, J.. M. & Herzog, J. M. (1985). The sins of the father: Notes on fathers, aggression, and pathogenesis, in Anthony, E. J. & Pollock, G. (Eds.) Parental Influences. Boston: Little, Brown, p477-510

[6] Also note the reactions to the 1985/6 paper by Kwawer and Esman. For a panel on Laius’ paedophilia, see Rev Franc Psychanal 57(1993),2 with contributions of Rocha, Fine, Barande, Chabert, Chauvel, Hurry, Arfouilloux and Nicolaiedis & Nicolaiedis. See also Knausen (1972); Vernon, Th. (1972) The Laius Complex,  Humanist, November/December, p27-8; Le Guen, C. (1974) The formation of the transference: or the Laius complex in the armchair, Int J Psychoanal 55,4:505-18

[7] Nicolaiedis, G. & Nicolaiedis, N. (1993) Incorporation, pédophile, inceste, Rev Franç Psychanal 57,2:507-14

[8] Booth, A. (1991) The Age for Reclining and Its Attendant Perils, in Slater, W. J. (Ed.) Dining in a Classical Context. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, p105-20

[9] Moller, M. (1987) The Accelerated Development of Youth: Beard Growth as a Biological Marker, Comparat Stud Soc & Hist 29,4:748-6

[10] On Platonist ethics, see Ervin, E. (1993) Plato the Pederast: Rhetoric and Cultural Procreation in the Dialogues, Pre-Text 14, 1-2:73-98; Catonne, J. Ph. (1996) Michel Foucault, lecteur de Platon ou de l’amour du beau garcon a la contemplation du beau en soi, Daimon, Rev Filosof 12:13-23

[11] Lacey (1968:p189-90)

[12] Gray-Fow, M. (1986) Pederasty, the Scantinian law, and the Roman army, J Psychohist 13,4:449-60

[13] Golden, M. (1990) Children and Childhood in Classical Athens. Baltimore & London: Johns Hopkins University Press

[14] Strauss, B. S. (1993) Fathers and Sons in Athens. London: Routledge

[15] Ungaretti, J. R. (1978) Pederasty, heroism, and the family in classical Greece, J Homosex 3,3:291-300. Further discussion of the “erotic reciprocity” or erastes and eromenos in Monoson, S. S. (1994) Citizen as Erastes: Erotic Imagery and the Idea of Reciprocity in the Periclean Funeral Oration, Political Theory 22,2:253-76

[16] Bloch, E. (2001) Sex between men and boys in classical Greece: Was it education for citizenship or child abuse? J Men’s Stud 9,2:183-204

[17] Atlas, J. (2000) Pederasty, blood shedding and blood smearing: Men in search of mommy’s feared powers, J Psychohist 28,2:116-49

[18] As Pollini notes, “To show a passive partner with an erection would constitute a break with the socially constructed norms established for such [Greek, Roman] homosexual relationships”. See Pollini, J. (1999) ‘The Warren Cup: Homoerotic Love and Symposial Rhetoric in Silver, Art Bullletin 81,1:21-52

[19] Johansson, W. (1990) Pederasty, in Dynes, W. R. & Johansson, W. (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Homosexuality. Vol. 2. New York & London: Garland, p959-64

[20] E.g., Beckby, H. & Setz, W. (transl., 1987) Das Hohelied der Knabenliebe: Erotische Gedichte aus der Griechischen Anthologie. Berlin: Verlag rosa Winkel; Steinbichler, W. (1998) Die Epigramme des Dichters Straton von Sardes: Ein Beitrag zum Griechischen Paiderotischen Epigramm. Frankfurt/M. u. a. Some verses collected in Strato van Sardeis (1976) Moysa Paidike. Dutch translation by Vergeer, Ch., Knapenliedboek. Amsterdam: De Arbeiderspers, indeed convey Greek pubomisy. According to the author (p60) it was the beard, first apparent at age 18 that formed the upper limit in paiderastia, while the lower limit is “less clear”. “Paedophilia in the modern sense” was judged to be nonexistent, unlike among the Romans.

