Contributors

ROBERT T. FRANCOEUR, PH.D., A.C.S. (General Editor) Trained in embryology, evolution, theology, and the humanities, Dr. Francoeur's main work has been to synthesize and integrate the findings of primary sexological researchers. He is the author of twenty-two books, contributor to seventy-eight textbooks, handbooks, and encyclopedias, and the author of fifty-eight technical papers on various aspects of sexuality. His books include The Scent of Eros: Mysteries of Odor in Human Sexuality (1995), Becoming a Sexual Person (1982, 1984, 1991) and Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in Human Sexuality (1987, 1989, 1991, 1993, 1997, 1999) - two college textbooks, Utopian Motherhood: New Trends in Human Reproduction (1970, 1974, 1977), Eve's New Rib: 20 Faces of Sex, Marriage, and Family (1972), Hot and Cool Sex: Cultures in Conflict (1974), and The Future of Sexual Relations (1974). He is editor-in-chief of The Complete Dictionary of Sexology (1991, 1995). A fellow of the Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality and past president of the Society's Eastern Region, he is also a charter member of the American College of Sexology. He is currently professor of biological and allied health sciences at Fairleigh Dickinson University, Madison, New Jersey, U.S.A., adjunct professor in the doctoral Program in Human Sexuality at New York University, and professor in the New York University “Sexuality in Two Cultures” program in Copenhagen.

Authors of Individual Chapters

Preface to Vol. 1-3:

TIMOTHY PERPER, PH.D. Dr. Perper is a Philadelphia-based, independent sex researcher and writer. Trained as a biologist, with his doctorate from City University of New York, he has studied human courtship and flirtation behaviors for over a decade, assisted by full-support grants from the Harry Guggenheim Foundation. He is author of Sex Signals: The Biology of Love (1985), coauthor of For Sex Education, See Librarian (1996), author of numerous articles on human and animal sexual behavior, and coeditor of The Complete Dictionary of Sexology (1991, 1995). He has served variously as associate, consulting, and book review editor for the Journal of Sex Research. He is a long-time member of the Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality and an elected fellow of the American Anthropological Association.

Introduction to Vol. 1-3:

IRA L. REISS, PH.D. Professor of sociology at the University of Minnesota, Dr. Reiss is the former president of the International Academy of Sex Research, the National Council on Family Relations, and the Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality, recipient of the 1990 Kinsey Award for Distinguished Scientific Achievement, and author of eleven books and more than a hundred professional articles. His latest books are Journey Into Sexuality: An Exploratory Voyage (1986) and An End to Shame: Shaping Our Next Sexual Involution (1990).

Argentina:

SOPHIA KAMENETZKY, M.D. Early in her work as a gynecologist in her native Argentina, Dr. Kamenetzky dedicated herself to increasing the sexual knowledge of women. Teaching biology at an Argentine university, she collaborated with other educators in organizing sexual education courses. Post-graduate studies in France and study visits to African, Asian, and Latin American countries provided her with an understanding of the roles and problems of women in different societies. Her acquaintance with contraceptive practices led her to become medical advisor and director of public relations with Latin American Universities for the Population Information Program then based at the George Washington University in Washington, D.C. Her further studies at the Institute for the Advanced Study of Human Sexuality in San Francisco were guided by Dr. John Money. Now retired, Dr. Kamenetzky facilitates seminars on sexuality and the role of emotions in the health of the immune system.

Australia:

ROSEMARY COATES, PH.D. An honorary life member for the Western Australia Sexology Society, Dr. Coates is an associate professor of physiotherapy in the Division of Health Sciences at Curtin University in Western Australia. She is vice-president of the Family Planning Association of Western Australia and also founding member, inaugural president, and an honorary life member of the Western Australia Sexology Society. The author of Sexual Awareness Manual, Teacher's Survival Manual, and comparative studies of sexual knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among college-aged people, she is also interested in transvestism, transsexualism, and medical ethics.

Acknowledgments: ANN RITCHIE, librarian at the PIVET Medical Centre and former librarian for the Family Planning Association of Western Australia, provided research and editorial assistance. ROBERT TONKINSON, PH.D., provided advice on Australian aboriginal cultures, and editorial assistance.

Austria:

DR. ROTRAUD PERNER, L.L.D., is founder and director of the Training Program for Sexual and Social Life Counselors (GAMED), Vienna Academy for Holistic Medicine, and director of the training program for sexual and social counselors at the Verein fuer Prophylaktisches Gesundheitsarbeit (Association for Prophylactic Health Work), Linz. Following her graduate education and professional training/certification, Dr. Perner received her doctorate in law from the University of Vienna in 1967. She holds diplomas in psychoanalysis (1984) and systematic sexual therapy (1987), plus five other psychotherapeutic-related diplomas. In 1966, Dr. Perner became the first woman to be awarded the Paracelsus Ring for work in therapeutic communication, sexual therapy, and violence prevention. In addition to many publications and important affiliations, she is currently first chairperson of the Austrian Society for Sexology and a member of the University of Vienna Department of Education. Her main research focuses on the exercise and balance of power in gender relationships.

Bahrain:

JULANNE MCCARTHY, M.A. M.S.N., holds a master's degree in anthropology from Indiana University (Bloomington campus) where she took her first course in human sexuality. She also holds a master's degree in adult health nursing from the University of Illinois (Urbana campus). For nine years, between 1988 and 1996, she lived and worked in the State of Bahrain. The author of several articles and a monograph on nursing care for Japanese patients, she now resides in Bloomington, Illinois. In writing this chapter, she supported her comprehensive literature of sexual customs and behavior in Bahrain and neighboring Arabic and Islamic countries with insights and observations provided by twenty Bahraini professionals and eight expatriates in a variety of disciplines, as well as with anecdotal insights from personal contacts and local popular print media.

Brazil:

SÉRGIO LUIZ GONÇALVES DE FREITAS, M.D. President of Associação Brasileira de Sexologia (AB-SEX), scientific director of the Sociedade Brasileira de Estudos da Impotência Sexual, Dr. Freitas has also organized three national sexological conferences in Brazil and the First Pan-American Congress of Sexology in 1986. A gynecologist and surgeon, he has served for twenty-two years in the National Institute of Public Health (INSS) in which he founded the Department of Sexology in 1986. In 1984, Dr. de Freitas founded The Journal of Sexology, serving five years as its editor. Among his many publications on sex therapy and sexology, Dr. de Freitas is the author-editor of Sangue no Chao and Os Especiais.

ELÍ FERNANDES DE OLIVEIRA Reverend de Oliveira combines his theological and psychological training as a counselor working with couples, children, and homosexuals. He is president of the São Paulo Baptist Convention, second vice-president of the Brazilian Baptist Convention, and pastor of the Baptist Church of Liberty in São Paulo, Brazil.

LOURENÇO STÉLIO REGA, M.TH. Professor Stelio Rega's research interest is in the anthropological perspectives of sexual ethics. His recent publications in this area include Perspectiva, Crista do Sexo (1990), Libertação e Sexualidade, uma Abalise (1991), Aspectos Éticos da Pena de Morte (1991), and Avaliação Ética do Jeito Brasileiro (1992). He is a professor of sexual and medical ethics and dean of the Baptist Theological Faculty of São Paulo, Brazil.

Translated by LUIS CARREGA, who is a native of Portugal and a former student of the Encyclopedia's editor. Additional information by RAYMOND J. NOONAN, whose biographical sketch can be found in the U.S.A. section, and SANDRA ALMEIDA, who is a Brazilian lawyer and women's rights advocate currently living in New York.

Canada:

MICHAEL BARRETT, PH.D. Dr. Barrett is a professor in the Department of Zoology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada; executive director of the Sex Information and Education Council of Canada (SIECCAN); editor of the Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality; and the author of Population and Canada (1982).

ALAN KING, ED.D. Dr. King is director of the Social Policy Evaluation Group at Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.

JOSEPH LEVY, PH.D. Dr. Levy is a professor in the Department of Sexology at the University of Quebec, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

ELEANOR MATICKA-TYNDALE, PH.D. Dr. Maticka-Tyndale is a professor in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at the University of Windsor, Ontario, Canada.

ALEX MCKAY, PH.D. Dr. McKay is research coordinator for the Sex Information and Education Council of Canada, and associate editor of the Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality.

China:

FANG-FU RUAN, M.D., PH.D. A physician and medical historian, Dr. Fang-fu Ruan was on the faculty at the Beijing Medical University until 1985. Editor and major author of Xingzhishi Shiuce (Guide to Sexuality) (1985), prepared for the People's Republic of China, he has also written Sex in China: Studies in Sexology in Chinese Culture (1991) and coauthored with Professor Vern Bullough Chinese Erotic and Sexual Classics in Translation, Book 1: The Fragrant Flower: Classic Chinese Erotic in Art and Poetry (1990). He has also published on sex education, transsexualism, sexual repression, and gender orientations in China in such journals as Archives of Sexual Behavior, Journal of Gender Studies, Health Education, Journal of Sex Research, Health Education, Journal of Homosexuality, and Medical Aspects of Human Sexuality. A visiting professor at several American universities, Dr. Ruan is currently chairperson of the department of Oriental Studies at the Institute for the Advanced Study of Human Sexuality in San Francisco, and professor and dean of instruction at the Academy of Chinese Culture and Health Sciences in Oakland, California. He is also a diplomate of the American Board of Sexology, and a founding fellow of the American Academy of Clinical Sexologists.

M.P. LAU, M.D. A psychiatrist, Dr. Lau was born and lived in Hong Kong for thirty years, before moving to Canada, where he has lived for the past three decades while maintaining close ties with colleagues in China. Dr. Lau, the author of a major analysis of the nationwide survey conducted in China by Professor Liu Dalin included in this Encyclopedia chapter, is a faculty member in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and an active member of the Culture, Community, and Health Program at Toronto's Clarke Institute of Psychiatry. His research interests range from psychiatry, geriatrics, epidemiology, and substance abuse to sexology, Sinology, and cultural anthropology. A member of the Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality, he was also an executive of the Section of Sexology at the Ontario Psychiatric Association from 1979 to 1988.