[21]Obermayer, H. P. (1998) Martial und der Diskurs über Männliche “Homosexualität” in der Literatur der Frühen Kaiserzeit. Classica Monacensia Bd. 18 Tübingen: Gunter Narr Verlag, p95-103

[22] Dover, K. J. (1978) Greek Homosexuality. Lodon: Duckworth. Cf. Dover, K. J. (1973) Classical Greek Attitudes to Sexual Behavior, Arethusa 6:59-83; Dover, K. J. (1988) Greek Homosexuality and Initiation, in Dover, K. J. (Ed.) The Greeks and their Legacy: Collected Papers. Volume II: Prose Literature, History, Society, Transmission, Influence. Oxford [etc.]: Blackwell, p115-34

[23] Halperin, D. M. (1990) One Hundred Years of Homosexuality and Other Essays on Greek Love. New York & London: Routledge

[24] Hupperts, Ch. (2000) Eros Dikaios. Vol. 1. Diss., University of Amsterdam

[25] Freese, J. H., Sittengeschichte Griekenlands. Better known as Licht, H., transl. (1932) Sexual Life in Ancient Greece. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul

[26] Buffière, F. (1980) Eros Adolescent.Paris: Sociéte d’Édition “Les Belles Lettres”. See p605-17 for an extensive discussion of age.

[27] The History of Child Abuse. Speech given in May 1992 at The British Institute for Psycho-Analysis in London and in August 1994 at the American Psychiatric Association Convention in Philadelphia. This statement, with the retarded puberty hypothesis, was repeated in DeMause (1998).

[28] Another psychohistorian stated: “Age ranges for the eromenos are vague, but we seem to be dealing with the years immediately before puberty, the time of puberty itself, and the years straight after puberty” (Gray-Fow, 1987:p458).

[29] Cantarella, E. (1988) Secondo Natura. 1992 Engl. transl., Bisexuality in th Ancient World. New Haven & London: Yale University Press

[30] Cantarella ([1992:p68]), op.cit.

[31] Calame, C. (1997) Choruses of Young Women in Ancient Greece: Their Morphology, Religious Role, and Social Functions, translated from the French by Derek Collins and Jane Orion. Lanham MD: Rowman & Littlefield

[32] Pomeroy, S. B. (2002) Spartan Women. Oxford University Press. There are also notes about nudity (p26-7): "As we have mentioned, the bare-breasted costume was worn only by girls who raced at the Heraea. Though some prepubescent Athenians raced nude at least once in their lives at the sanctuary of Artemis at Brauron, only Spartan girls regularly wore short dresses and exercised nude. Moreover, historical sources assign the earliest foundation of racing for girls anywhere in Greece to Lycurgus." [...] In Laws (833C), Plato prescribes nude racing only for prepubertal girls, and racing clothed for adolescents until marriage at eighteen to twenty years of age. Plato’s distinction may be reflected in the artistic portrayals of Spartan girl runners, though a modern viewer may misinterpret clues to the age of subjects in ancient art.[n106] Bronze mirrors and statuettes portraying girls completely nude seem to modeled on a prepubertal, slim-hipped girl. Those wearing the chiton show an adolescent with fully developed breasts. The older group may be dressed because they have already reached menarche and need to wear an undergarment to absorb menstrual blood.[n107]". Note 106. See further Christiane Sourvinou-Inwood, Studies in Girls’ Transitions: Aspects of the Arkteia and Age Representation in Attic Iconogography (Athens, 1988).

[33] See further M. L.West,“Alcmanica,”CQ 15 (1965), 188–202, esp. 199–200 [orig.footnote 117]

[34] In Athen. 13.602d–e: see further C. Calame, Les choeurs de jeunes filles en Grèce archaïque, vol. 1 (Rome, 1977), 434, and Jan Bremmer,“An Enigmatic Indo-European Rite: Paederasty,”Arethusa 13 (1980), 279–98, esp. 292–93. K.Dover,Greek Homosexuality (London, 1978), 188, interprets the passage as anal penetration of girls by boys, and states that “the original sexual meaning of ‘lakonize’will have been ‘have anal intercourse,’ irrespective of the sex of the person penetrated.” [orig.footnote 118]

[35] Klinck, Anne L. (2005) "Sleeping in the Bosom of a Tender Companion": Homoerotic Attachments in Sappho, Journal of Homosexuality, Vol. 49, Nos. 3/4:193-208. Published simultaneously as Same-Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition of the West. Edited by Beert C. Verstraete. Haworth