The Czech Republic and Slovakia:

JAROSLAV ZVERINA, M.D. Dr. Zverina is director of the Institute of Sexology and a member of the First Medical Faculty at Charles University, Prague, in the Czech Republic. President of the Sexological Society of Prague and member of the executive committee of the European Federation of Sexology, he has authored Advice for Intimate Life (1991) and Medical Sexology (1992), both in Czech. His research focuses on the behavioral and biological aspects of sexology and reproductive medicine, mainly andrology. He has published in Archives of Sexual Behavior and authored a chapter on “Sexuelle Teaktionen auf Optische Stimuli bei Frauen” in Prakitische Sexualmedizin, edited by W. Eicher (Weisbaden, 1988).

ANTON ROS, a native of the Czech Republic and physician in Weirton, West Virginia, and LYNNE ROS, a former student of the editor of this Encyclopedia with extensive experience in the health-care professions, worked together to provide a translation of difficult sections in Dr. Zverina's manuscript.

Colombia:

JOSÉ MANUEL GONZÁLEZ, M.A., is director of Revista Latinoamericana de Sexologia, graduate director for sexual education at Simón Bolivar University and director of the González Clinique, the latter two in Barranquilla, Colombia. He has a bachelor´s degree in psychology from the University del Norte (1975), a master´s degree from the University del Valle de Guatmala (1977), and his doctorate from the University of Habana (Cuba) in 2000. He is the author of Educacion de la Sexualidad (Barranquilla: Club del Libro, 1994).

RUBÉN ARDILA, PH.D., a practicing psychologist, is director of the Revista Latinoamericana de Psicologia, president of the Fundacion para el Avance de la Psicologia, a professor and researcher at the National University of Colombia, and author of various books on human behavior.

PEDRO GUERRERO, M.D., a psychiatrist and sexual therapist, is director of the National Project of Sexual Education in the Colombian National Ministry of Education. He is the author of various books on human sexuality.

GLORIA PENAGOS, M.D., a gynecologist and sexual educator, teaches and does research at the University of Antioquia. She is also a member of the board of directors of the Colombian Society of Sexologists.

BERNARDO USECHE, PH.D., is a psychologist, sexual therapist, director of the graduate program in sexual education at the University of Caldas, and author of various investigations and books about human sexuality.

Croatia:

ALEKSANDAR ŠTULHOFER, PH.D., is chair and assistant professor of sociology at the University of Zagreb. The author of The Invisible Hand of Transition (2000), editor or co-editor of Sociology and War (1992), Sociology of Everyday Life (1993), and Social Capital and Transition in Croatia (1998), he currently teaches Sociology of Sexuality and Sociology of Culture at the University of Zagreb. His latest research projects are a rapid assessment study on trafficking in women in Croatia and a quantitative cross-cultural study of adolescent sexuality.

GORDAN BOSANAC. A physicist at the R. Boskovic Institute, he also teaches a course on culture, technology, and communications at the Peace Studies in Zagreb. He is an active member of the Anti-War Campaign Croatia.

GORDANA BULJAN-FLANDER, M.A., holds a master´s degree in psychology from the University of Zagreb and in integrative psychotherapy from the Sherwood Training Institute and University of Derby, U.K.. Ms. Buljan-Flander is a psychologist/psychotherapist at Psycho-trauma Center, Children´s Hospital Zagreb since 1981, coordinator, educator, and supervisor on the Prevention and Intervention in the Field of Child Abuse project and head of the hotline for abused and neglected children. She also provides clinical training for the Department of Psychology and Medical School for Nurses (University of Zagreb), and lectures at postgraduate studies in domestic violence, Police Academy. She is the author of Hyperactive Child (1997).

VLASTA HIRŠL-HECEJ, M.D., M.A., is consultant epidemiologist, the head of the Department of Reproductive Health, and chief of the Division of Epidemiology and Health Statistics in Children´s Hospital Zagreb, University of Zagreb Medical School. She has published over thirty scientific and professional papers on the health problems of children and adolescents, as well as reproductive health and family planning in Croatia. Her research interests include public health and preventive programs promoting adolescents´ general and reproductive health, sexual behavior, and sex education. During the last decade, Dr Hiršl-Hecej´s department has authored several publications educating Croatian adolescents about responsible sexuality.

PETRA HOBLAJ recently graduated in sociology (University of Zagreb). Aside from her research activities on prostitution and trafficking in Croatia, she works as a journalist and a program supervisor at a county radio station.

IVANKA IVKANEC holds a B.A. in ethnology and sociology from the University of Zagreb. She works as an expert adviser with the Museum of Ethnology in Zagreb, where she has organized 18 exhibitions, two of which explored sexual mores and relevant folk traditions in Croatia. Her work has been the inspiration for a documentary TV sequel titled Folk Intimacy.

ALEKSANDRA KORAC, PH.D., assistant professor of family law at the Faculty of Law, University of Zagreb, is a member of the working committee of the Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare for the Proposal of the Family Act (enacted in 1999), a member of the working committee of the Ministry of Health for the proposal of the laws concerning human procreation (assisted procreation, abortion, sterilization, and educational measurements), and a member of the working group of the Government of the Republic of Croatia for the implementation of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (1996-1998).

MAJA MAMULA, M.A., works at the Center for Women War Victims as counselor, trainer, and coordinator of the Women´s Counseling Center. Ms. Mamula has been training and supervising women´s groups and SOS lines on the issues of domestic violence and sexual violence for years. She has authored several manuals: Violence Against Women (Society for Psychological Assistance, 1999); Self-Help Groups (Center for Women War Victims, 2000); and Sexual Violence (Center for Women War Victims, 2000) and a book, Overcome Your Shyness (1998).

ZELJKO MRKŠIC studied sociology and works as a publisher and NGO activist.

SANJA SAGASTA, a graduate student at the University of Zagreb, Department of Croatian Language and Literature, is a poet and a lesbian human rights activist, as well as a co-founder of numerous lesbian projects and initiatives in Croatia.

HRVOJE TILJAK, M.D., PH.D., completed his training in general practice/family medicine at the University of Zagreb and the University of Antwerp (Belgium). Presently, he is a senior lecturer at the Department of Family Medicine, University of Zagreb Medical School, and works part time as a family medicine practitioner. In 1996, he was one of the organizers of the continuing medical education course Sexual Problems in Family Practice, the first of its kind at the University of Zagreb Medical School.

Cyprus:

GEORGE JOHN GEORGIOU, PH.D., the only certified sexologist on the island of Cyprus, is director of the Natural Therapy Center in Larnaca. He earned his bachelor of science degree in biology and psychology at Oxford (U.K.), a master of science degree in clinical psychology at Surrey (U.K.), and a doctorate in clinical sexology from the Institute for the Advanced Study of Human Sexuality in San Francisco, with extensive training in homeopathic medicine in London. He is also a fellow of the American Academy of Clinical Sexologists, and a diplomate of the American Board of Sexology and Sex Therapists. He was the main researcher for two WHO studies on HIV/AIDS and on drugs. Other research has dealt with sex and religion, herbal medicine, and nutrition. He is the author of a 1995 book in Greek on Premature Ejaculation.

ALECOS F. MODINOS, B.Arch., A.R.I.B.A., is cofounder and president of the Gay Liberation Movement of Cyprus, founder and member of the AIDS Solidarity Movement of Cyprus, and contact person for Cyprus to the European Council of AIDS Service Organizations (EUROCASO). A chartered architect, he earned his degree from the University of Strathclyde, Glascow, Scotland.

NATHANIEL PAPAGEORGIOU, a career police officer with more than 35 years field experience, is assistant chief of police (Support Services) in Nicosia.

LAURA PAPANTONIOU, M.Sc.(epidemiology), M.D., is Senior Medical Officer, Department of Medical and Public Health Services, the Ministry of Health, Nicosia. She is also editor of Health for All, a public service journal published by the Ministry of Health. Trained in medicine in Lille, France, she is the focal point for women´s affairs in the Ministry.

NICOS PERISTIANIS, PH.D.(hon.), is executive dean of Intercollege and president of the Cyprus Sociological Association. With graduate studies in the United Kingdom and United States, his main research interest is in the sociology of social change, social institutions, and ethnic and cultural identity.

Egypt:

BAHIRA SHERIF, PH.D. A cultural anthropologist who has done fieldwork in Egypt, Dr. Sherif is an assistant professor of Individual and Family Studies at the University of Delaware. After receiving a bachelor´s degree from Yale University, she did her doctoral studies at the University of Pennsylvania. Her research has dealt with aspects of ethnically diverse families, Islam, gender issues in the Middle East, intergenerational relations, and women´s employment. Her publications include “Islamic Families in America: Diversity and Uniformity in the Family Experience” for Harriette Pipes´ Family Ethnicity: Strength in Diversity (1999), “Treat Your Elders with Respect and Kindness: The Islamic Model.” in Aging in Africa: Colonial and Post-Colonial Representations, edited by Mario Aguilar (1999), and “Understanding the Rights of Women: The Egyptian Example,” in Women´s Rights in an International Perspective (L. Walters, ed. 1999). She also authored “The Prayer of a Married Man Is Equivalent to Seventy Prayers of a Single Man: The Significance of Marriage to Muslim Egyptians” in Journal of Family Issues (1999) and “When a Father Goes to Jail: Legal Latitude and the Implications of Cross-Cultural Issues” in Practicing Anthropology (1999).

Finland:

OSMO KONTULA, D.SOC.SCI., PH.D. As research director of Docent at the Department of Public Health, the University of Helsinki, Dr. Kontula had directed two national surveys of sexual life in Finland. He is coauthor, with Elina Haavio-Mannila, of Suomalainen Seksi: Tietoa Suomalaisten Sukupuolielämän Muutoksesta (Finnish Sex: Information of Changes in Sexual Life in Finland) (WSOY, Juva 1993). Since 1986, Dr. Kontula has authored or coauthored about 25 books on sexology, drug use, and the health impacts of economic recession.

ELINA HAAVIO-MANNILA, PH.D. Dr. Haavio-Mannila is coauthor with Osmo Kontula of Suomalainen Seksi: Tietoa Suomalaisten Sukupuolielämän Muutoksesta (Finnish Sex: Information of Changes in Sexual Life in Finland) (1993-1994, published in both Finnish and English), Tyopaikan Rakkausuhteet (Love Relations in the Work Place) (1987), and Unfinished Democracy - Women in Nordic Politics (with Drude Dahberup and others, 1985). Her many publications cover her research on drug and alcohol use and gender roles in family, work, politics, and dancing. With Osmo Kontula, she was responsible for national sociological surveys of sexual life in Finland. She is currently professor of sociology at the University of Helsinki, vice president of the Finnish Sociological Association (Westermarck Society), board member of the European Sociological Association Steering Group, and vice chairperson of the Finnish Academy of Science and Letters.

Germany:

RÜDIGER LAUTMANN, PH.D. Professor of sociology and sociology of law at the University of Breman, Dr. Lautmann has published widely on the social controls of sexual behavior in Germany since the Nazi period.

KURT STARKE, PH.D. Dr. Starke, a sociologist and political scientist, has served for twenty years as department head, head of research in sexology, and vice-director of the Central Institute of Youth Research in Leipzig.

Ghana:

AUGUSTINE K. ANKOMAH, PH.D. A graduate of the University of Ghana and the University of Ife, Nigeria, Dr. Ankomah received a doctorate from the Institute of Population Studies, the University of Exeter (U.K.), where he currently is a lecturer. Between 1986 and 1989, he taught sociology at the University of Cape Coast in Ghana. His research has focused on the sexual behavior of young women in Ghana and its implications for AIDS, family planning service provision, contraceptive use, and reproductive health as they relate to sexual behavior and HIV infection. He is currently comparing sociocultural determinants of induced abortion in Kenya, Peru, and the Philippines. As a consultant for the Population Council (New York), he trains health personnel for the Ministry of Health in Nigeria.

Greece:

DIMOSTHENIS AGRAFIOTIS, PH.D. Dr. Agrafiotis, a sociologist, teaches and conducts sexological research at the Athens School of Public Health. He also works with the Collaborating Center for the Global Program on AIDS and the Sociology of AIDS of the World Health Organization.

PANAGIOTA MANDI, PH.D. Dr. Mandi, a sociologist, teaches and conducts sexological research at the Athens School of Public Health. She also works with the Collaborating Center for the Global Program on AIDS and the Sociology of AIDS of the World Health Organization.

Reading and comments by MARIA BAKAROUDIS. A native of Greece, Ms. Bakaroudis earned a Master of Arts degree in the Human Sexuality Program at New York University and is currently a community health educator for Planned Parenthood in Jamaica, New York.

Hong Kong:

EMIL MAN-LUN NG NG, M.D., is a professor in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Hong Kong. He is vice-president of the Hong Kong Sex Education Association and served as president of the Fourteenth World Congress of Sexology held in Hong Kong in August 1999. A member of the Royal College of Psychiatrists (U.K.) since 1976, he received his M.D. from the University of Hong Kong in 1992. He is a fellow of the Hong Kong College of Psychiatrists, the Royal College of Psychiatrists (U.K.), the American College of Sexologists, the Hong Kong Academy of Medicine (Psychiatry), and the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists. Dr. Ng´s main areas of research are Chinese sexual attitudes and culture and sex education and therapy for the Chinese. He is coeditor with D. L. Liu of A Dictionary of Sexology (Taipei: Wen-He, 1996) and with M. Y. Deng, D. Ming, and E. H. W. Yen, coeditor of Practical Sexual Medicine, published by the International Association of Chinese Medical Specialists and Psychologists (New York, 1998), both in Chinese. Dr. Ng is also a coeditor of Chung-Kuo Tang Tai Hsing Wen Hua, and coeditor with E. Haeberle of the English-language edition, Sexual Behavior in Modern China: Report of the Nationwide Survey of 20,000 Men and Women (New York: Continuum, 1997). (Contact: Queen Mary Hospital, University of Hong Kong, Psychiatry Dept., Hong Kong.)

JOYCE L.C. MA, PH.D., is a senior lecturer and associate professor in the Department of Social Work at the Chinese University of Hong Kong. She is also a faculty member of Family Studies, Hong Kong, a branch of Family Studies, New York, and a social work member of the Gender Identity Team, Sex Clinic, Department of Psychiatry, the University of Hong Kong. She obtained a bachelor´s and a master´s degree in social sciences, the latter with distinction, and a doctorate in 1995, all from the University of Hong Kong. Since 1994, she has trained as a family therapist with Dr. Salvador Minuchin, founder of structural family therapy. Focusing her clinical and research interests on couple and family therapy, she has published 21 journal papers and contributed chapters to eleven books.

Iceland:

SÓLEY S. BENDER, R.N., B.S.N., M.S., coordinator and main author of the Iceland chapter, is assistant professor of nursing at the University of Iceland. She is currently helping to develop clinical guidelines for emergency contraception and chairing a working group of the Icelandic Association for Sexual and Reproductive Health developing a sex education curriculum for young people 16 to 20 years old. As a nurse specialist for the Icelandic Association for Sexual and Reproductive Health, she coordinates sexual and reproductive counseling for young people and does educational and counseling work. She holds a bachelor of science degree in nursing from the University of Iceland (1973), a master of science degree in Family Planning Administration from the University of Minnesota (1983), and is a doctoral candidate at the Department of Medicine at the University of Iceland. She has edited, co-authored, and authored several articles and major reports on her main research interest, the sexual and reproductive health of Iceland´s young people.

GUDRUN JONSDOTTIR, PH.D., a retired professor of social work, earned his doctorate in social work at the University of Sheffield in the U.K. His main research interest is sexual violence against women and children, and studies of incest survivors´ experiences of abuse in Iceland and Britain.

SIGRUN JULIUSDOTTIR, PH.D., is professor and chief of social work education at the University of Iceland. She graduated from the School of Social Work, University of Lund, Sweden (1970) and completed a Phil. Cand. degree in social sciences, Department of Sociology, University of Stockholm. She holds a master's degree in Social Work from the University of Michigan (1978) and a Ph.D. in social work, University of Gothenburg, Sweden (1993). A licensed psychotherapist in private practice, Dr. Juliusdottir is a member of the American Family Therapy Academy, the Swedish Association of Supervisors, and the Icelandic Association of Sexology. Her main area of research is family matters, intimate interaction, and divorce issues.

THORVALDUR KRISTINSSON is a leading figure in the Icelandic gay movement and presently the chairman of Samtökin 78, the Lesbian and Gay Association of Iceland.

India:

JAYAJI K. NATH, M.D., is the director of the National Institute for Research in Sex Education, Counseling, and Therapy (NIRSECT-India). A fellow of the Indian Academy of Juvenile and Adolescent Gynaecology and Obstetrics and the International Council of Sex Education and Parenthood of the American University, Dr. Nath is also a consultant on sexual medicine at the Mahatma Gandhi Mission Hospital in Bombay. He is working with his coauthor of the chapter on India, Vishwarath R. Nayar, on a training curriculum for sexuality teachers in India.

VISHWARATH R. NAYAR is the founder-director of the National Institute for Research in Sex Education, Counseling, and Therapy (NIRSECT-India), organizer of two national sexological conferences in India, and editor of the English news fortnightly Raigad Observer. He is working with his coauthor of the chapter on India, J. K. Nath, on a training curriculum for sexuality teachers in India.

Indonesia:

RAMSEY ELKHOLY, PH.D. (cand.) is completing his doctoral studies in ecological anthropology at the University of Manchester in the U.K. His main area of research focuses on hunter-gatherers, with an emphasis on Sumatran groups, their sociality, and environmental perceptions. His main fieldwork has been with the Orang-Rimba indigenous forest people of Indonesia. His paper on “Hunter-Gatherers, Native Ecologies and Human Sociality” is forthcoming in the Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute (U.K.).

WIMPIE PANGKAHILA, M.D. Dr. Wimpie Pangkahila, a lecturer in the Medical School and secretary of the Study Group on Human Reproduction of Udayana University (Bali, Indonesia), is also chairperson of the Indonesian Society of Andrology in Bali. As an andrologist and sexologist, he specializes in infertility, adolescent sexuality, and sexual dysfunctions. He is author of What You Should Know about Sex (1981), About the Sexual Problem in the Family (1988), Discussing Sexual Problems in the Family (1991), We and Sex (1991), and Some Sexual Problems in the Female (1991).

J. ALEX PANGKAHILA, M.D. Dr. J. Alex Pangkahila is a medical sexologist at the Institute of Family and Sexological Sciences at the Catholic University of Louvain, Belgium, an andrologist, and a lecturer in the Medical School at Udayana University in Bali, Indonesia. His research focuses on sexual fitness and perineometry. He is the author of Gymnastics and Sexual Impotency (1986), Premature Ejaculation (1979), Misorgasm (Anorgasm) Among Balinese Women (1979), and Impotentia Erectionis (1979).

Iran:

PAULA E. DREW, PH.D. Dr. Paula Drew, a British-born cultural anthropologist, held consecutive tenured positions at the University of Tabriz in northern Iran and the National University of Tehran for fourteen years between 1964 and the fall of the Shah in 1978. In these universities, she taught Iranian women French, German, English, and psychology in Persian. For three years, she served as academic and personal advisor to female students in the humanities. She also ran a clinic for mothers and babies in an Iranian oasis community for almost ten years. Field-note observations formed the basis for her doctoral thesis in anthropology, Arranging Marriages in Iran, at Rutgers University, New Jersey. At present, she teaches anthropology and a cross-cultural humanities core course at Fairleigh Dickinson University, Madison, New Jersey.

Ireland:

THOMAS PHELIM KELLY, M.B. A physician and medical coordinator for Family Planning Services in Dublin, Dr. Kelly also has a private practice as a psychosexual therapist.

Additional comments by HARRY A. WALSH. Born and raised in Ireland, Dr. Walsh is a Catholic priest, and the executive director of the Institute for Child and Adolescent Sexual Health, in Monticelle, Minnesota.

Israel:

RONNY A. SHTARKSHALL, PH.D. Dr. Shtarkshall is a professor in the Department of Social Medicine, the Hebrew University, and Hadassah, Braun School of Public Health and Community Medicine, in Jerusalem. He is also a member of the board of directors for the Israeli Family Planning Association, and an honorary member of the Polish Academy of Sexual Medicine. He is coauthor of Avoiding AIDS: Preventing AIDS While Preserving Sex and Youth, Sexuality and Relations Between the Sexes: A Facilitator's Handbook, and program modules, published by the Israeli Ministry of Education and Culture (1987). He is currently researching sexual function and dysfunction in old age in Israel, the sexual attitudes and behaviors of adolescents, and sex, sexuality, and relationships in a national Israeli sample.

MINAH ZEMACH, PH.D., a native of Israel, holds bachelor's degrees in statistics and psychology from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and master's and doctoral degrees in psychology from Yale University. She is currently the director and senior researcher at the Dachaf Research Institute in Tel Aviv (since 1979). She is an expert in developing surveys and making population analyses and predictions for social, political, and commercial purposes. She coauthored the chapter on “Surveys” in Research Methods in Social Sciences (The Open University, 1986), and Zug O Peret (Odds or Even), an analysis of relationships among Israeli couples (Am Oved, 1990).

Italy:

BRUNO P. F. WANROOIJ, PH.D., is professor of history and social sciences at Syracuse University in Italy and at Georgetown University at Villa Le Balze. After a cum laude degree in history from the University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands, he received his doctorate in history and civilization from the European University Institute, Florence, Italy. His main interests are in the history of sexuality, family, and mentalities (ideas). He is the author of Storia del Pudore: La Questione Sessuale in Italia (1860-1940) (Venezia: Marsilio, 1990). Among his many recent articles are: “Italy. Sexuality, Morality, and Public Authority in Italy,” “Universalismo Versus Cosmopolitismo. I Cattolici Italiani e Hollywood,” “Back to the Future. Gender, Morality and Modernization in Twentieth Century Italy,” “Impariamo ad Amare´. L´Avvio della Consulenza Matrimoniale in Italia (1948-1975),” “Soyez des Hommes´. Appunti sulla Crisi della Virilità 1930-1960,” and “La Passione Svelata. Sessualità, Crimine ed Educazione in Italia tra ´800 e ´900.”

Japan:

YOSHIRO HATANO, PH.D. received his Ph.D. degree from the University of Oregon in the United States and is currently a professor at Tokyo Gakugei University. He is also a board member and director of the Japanese Association for Sex Education, an advisory committee member of W.A.S. (the World Association of Sexology), secretary general of W.A.S. Organizing Committee for the Twelfth World Congress of Sexology, vice president of the Asian Federation of Sexology, International vice president of ICHPERESD (International Council for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, Sport and Dance), and a member of the National Committee of Japanese YMCAs.

TSUGUO SHIMAZAKI is a graduate of Waseda University and a journalist and staff member of Shogakukan Press, Tokyo. He serves as secretary general and a board member and director of the Japanese Association for Sex Education, and deputy secretary general of Twelfth World Congress of Sexology (W.C.S.) Organizing Committee. In addition to being editor of Monthly Report Sex Education Today, he is a visiting professor at Chiba University and an adjunct professor at Roanoke College in the state of Virginia in the United States.

Additional comments by YOSHIMl KAJI, M.A., who is an educator working to promote knowledge about gay and lesbian issues in the Japanese community in both Japan and the United States.

Kenya:

NORBERT BROCKMAN, PH.D. Associate professor of politics and AASECT-certified sex educator, Dr. Brockman teaches at St. Mary's University in San Antonio, Texas. His research interests focus on African studies and political psychology. In sexology, he concentrates on the relationship between power and sexual behavior, professional incest, and power and sex roles in the women's and men's movements. He has taught in Kenya and worked at the Amani Counselling Centre in Nairobi.

Mexico:

EUSEBIO RUBIO, PH.D. Dr. Rubio is founder of Asociacion Mexicana para la Salud Sexual A.C., Mexico City, Mexico, a non-profit organization that provides low-cost medical and psychological help to low-income persons, and training in sex therapy for professionals. He also conducts some research projects at AMSSAC.

Morocco:

NADIA KADIRI, M.D., is a psychiatrist in the University Psychiatric Center in Casablanca and a member of the Scientific Committee of the Moroccan Society of Sexology.

ABDERRAZAK MOUSSAÏD, M.D., founded the Moroccan Society of Sexology. A medical doctor at the University of Casablanca, he specializes in psychosomatic medicine and sexology. He also holds a díplome-inter-universitaire de sexologie from the Faculté de Médicine de Paris XIII-Boigny.

ABDELKRIM TIRRAF, M.D., a specialist in male erectile problems, sterility, and sexual maladies, Dr. Tirraf holds a diplomé in andrology from the Université de Paris. A member of the Moroccan Society of Sexology, he maintains a private medical practice in Casablanca.

The Netherlands:

JELTO J. DRENTH, PH.D. Dr. Drenth, president and chairman of the Dutch Society for Sexology (Nederlandse Vereniging voor Seksuologie), is a member of the Sexology Department of the Rutgers Foundation and Consultation Bureau for Contraceptive and Sexological Advice in the Hague, the Netherlands.

A. KOOS SLOB, PH.D. Dr. Slob is senior scientist and professor of pathophysiology of sexuality in the Department of Endocrinology and Reproduction, the Faculty of Medicine, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Editor-in-chief of the Dutch Journal of Sexology (Tijdschrift voor Seksuologie), Dr. Slob was the first recipient of the “Van Emde Boas-Van Ussel” Award (1987) from the Dutch Society for Sexology. He also holds the special chair for physiology and pathophysiology of sexuality, the Trustfund, Erasmus University. He is coeditor of Facetten van Seksualiteit: Een Inleiding tot de Seksuologie (1990), Seksuologie voor de Arts (1992), and numerous professional articles.

Nigeria:

UWEM EDIMO ESIET, M.B., M.P.H., a public health physician, has spent over ten years promoting sexual health in Nigeria. He has served on the task force on producing the National Guidelines for Sexuality Education in Nigeria and on the committee responsible for producing the Sexuality Education Curriculum for use in Nigerian schools. A leading commentator on sexuality in Nigeria, he is an alternate member of the National Working Group on adolescent health in Nigeria and is co-founder, chapter coordinator, and medical director of Action Health Incorporated (AHI) in Lagos, one of Nigeria´s largest and most effective NGOs working for adolescent reproductive health. In 1996, AHI helped to coordinate the first Nigerian National Conference on Adolescent Reproductive Health and, as follow up to that meeting, successfully lobbied the Nigerian Ministry of Education to approve the integration of sexuality education into the Nigerian secondary school curriculum and the adoption of the sexuality education guidelines for Nigerian schools.

CHRISTINE OLUNFINKE ADEBAJO, PH.D., is deputy general secretary of the National Association of Nigerian Nurses and Midwives (NANNM), director of the Health Services Consultancy, president of the Federation of Female Nurses and Midwives of Nigeria (FENAM), and vice president of Nigeria´s National Council for Population Activities. She has authored two books on female circumcision and strategies for its eradication, as well as co-authoring Women´s Health Issues in Nigeria (1992) and Traditional Practices of Child Marriage, Teenage Pregnancy, and Nutritional Taboos (1989).

IBIRONKE AKINSETE. Professor Akinsete is president of the Society for Women and AIDS in Africa Nigerian Chapter (SWAAN).

MAIRO VICTORIA BELLO is project director and coordinator for the Adolescent Health and Information Project in Tarauni, Kano, Nigeria. An officer of Women for Independence, Self-Sufficiency, and Economic Advancement (WISSEA), her research has focused on adolescent sexuality and socialization, sexual violence and abuse, and women´s health and reproductive track infections, as well as on broader women´s issues in politics and economics.

RAKIYA BOOTH, M.B.B.S., is director of primary health care services of the Christian Health Association of Nigeria in Jos. A diplomate of dermatology and fellow of the East African College of Physicians, her specialization is in STD and AIDS education.

IMO I. ESIET, ESQ., B.SC.(HONS), L.L.B.(HONS), B.L., is a member of the Nigerian Bar Association and a counselor and legal advisor involved in women´s rights.

NIKE ESIET, B.SC., M.H.P (Harvard), a journalist and former public relations officer for the Society for Women and AIDS, Nigeria Chapter (SWAAN), Mrs. Esiet was educated in Nigeria and Harvard. She is now the project director and co-founder of Lagos-based Action Health Incorporated (AHI), one of Nigeria´s largest and most effective NGOs working for adolescent reproductive health. Since 1989, she has built AHI from an idea into a vibrant organization that combines community education, a reproductive health clinic, and a multifaceted youth center with in-school programs and work at the policy level, to change the way that adolescent health and sexuality is thought of, communicated, and taught throughout Nigeria. Her work has been supported by a three-year “social entrepreneur” fellowship from the U.S.-based Ashoka: Innovators for the Public and support from the MacArthur Foundation.

MRS. FOYIN OYEBOLA earned her B.Sc. in nursing and an M.A. in family planning and program administration. She is currently program officer at the Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria National Headquarters in Lagos, and a member of the Campaign Against Unwanted Pregnancy (C.A.U.P.) in Lagos.

BILKISU YUSUF, a journalist, media administrator, and social activist, received his master of arts degree from the University of Wisconsin and an advanced diploma in journalism from the Moscow Institute of Journalism. He has contributed to various books, with chapters on such topics as “Challenges of the Muslim Women,” “Hausa Fulani Women: The State of the Struggle,” “Challenges Facing Muslim Women in Secular States,” and “The Impact of Islam and Culture on Marriage Age in Hausa Society.”

Norway:

ELSA ALMÅS, Cand. Psychol. at the University of Bergen, is a specialist in clinical psychology in private practice. She is president of both the Norwegian Society for Clinical Sexology and the Nordic Association for Clinical Sexology, a member of the Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association, and member of the Resource and Reference Group for Sexual Dysfunctions in Norway. Almås´s clinical and research interests include psychotherapy, sex and family therapy, education in sexology, health politics, gender issues, and public sex education. She authored Den Skjulte Lyst (The Hidden Desire) (Oslow: Faktum Forlag, 1987), and with Esben Esther Pirelli Benestad, co-authored Sexologi i Praksis (Sexology in Practice) (Oslo: Tano Ascehoug, 1997). Almås has authored and co-authored many professional research papers. (Contact: Grimstad MPAT-Institute, Storgaten 42, 4876 Grimstad, Norway.)

ESBEN ESTHER PIRELLI BENESTAD, M.D., a general practitioner (University of Oslo) and family therapist in private practice, is a board member of the Norwegian Society for Clinical Sexology and a member of the Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association and the Nordic Group for Developing Sexological Education and Authorisation. Benestad´s main research and clinical work is in general health service, family and sex therapy, psychotherapy, education, and supervision in sexology, public sex education, and counseling in gender issues. Among his many publications, Benestad has authored several articles on transvestism. (Contact: Grimstad MPAT-Institute, Storgaten 42, 4876 Grimstad, Norway.)

Outer Space:

RAYMOND J. NOONAN, PH.D. (Associate Editor), is an instructor of human sexuality and health education and acting chairperson of the Health and Physical Education Department at the Fashion Institute of Technology of the State University of New York (FIT-SUNY) in Manhattan. He is also director of SexQuest/The Sex Institute, providing educational consulting in human sexuality and educational content for the World Wide Web, www.SexQuest.com/, on which he manages and edits IES on the Web: Updates to the International Encyclopedia of Sexuality. He is coeditor and author of Does Anyone Still Remember When Sex Was Fun? Positive Sexuality in the Age of AIDS (3rd edition, 1996). He has written and presented on sexuality in the environment of space, sexuality and the Internet, philosophy and sex, heterophobia and sex negativity in American culture, and sexual expression in musical lyrics. He contributed articles on sex surrogates and the impact of AIDS on our perception of sexuality to Robert T. Francoeur´s Sexuality in America: Understanding Our Sexual Values and Behavior (1998), and to the International Encyclopedia of Sexuality (1997), which also included comments in its chapter on Brazil. Sex in space was the subject of his doctoral dissertation in the Human Sexuality Program at New York University.

Papua New Guinea:

SHIRLEY OLIVER-MILLER. As Senior Program Officer II, Margaret Sanger Center International, Planned Parenthood of New York City, since 1980, Shirley Oliver-Miller has been responsible for managing government and non-government projects, and developing and implementing program strategies around reproductive and sexual health issues. She has worked in 37 countries, developing programs for government and non-governmental agencies around population health. Author of more than a dozen training manuals, she has trained thousands of professionals, with support from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), United Nations Funds for Population Activities (UNFPA), International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), Family Health International, Planned Parenthood Federation of America (PPFA), Johns Hopkins University, Population Council, Pathfinder International, and the World Health Organization (WHO). Her work has focused on sexuality, family life education, AIDS/STDs, traditional practices, adolescent health, women´s empowerment, gender roles, male involvement, parent education, and more.

The Philippines:

JOSE FLORANTE J. LEYSON, M.S., M.D., F.A.C.S., FACCS, FABFM, is director of the Sexual Dysfunction Center, Spinal Cord Injury Service, Department of Veterans Affairs, New Jersey Health Care Systems, East Orange. Chairman of the American College of Clinical Sexologists for Licensure in New Jersey State, he edited Sexual Rehabilitation of the Spinal-Cord-Injured Patient (Humana Press 1991). He is a member of the Medical Expert Advisory Panel (Sexology and Urology), New Jersey Board of Medical Examiners, and medical director of the North Jersey Impotence Center, Jersey City, New Jersey. In 1988, he was the recipient of the Most Outstanding Filipino Overseas Award (National Sex Institute, Washington, DC) and the 1986 Filipino Physician of the Year Award from the Department of Veterans Affairs, East Orange, New Jersey.

Poland:

ANNA SIERZPOWSKA-KETNER, M.D., PH.D. A psychiatrist and sexologist, Dr. Sierzpowska-Ketner is senior lecturer and consultant forensic expert in sexology in the Department of Sexology at the Postgraduate Medical Education Center. She is also the vice-president of the Polish Sexological Society and secretary of the Sexological Section of the Polish Medical Association. Specializing in sexual dysfunctions, paraphilias, sexual fantasies, and sex offenders and their victims, Dr. Sierzpowska-Ketner is also coauthor of a just-published Encyclopedia of Sexology.

Polynesia:

ANNE BOLIN, PH.D. A cultural anthropologist, Dr. Bolin is assistant professor of anthropology at Elon College, North Carolina. Her book, In Search of Eve: Transsexual Rites of Passage, won the Choice Award for Outstanding Academic Book for 1988-1989. Coauthor of a college text, The Anthropology of Human Sexuality (1992), Dr. Bolin has done extensive fieldwork and published on male-to-female transsexual and transvestite subcultures, ethnomedicine in the Marshall Islands, and ethnographic research in a gay community and among competitive women and men bodybuilders. She is currently working on a textbook on the anthropology of human sexuality.

Portugal:

NUNO NODIN, M.A., is a counsellor at the Associação para o Planeamento Familiar (Portuguese Family Planning Association) and the Sexualidade em Linha (telephone help-line for adolescents), both in Lisboa (Lisbon). He also teaches at the Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada, Lisboa. He holds a certificate as a psychologist and a master´s degree in health psychology, both from the Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada, Lisbon. He has trained in sexuality and counselling with the Associação para o Planeamento da Família and in the psychological and social aspects of AIDS with the Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada. A member of the Sociedade Portuguesa de Psicologia da Saúde (Portuguese Society of Health Psychology), the Associação Portuguesa de Análise Bio Energética (Portuguese Bio-Energetic Analysis Association), and the International Institute for Bioenergetic Analysis, his main areas of interest are human sexuality, sexuality education, sexual and reproductive health, psychotherapy, and counselling. His chapter, “Do Desejo Homossexual à Identidade Sexual: A Invenção de uma Diferença” (“From the Homosexual Desire to the Homosexual Identity: The Invention of a Difference”), appeared in a book edited by I. Leal (Lisbon: Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada, 1997).

SARA MOREIRA is a sex education counsellor at the Associação para o Planeamento da Família (Portuguese Family Planning Association) and a counsellor at Sexualidade em Linha (telephone help-line for adolescents). In additional to training in international relations at the Instituto Superior de Ciências do Trabalho e da Empresa, Lisbon, Ms. Moreira trained in sexuality and counselling at the Associação para o Planeamento da Família, and in pregnancy and maternity psychology. Her main work has been in youth counselling at the Family Planning Association and sexuality help-line, peer-education youth training in sexuality projects, the Family Planning Association Project on Child and Adolescents Sexual Abuse, and the Family Planning Association Co-operation Project with Portuguese-speaking countries.

ANA MARGARIDA OURÔ is a clinical psychologist in a military rest home for adult men with severe disabilities. Her clinical and research interests include women´s psychology, rape and battered women, domestic violence, and handicaps and disability. Her graduate education and professional training includes certification as a psychologist by the Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada in Lisbon, post-graduate training in health psychology at the same institute, education in psychopharmacology, pregnancy and maternity psychology, and certification in couple relationships and human sexuality. Among her recent publications are a study of the psychology of pregnant HIV-positive women (2000), and “O Ventre Sacia-Se, Os Olhos Não: O Suporte Social em Adolescentes Que Prosseguiram a Gravidez e Mulheres Que Recorreram à Interrupção Voluntária de Gravidez na Adolescência” (“The Womb Is Satisfied, the Eyes Are Not: Social Support in Adolescents Who Carried Their Pregnancy to Term and Women Who Interrupted Their Pregnancy”) (Análise Psicológica, Lisbon, 1998).

Puerto Rico (The United States of America)

LUIS MONTESINOS, PH.D. Dr. Montesinos is an assistant professor at Montclair State College in New Jersey, where he teaches undergraduate and graduate courses in human sexuality, health psychology, and behavioral modification. His major research interest is in the area of health psychology applied to different ethnic groups and cultures.

JUAN PRECIADO, PH.D. Dr. Preciado, an associate professor in the Department of Urban and Community Health at Hostos Community College of the City University of New York, has given numerous presentations on sexual health and cultural issues in Europe and Latin America. His research interests are in the area of health education and bilingualism.

Russia:

IGOR S. KON, PH.D. Dr. Kon, sociologist, psychologist, and anthropologist, has been chief researcher at the Institute for Ethnography and Anthropology, the Russian Academy of Sciences, since 1974. A member of the Russian Academy of Education, Dr. Kon was also A. D. White Professor-at-Large at Cornell University (1990-1995), a member of the International Academy of Sex Research, and a member of the Polish Sexological Academy. In addition to over 300 professional articles, he has authored Introduction to Sexology, published in Hungarian, German, Ukrainian, Estonian, and Chinese. A Russian edition was published in 1988 after being banned for ten years. Among his numerous other books are Taste of the Forbidden Fruit (1992 in Russian), Sex and the Soviet Society (1993; coeditor with James Riordan), and The Sexual Revolution in Russia (1995). Between 1985 and the present, he held short-term lecture appointments at the universities of Stanford, Johns Hopkins, Minnesota, Chicago, Harvard, Princeton, Indiana, Rutgers, Notre Dame, Paris, London, Kent, Oslo, Helsinki, Amsterdam, Berlin, Leipzig, Tubingen, Tel Aviv, Prague, Budapest, Warsaw, Krakow, Beijing, and others.

South Africa:

LIONEL JOHN NICHOLAS, PH.D. Dr. Nicholas is senior psychologist and senior lecturer at the University of the Western Cape, Bellville, South Africa, and an adjunct professor at the Institute for the Advanced Study of Human Sexuality in San Francisco. He earned his master's degree in psychology at Boston University and his doctorate at the University of the Western Cape. His main research interests are in political psychology, sexual counseling, racism, and AIDS. Since 1990, he has conducted an annual survey of sexual experience, attitudes, and AIDS knowledge among black South African first-year university students. In addition to these annual survey reports, his 1994 journal publications include: “The Experience of Black South African First-Year Students of First Intercourse and Contraception” (International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling), “Lying as a Factor in Sexuality Research” (Psychological Reports), and “AIDS Knowledge and Attitudes Toward Homosexuality of Black South African Freshmen 1990-1992.” (Psychological Reports). The author/editor of Sex Counseling in Educational Settings (1994), he is coeditor of Psychology and Apartheid (1990) and editor of Psychology and Oppression: Critiques and Proposals (1993).

PRISCILLA SANDRA DANIELS, M.S. Ms. Daniels is senior lecturer and departmental chairperson of Human Ecology and Dietetics, as well as vice-dean of the Faculty of Community and Health Sciences at the University of the Western Cape in Bellville, South Africa. She holds a master's degree in science from Cornell University in the United States. Her research interests are in sexuality, family, and women's issues. She is coauthor of chapters on “Sexual Harassment and Rape in Educational Settings,” “Sexual Attitudes and Behaviours of University Students,” and “Sex in South Africa” in Sex Counseling in University Settings (1994). Among her journal publications, she coauthored “AIDS, Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Homosexuals of Black First-Year Students, 1990-1992” (Psychological Reports).

MERVYN BERNARD HURWITZ, M.D. A diplomate and fellow of the South African College of Gynaecologists and fellow of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, Dr. Hurwitz is head of the Sexual Dysfunction Clinic at Johannesburg Hospital in South Africa, and lecturer and examiner in the Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. A member of the editorial board of the Medical Sex Journal of South Africa, Dr. Hurwitz is the author of Educating the Doctor and Patient in Human Sexuality (1986), The Problem of Deep Dyspareunia (1986), Sexuality in the Professional-Patient Relationship (1987), Sex and the Disabled (1987), Sexual Dysfunction Associated with Infertility (1989), and Breast Feeding and Sexuality (1992).

South Korea:

HYUNG-KI CHOI, M.D., PH.D. Dr. Choi is currently the director of the Sex Clinic at Yonsei Medical Center and the president of the Asian Federation of Sexology. He is one of the founders of the Asia-Pacific Society for Impotence Research (APSIR) and served the president for the APSIR. Since the 1980s, he has been actively involved in the field of erectile dysfunction research and has published numerous articles in that area. He is one of the leading scholars and therapists in the world in sexual impotence.

HUSO YI is a doctoral candidate in the Professional Program in Human Sexuality of the Department of Health Studies at New York University. His main interest is the area of sexual orientation and East Asian sexualities. He has given a number of professional presentations about East Asian gay men, published books about gay issues in Korea, and reviewed the HIV-patient´s guide of Asian Pacific Islander Coalition on HIV/AIDS in the U.S. He is now preparing his doctoral dissertation about sexuality identity of Korean lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals.

WHASON BYUN is the director of the Family, Health, and Welfare Division of the Korean Women´s Development Institute (KWDI) and lecturer on women´s policy at Seong-Sin Women´s University. She graduated from Yonsei University and has a doctoral degree from the University of V, Rene Descartes, Paris, in demography and sociology of family. She has published on women´s and family issues.

PILWHA CHANG has played a key role in the development of women´s studies and is affiliated with various women´s organizations. She is a graduate of Ewha Woman´s University and earned a Ph.D. from Sussex University. She was the commissioner for the Presidential Commission of Women´s Affairs in 1998, founder of the Asian Center for Women´s Studies in 1995, and a professor of the Department of Women´s Studies, Graduate School of Ewha University from 1984 to the present. In addition, she is the director for the Korean Women´s Institute and Asian Center for Women´s Studies and the chair for the Som Adhoc Committee for Gender Integration of APEC (Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation).

KI-NAM CHIN is an associate professor of health administration at Yonsei University.

JUNGIM HWANG is a research fellow at Korean Women´s Development Institute.

YUNG-CHUNG KIM has been actively involved in academics, politics, and non-governmental organizations. A graduate from Ewha Woman´s University with a master of arts degree from the University of Toronto and a Ph.D. from Indiana University, she was a professor of history and dean of the Graduate School at Ewha Woman´s University. From 1977 to 1983, she served as the director of the Korean Women´s Institute. In the mid-1980s, she was president of the Korean Women´s Development Institute, the Minister of Political Affairs II, and the vice president of the Korean National Red Cross. Currently, she is on the United Nations Committee for the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women.

Spain:

JOSE ANTONIO NIETO, PH.D. (Chapter Coordinator) Since receiving his doctorate from the New School for Social Research in New York, Dr. Nieto has specialized in the anthropology of sexuality. Currently head professor and director of the Human Sexuality Program at the Universidad Nacional de Educacio a Distancia, he has authored Cultura y Sociedad en las Practicas Sexuales (1989), La Sexualidad en la Sociedad Contemporanea: Lecturas Antropologicas (1991), and Sexualidad y Deseo: Critica Anthropologica de la Cultura (1992). Among his research interests are Polynesian sexual customs, and sexual behavior and HIV infections in Europe.

JOSE ANTONIO CARROBLES, PH.D. Dr. Carrobles is full professor and director of the Department of Biological Psychology and Health at the Universidad Autonoma in Madrid, and professor of sexology and sexual therapy in the Master's Program in Human Sexuality at the Universidad Nacional de Educacio a Distancia in Madrid. His publications include Biologia y Psicofisiologia de la Conducta Sexual (1990), Terapia Sexual (1991), Analisis y Modificacion de la Conducta (1985, 1991), and La Practica de la Terapia de Conducta (1978, 1991). His interests focus on sexual dysfunctions, sexual differences, sex therapy, and the psychology of health.

MANUEL DELGADO RUIZ, PH.D. Dr. Delgado Ruiz is professor of anthropology at the University of Barcelona and the Master's Program in Human Sexuality at the Universidad Nacional de Educacio a Distancia in Madrid. His publications include De la Muerta de un Dios (1986), La Festa de Catalunya (1992), La Ira Sagrada (1992), and “La Reconquista del Cuerpo, Ideologias Sexuales” in La Sexualidad en la Sociedad Contemporanea (1991).

FELIX LOPEZ SANCHEZ, PH.D. Dr. Lopez Sanches, a full professor of psychology of sexuality and director of the Sexology Doctoral Program at the University of Salamanca, is also a professor in the Master's Program in Human Sexuality at the Universidad Nacional de Educacio a Distancia in Madrid and director of the Center for Sexual Documentation in Salamanca. His publications include Principios Basicos de Educacion Sexual (1984), Educacion Sexual en la Adolescencia (1986), Para Comprender la Sexualidad (1989), and Educacion Sexual en el Aula (1990).

VIRGINA MAQUIEIRA D'ANGELO, PH.L.D. Dr. Maquieira D'Angelo, Doctor of Philosophy and Letters, is professor in the Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology at the Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, and a professor in the Master's Program in Human Sexuality at the Universidad Nacional de Educacio a Distancia in Madrid. A member of the Consejo del Instituto Universitario de Estudio de la Mujer and an international editor for Gender and Society, she is also editor of Mujer y Hombres en la Formacion del Pensamiento Occidental (1989) and coeditor of Violencia y Sociedad Patriarcal (1990).

JOSEP-VICENT MARQUES, PH.D. Dr. Marques is professor in the Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology at the University of Valencia, and a professor in the Master's Program in Human Sexuality at the Universidad Nacional de Educacio a Distancia.

FERNARDO MORENO JIMINEZ, PH.D. Dr. Moreno Jimenez, a psychologist with a Licenciado in Philosophy and Letters, studies sexology at the Interdisciplinary Institute of Ciencias Sexologicas at Louvain, Belgium. He is professor of biological psychology and health at the Universidad Autonoma in Madrid and a professor in the Master's Program in Human Sexuality at the Universidad Nacional de Educacio a Distancia. He is author of La Sexualidad Humana: Estudio y Perspectiva Historica (1990).

RAQUEL OSBORNE VERDUGO, PH.D. Dr. Osborne Verdugo is professor of sociology at the Universidad Nacional de Educacio a Distancia and in the Master's Program in Human Sexuality at the same university. Her publications include Las Prostitutas (1978), Las Mujeres en la Encrucijada de la Sexualidad (1989), and Sexualidad y Sexismo (1991; in collaboration with Josep V. Marques).

CARMELA SANZ RUEDA, PH.D. Dr. Sanz Rueda is a professor in the Department of Social Psychology at the Universidad Complutense in Madrid, and a professor in the Master's Program in Human Sexuality at the Universidad Nacional de Educacio a Distancia. A founding member of the Instituto de Investigaciones Feministas de la Universidad Complutense, she has also been a visiting scholar at Wellesley College in Boston. She has authored La Comunicacion Interpersonal en el Matrimonio: El Punto de Vista de la Mujer (1982), Nuevas Perspectivas Sobre la Mujer (1982), and Genero y Sexualidad (1991).

CARMELO VASQUEZ VALVERDE, PH.D. Dr. Vasquez Valverde is professor of psychology at the Universidad Complutense in Madrid and a professor in the Master's Program in Human Sexuality at the Universidad Nacional de Educacio a Distancia. He was a Fulbright Visiting Scholar in the Psychology Department at Northwestern University in Illinois (1984-1986).

Translation by LAURA BERMAN and JOSE NANIN. Ms. Berman earned a master's degree in the Human Sexuality Program at New York University, and has traveled extensively in Spain and Gibralta. She works as a health educator and counselor at the Hunter College Center on AIDS, Drugs and Community Health in New York City. A Cuban by birth, Mr. Nanin also earned a master's degree in the Human Sexuality Program at New York University and works in AIDS-education programs on the university level.

Sweden:

JAN TROST, PH.D. Professor of sociology at Sweden's Uppsala University, Dr. Trost has served on the editorial staffs of numerous professional publications, including Nordisk Sexologi, Journal of Marriage and the Family, and Alternative Lifestyles, as an expert on revision of Family Law for the Swedish Government. He has edited seven books, including The Family in Change, and authored or coauthored 11 books, including To Cohabit and to Marry: Facts and Foibles.

MAI-BRIHT BERGSTROM-WALAN, PH.D. Dr. Bergstrom-Walan, a psychologist, is founder and director of the Swedish Institute for Sexual Research, a diplomate of sexology, and certified sex therapist. She organized the 1976 International Symposium of Sex Education and Therapy in Stockholm and is currently vice-president of the European Federation of Sexology. A registered midwife, she has been involved in films and has authored several books on sex education, including The Swedish Hite Report.

Thailand:

KITTIWUT JOD TAYWADITEP, M.D., M.A., is currently a doctoral candidate in clinical psychology at the University of Illinois at Chicago (U.I.C.). He grew up in northern Thailand and received an M.D. from the Chiang Mai University (C.M.U.) in 1989 where, during his work as a faculty member in immunology, he became involved in HIV/AIDS education, prevention, counseling, and research on human sexuality and HIV-risk. His work in Thailand has been funded by the Center for AIDS Prevention Studies (C.A.P.S.) at the University of California in San Francisco. After attending the graduate program at U.I.C. in 1992, he has worked in a series of C.D.C.-funded studies focusing on the sexual behavior of behaviorally bisexual men and African-American men who have sex with men in the Chicago area. During his training as a clinical psychologist, he has worked as a psychotherapist and diagnostician at a U.I.C.-based clinic for psychological services and at the HIV Primary Care, Cook County Hospital. More recently, he has worked as a group facilitator in a NIDA-funded research project at the Howard Brown Health Center in Chicago which assesses the impact of cognitive-behavioral workshops designed to address substance use and sexual risk in men at risk for HIV. His clinical interests are on applying cognitive-behavioral theories and technology to various health-risk behaviors, such as cigarette smoking and HIV infection, and his dissertation on the automatic cognitive processes in depression reflects such interface between social-cognitive and clinical psychology.

ELI COLEMAN, PH.D. Dr. Coleman is director and professor in the Program in Human Sexuality at the University of Minnesota Medical School. He is a past president and fellow of the Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality, secretary of the World Association for Sexology, and editor of the Journal of Psychology and Human Sexuality. In addition to many professional papers, Dr. Coleman has authored or edited Psychotherapy for Homosexual Men and Women (1988), Chemical Dependency and Intimacy Dysfunction (1987), Sex Offender Treatment: Approaches for Clinical Practice (1992), and Sex Offender Treatment: Interpersonal Violence, Intrapsychic Conflict, and Biological Dysfunction (1995). He has done field research in sexology in Thailand.

PACHARIN DUMRONGGITTIGULE, M.SC. has been an instructor in biology at Payap University, Thailand, since 1986. She began researching gender and sexuality in 1991 and has been the principle investigator on an HIV-prevention project among married couples in northern Thai villages. Currently she is a senior program officer at the Thailand Research Fund in Bangkok. In addition, she continues her research on HIV prevention and women's sexuality.

Turkey:

HAMDULLAH AYDIN, M.D., is a professor of psychiatry at the Gulhane Military Medical Academy and Faculty of Medicine in Ankara, Turkey. Following a residency in psychiatry, he pursued postdoctoral study and research at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas, in 1983 and 1984. Although his main research interest is in sleep disorders, much of his clinical work and education focuses on sexual dysfunctions, neuropsychology, and neurophysiology. Among his recent professional articles (in Turkish) are Sexuality and Sexual Function (1998) and Psychopharmacological Treatment in Sexual Dysfunctions (1998). He serves on the editorial board of various scientific journals in Turkey.

ZEYNEP GÜLÇAT, PH.D., completed her doctorate in clinical psychology in Ankara in 1995. She is currently a clinical psychologist at the Gulhane Military Medical Academy and Faculty of Medicine in Ankara, Turkey. Her main interest is in sexual dysfunctions and neuropsychology. Among her recent professional publications (in Turkish) are A Study on the Psychology of Impotence (1995), Paraphilias and Incest (1998), and Sexual Identity and Sexual Orientation Disorders (1998).

Ukraine:

TAMARA GOVORUN, PH.D. Dr. Govorun is chair of the psychology department, assistant professor, and post-doctoral researcher at the Ukrainian Pedagogical University in Kiev, Ukraine. She is also the head of the psychological department of Kiev's Research Sexology and Andrology Center, a member of the Ukrainian Psychologists' Society, and chairman of Sexual Education in the Ukrainian Sexologists Society. Her major degree is from the Department of Psychology at Kiev's State University and her Ph.D. from the Ukrainian Institute of Psychology. Her research in sex education, psychosexual development, and psychotherapy of sexual disorders has led to many publications.

BORYS M. VORNYK, PH.D. Dr. Vornyk is director of Kiev's Research Sexology and Andrology Center, vice-president of the All-Union Sexologists' Association (Ukraine), and chief of the Ukrainian Commission for Transsexual Persons. He is a graduate of the Medical University of the Ukraine (Kiev) and the Institute of Andrology.

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

KEVAN R. WYLIE, M.B., CH.B., M.MED.SC., M.R.C.PSYCH., D.S.M., the coordinator and author of several sections for this chapter, is a consultant psychiatrist at the Whiteley Wood Clinic and specialist in sexual medicine at the Clinic, Community Mental Health Care Directorate in Sheffield. An honorary (clinical) lecturer in the Department of Psychiatry at Sheffield University, his current in-press publication is Physical Treatments of Sexual Dysfunction in the Royal College of Psychiatry Monograph Series. In addition to recruiting and coordinating the specialists who contributed to this chapter, Dr. Wylie authored Section 5C5 on heterosexual behaviors, Section 8 on significant unconventional sexual behaviors, Section 12 on sexual dysfunctions and therapies, and Section 13 on advanced education, research, and sexological organizations.

ANTHONY BAINS, B.A., is a gay men's community worker at the Centre for HIV and Sexual Health in Sheffield. His interests include HIV prevention in gay and bisexual men. He authored Section 6 on homosexual, lesbian, and bisexual issues.

TINA BALL, PH.D., is a consultant clinical psychologist in learning disabilities at the Sheffield Consulting and Clinical Psychologists, Community Health, Sheffield. She also works as a member of the clinical team at the Porter-brook Clinic, a National Health Service for sexual and relationship difficulties. A specialist working with people with disabilities and sexual problems, she authored Section 5D on sexuality and persons with disabilities.

PATRICIA BARNES, M.A., C.Q.S.W., BASMT (ACCRED.), UKCP-registered psychotherapist, is director and clinician of the sex and marital therapy clinic at the Psychiatric and Psychological Consultant Service in London. Editor of a 1994 special issue of the journal of the British Association for Sex and Marital Therapy on sex education, she also coauthored Woman's Guide to Loving Sex. She coauthored Section 3 on sexual knowledge and education.

ROHAN COLLIER, PH.D., principal women's advisor at the London Borough of Hendon, specializes in issues of sexual harassment and domestic violence. She coauthored Section 8B of sexual harassment.

JANE CRAIG, M.B., CH.B., MRCP (UK), is registrar in genitourinary medicine. Her work at the Royal Hallamshire Hospital in Sheffield focuses on the clinical aspects of genital herpes and HIV/AIDS. She coauthored Section 11 on HIV/AIDS.

LINDA DELANEY, L.L.B., M.JUR., Solicitor, is a senior lecturer in the School of Law at Manchester Metropolitan University, where her interests focus of legal issues of health care. She coauthored Section 9C on abortion.

JULIA FIELD, B.A., works at Social and Community Planning Research in Northampton Square, London, and is one of four authors of Sexual Behaviour in Britain: The National Survey of Attitudes and Lifestyles (1994). She coauthored Section 5C on interpersonal heterosexual adult behavior.

DANYA GLASER, MBBS, D.CH., FRCPSYCH, is a consultant child and adolescent psychiatrist working with the victims of child sexual and emotional abuse. Her publications include coauthoring Child Sexual Abuse (1993), as well as authoring Section 5A/B on heterosexual behavior of children and adolescents.

PETER GREENHOUSE, M.A., MRCOG, MFFP, is a consultant in sexual health at Ipswich Hospital where he develops and integrates sexual health education with holistic clinical care, particularly in the management of sexually transmitted diseases. He authored Section 10 on sexually transmitted diseases.

MARY GRIFFIN, M.B., M.SC., MFFP, is joint academic coordinator in the diploma program in couple relationship and sexual dysfunction at London's Institute of Psychiatry, and clinical assistant in the Sexual Therapy Clinic at the Maudsley Hospital. In addition to publishing on the sexual health of women and sexuality training, she authored Section 9B on teenage pregnancy.

MARGOT HUISH, B.A., BASMT (ACCRED.), holds a diploma in human sexuality from St. George's Hospital Medical School, the University of London, where she continues her work as a course tutor and a sexual relationship therapist at Barnet General Hospital. She authored Section 4 on autoerotic behaviors and patterns.

ANNE M. JOHNSON, M.A., M.SC., M.D., MRCGP, FFPHM, is a staff member of the Academic Department of Genitourinary Medicine, Mortimer Market Centre, in London and one of the four coauthors of Sexual Behaviour in Britain: The National Survey of Attitudes and Lifestyles (1994). Section 5 on Interpersonal Heterosexual Adult Behavior.

GEORGE KINGHORN, M.D. FRCP, is clinical director for communicable diseases in the Central Sheffield University Hospitals. Chairman of the Royal College of Physicians Genitourinary Medicine Committee, he has published widely and has broad research interests, particularly in genital ulcer diseases, the control of sexually transmitted diseases, and the treatment of HIV infection and AIDS. He coauthored Section 11 on HIV/AIDS.

HELEN MOTT earned her B.A. (Hons.) in social psychology at the University of Sussex and is currently a doctoral student in psychology at Lancaster University, specializing in sexual harassment. She coauthored Section 8B on sexual harassment, a topic she has published on professionally.

PAULA NICOLSON, PH.D., lectures in health psychology in the Department of Psychiatry, the Centre for Health and Related Research, at Sheffield University. Chair-elect of the British Psychological Society's Psychology of Women Section, she coauthored Applied Psychology for Social Workers (1990), and coedited The Psychology of Women's Health and Health Care (1992) and Female Sexuality (1994). She authored Section 2 on ethnic and religious influences.

JANE READ, B.A. (HONS.), a U.K.C.P. registered psychotherapist accredited by the British Association for Sexual and Marital Therapy, holds diplomas in counseling and in human sexuality. Her publications include Counseling for Fertility Problems (1995) and a 1995 article on “Female Sexual Dysfunction” in the International Review of Psychiatry. She coauthored of Section 9C on abortion.

FRAN READER, FRCOG, MFFP, BASMT (ACCRED.), is a consultant in family planning and reproductive health in the Reproductive and Sexual Health Care Centre at Ipswich Hospital, NHS Trust, Ipswich, Suffolk. She authored Section 9A on contraception.

GWYNETH SAMPSON, DPM, MRCPSYCH., is an honorary lecturer at the University of Sheffield and a consultant psychiatrist at the Porterbrook Clinic in Sheffield. She coauthored Section 7 on gender-conflicted persons.

PETER SELMAN, PH.D., DPSA, is senior lecturer and head of the department of social policy at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne. He has published extensively on family planning services, population studies, demographic analysis, and comparative social policy. In addition to the books Society and Fertility (1979) and Family Planning (1987), he authored Section 9D on population planning.

JOSÉ M. A. HERBERT-PARDO VON BÜHLER, R.M.N., CPN, DIP.H.S., is a specialist in human sexuality and relationship psychotherapy at the Cardinal Clinic, Bishops Lodge, Oakley Green, Berkshire. Author of Human Sexuality and Relationship Psychotherapy, he also coauthored Section 3 on sexual knowledge and education.

JANE WADSWORTH, B.SC., M.SC., is on staff at the Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, St. Mary's Hospital Medical School, London. She is also coauthor of Sexual Behaviour in Britain: The National Survey of Attitudes and Lifestyles (1994), as well as Section 5 on Interpersonal Heterosexual Adult Behavior.

KAYE WELLINGS, M.A., M.SC., works in the AIDS Public Education in Europe department at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. She is one of the four authors of Sexual Behaviour in Britain: The National Survey of Attitudes and Lifestyles (1994), and coauthored Section 5 on Interpersonal Heterosexual Adult Behavior.

STEPHEN WHITTLE, PH.D., M.A., L.L.B., is a lecturer in law at the School of Law, Manchester Metropolitan University, where he specializes in issues of gender, sex, sexuality, and the law. Vice-president of Press for Change, he coauthored Section 7 on gender-conflicted persons.

The United States of America:

DAVID L. WEIS, PH.D., coeditor, received his Ph.D. in family studies in 1979 from Purdue University. He has taught at Rutgers University, and is currently an associate professor of human development and family studies at Bowling Green State University in Ohio. A member of and officer for the National Council on Family Relations, the Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality, and the International Network on Personal Relationships, he is also an associate editor for the Journal of Sex Research. Weis has published numerous research articles in professional journals in such areas as adolescent sexuality, marital exclusivity, marital and sexual belief systems, sexual interaction processes, peer education programming, social services for the homeless and mentally ill, and adolescent drug use. He has also taught and conducted workshops in these areas, as well as in interpersonal communications, intimacy, flirtation behavior, dual-career marriages, and black families. Weis received the Hugo Beigel Award for Outstanding Sexuality Research for his study of the emotional reactions to first intercourse. (Introduction; Section 1 Basic Sexological Premises; and Section 5 Interpersonal Heterosexual Behaviors.)

PATRICIA BARTHALOW KOCH, PH.D., coeditor of the United States of America chapter, is an associate professor of biobehavioral health and health education at Pennsylvania State University. She earned a master's degree in the Program in Human Sexuality, Marriage and Family Life Education at New York University, during which time she studied in Japan and Sweden. Her doctorate is in health education from Pennsylvania State University, specializing in sexuality education, sexual health issues, human development, and counseling. She has authored over fifty chapters and scientific articles and contributed to several textbooks on sexual topics. She recently authored a textbook, Exploring Our Sexuality: An Interactive Text (Kendall/Hunt). She has conducted numerous research studies in the areas of sexuality education, sexual health issues, and women's health. She is also past president of the Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality, Eastern Region, and has served on the board of directors of SSSS and the Foundation for the Scientific Study of Sexuality. (Section 2C Sexological Research and Advanced Education - Feminist Issues; Section 3 Sexuality Knowledge and Education; and Section 10 Contraception and Abortion.)

Vietnam:

JAKOB PASTOETTER, M.A., PH.D. (cand.) a 1998-2000 Visiting Scholar at the Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction in Bloomington, Indiana, holds a master of arts degree in cultural anthropology and is a doctoral student in human ontogenetics at Humboldt University, Berlin. A member of Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sozialwissenschaftliche Sexualforschung (DGSS), his main research interests lie in the historical and contemporary social and cultural aspects of sexuality. He recently published an article on “Pornography as Academic Field of Research” (Pornographie als akademisches Forschungsfeld) in Sexualmedizin (September, 2000; 22:247-250).

Biographical Sketches for Section Authors / Brief Identifications for Contributors of Supplemental Notes:

Most of the following contributors are active members of the Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality, and several have held national or regional offices in the Society.

DIANE E. BAKER, M.A., PH.D. (cand.) is completing her doctoral dissertation on child sexual abuse in the Psychology Department at Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York. (Section 7A Incest and Child Sexual Abuse.)

SUSAN BARGAINNIER, ED.D., is a certified athletic trainer and assistant professor at the State University of New York in Oswego specializing in wellness promotion. (A Door to the Future: Sexuality on the Information Superhighway.)

SARAH C. CONKLIN, PH.D., received her first three degrees in her native state of Minnesota, a bachelor of science from the University of Minnesota, a master's degree in guidance and counseling from the University of St. Thomas, and a master's degree in theology from United Theological Seminary of the Twin Cities (Minneapolis - St. Paul). She earned her doctorate in human sexuality education from the University of Pennsylvania. She is currently an assistant professor of health and sexuality education at the University of Wyoming (Laramie), College of Health Sciences, School of Physical Health Education, and has done adjunct education in sexuality in Pennsylvania and Minnesota seminaries. (Section 13 Clergy Education.)

MARTHA CORNOG, M.A., M.S., is a linguist and librarian at the American College of Physicians. Her recent work includes a long article on conducting sexological research in Human Sexuality: An Encyclopedia, coeditor of The Complete Dictionary of Sexology, and coauthoring For Sex Education: See Librarian. (Section 13 Sexuality Research and Advanced Education.)

RICHARD CROSS, M.D., pioneered medical school sexuality education while he was a professor at the Robert Wood Johnson School of Medicine at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey. (Section 13E Medical School Education.)

MARILYN A. FITHIAN, PH.D., is cofounder of the Center for Marital and Sexual Studies, Long Beach, California, and coauthor of Treatment of Sexual Dysfunction, Any Man Can, and other works. (Section 12 Sexual Dysfunctions and Therapies.)

JEANNIE FORREST, M.A., worked for seven years as a family educator with the Church of the Latter-Day Saints and was married to a Mormon. She earned a master's degree in health education in the Human Sexuality Program at New York University. (Section 2A Sexuality and the Church of the Latter-Day Saints.)

ANDREW D. FORSYTH, M.S., is a fifth-year graduate student in clinical psychology in the Department of Psychology at Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York, whose interests include the assessment of high-risk sexual behaviors among at-risk groups. (Section 11 HIV/AIDS.)

BARBARA GARRIS, M.A., earned a bachelor's degree in anthropology and sociology at Mountclair State University and did graduate studies at New York University in women's studies. She works for AT&T. (A Door to the Future: Sexuality on the Information Superhighway.)

PATRICIA GOODSON, PH.D., obtained her bachelor's degree from the Universidade de Campinas, Brazil, and a master's degree in philosophy of education from the Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Campinas, Brazil. After earning a Master of Arts degree in general theological studies from Covenant Theological Seminary in St. Louis, Missouri, she completed her doctorate in health education at the University of Texas at Austin. At present, she is an assistant professor in health at the University of Texas at San Antonio, in the Division of Education. (Section 12 Clergy Education.)

WILLIAM E. HARTMAN, PH.D. is cofounder of the Center for Marital and Sexual Studies, Long Beach, California, and coauthor of Treatment of Sexual Dysfunction, Any Man Can, and other works. (Section 12 Sexual Dysfunctions and Therapies.)

ROBERT O. HAWKINS, PH.D., former associate dean of the School of Allied Health Professions at the Health Sciences Center of the State University of New York at Stony Brook, is also coauthor of Counseling Lesbian Women and Gay Men: A Life-Issues Approach. (Section 6 Homosexual and Lesbian Issues.)

LINDA L. HENDRIXSON, PH.D., completed her undergraduate studies and master's degree in health education at Montclair State University in New Jersey. She did her doctoral studies in the Human Sexuality Program in the Department of Health Education at New York University. Her dissertation examined issues of HIV-positive women in rural northwestern New Jersey. She has taught at various New Jersey universities and colleges, and published on issues related to sexuality and health education. (Section 11B Emerging Issues in HIV/AIDS.)

BARRIE J. HIGHBY, M.A., is a graduate student in clinical psychology at the University of Kansas, where her research has focused on rape. She has worked at several shelters for battered women. (Section 8A Sexual Coercion and Rape.)

ARIADNE KANE, M.ED., is a nationally known gender specialist, author, and educator, as well as a diplomate of the American Board of Sexology. (Section 7 Cross-Gender Issues.)

SHARON KING, M.S.ED., graduated from the Human Sexuality Program at the University of Pennsylvania where she completed all but her dissertation for the doctorate. Her specialty is survivor therapy. (Section 8A Child Sexual Abuse and Incest.)

ROBERT MORGAN LAWRENCE, D.C., is on the board of advisors of San Francisco Sex Information. He lectures extensively about sexuality and health. (Section 6B Bisexuality.)

BRENDA LOVE is author of the Encyclopedia of Unusual Sex and has worked at the Institute for the Advanced Study of Human Sexuality in San Francisco. (Section 8D Paraphilic Behaviors.)

CHARLENE MUEHLENHARD, PH.D., is an associate professor of psychology and women's studies at the University of Kansas. Her research focuses on rape and other forms of sexual coercion, as well as on communication and miscommunication about sex. (Section 8A Sexual Coercion and Rape.)

KAREN PECHILIS-PRENTISS, Ph.D., professor of religion at Drew University (Madison, NJ), does fieldwork and researches gender roles and women in India.

MIGUEL A. PERÉZ, PH.D., teaches kinesiology at the University of North Texas, where he also pursues an interest in sexuality. (Section 2B Latino Sexuality.)

HELDA L. PINZÓN, PH.D. is a Colombian-born nurse with wide experience in public health. A professor at Pennsylvania State University, her research interests include Latino health issues, community health, and Latino adolescent health. (Section 2B Latino Sexuality.)

CAROL QUEEN, PH.D. (cand.), has written extensively on bisexuality and other topics related to sexual diversity, including Exhibitionism for the Shy: Show Off, Dress Up, and Talk Hot (1995). She is a cultural sexologist in the doctoral program at the Institute for Advanced Study of Human Sexuality. (Section 6B Bisexuality.)

LUCIANE RAIBIN, M.A., a native of Brazil and young sexologist at Fairleigh Dickinson University (Madison, NJ).

HERBERT P. SAMUELS, PH.D., is assistant professor of natural and applied sciences at the City University of New York/Laguardia Community College. (Section 2B African-American Sexuality.)

JULIAN SLOWINSKI, PSY.D., is a marital and sex therapist at Pennsylvania Hospital and faculty member at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry. (Section 12 Sexual Dysfunctions and Therapies.)

WILLIAM STACKHOUSE, PH.D., is director of the HIV Prevention Program for the Bureau of HIV Program Services at the New York City Department of Health. He is also an adjunct assistant professor in the Graduate Department of Applied Psychology at New York University and maintains a private psychotherapy practice. (Section 6 Male Homosexuality and Lesbianism.)

WILLIAM R. STAYTON, TH.D., is assistant professor of psychiatry and human behavior at Jefferson Medical College and an adjunct professor in the Human Sexuality Program at the University of Pennsylvania. (Section 12 Sexual Dysfunctions and Therapies.)

MITCHELL S. TEPPER, M.P.H., is completing work on a doctorate at the University of Pennsylvania, Program in Human Sexuality. (Section 5D Sexuality and People with Disabilities.)