Archive for Sexology


World Association of Sexology (WAS)

WAS Code of Ethics


The aim of this Code of Ethics is that all the members of associations integrating the World Association for Sexology, called W.A.S., (during the performance of all the aspects of their professional work), act according to ethical principles such as integrity, competition, confidentiality, responsibility and respect for the civil and human rights. The promotion of standards for the professionals working with Human Beings and their sexuality is also another substantial objective of W.A.S. It also seeks for guides to those searching for help in this field and the promotion of professionals respect and credibility. With this aim, a set of rules was elaborated, which therapists, educators and investigators having this scientific objective must take as basis for their work. The necessities of professionals and of the specialty, makes the redaction of a body of precepts urgent. It must consider its particular circumstances and subjects. All the same, it is advised that this Code of Ethics requires successive pushes from the competent organisms of the nations so that, in short, there could exist a substantially uniform text, vvhich merge with the experiences and the main codification to be adopted and/or adapted by the Governments of the interested countries, assuring its effective force and application. It is about a specific body of rules which, in no way, can let particular or substantive legislation already established in the different countries aside. It should be observed that we are not dealing with an absolutely punishing Code of Ethics. There are enunciative precepts included, which become necessary due to the subject and the preoccupations which have been exposed, referred to the professional exercise of these professions and/or specialties. The aim of this Code is establishing guiding principles for decision taking, covering the majority of situations in which clinical therapists, educators and investigators may find themselves. lts main aim is that of establishing rules to guide the professional exercise, paying attention to the protection of individuals and groups with whom we are working. The main precedents of this Code of Ethics for professionals working with Human Beings and their Sexuality are the following codes: Ethical Codes of France, Ethical Code of French Society for Clinical Sexology; Enqland: British Association of Sexual and Marital Therapy, United States of America: American Psychological Association, 1992 version, American Association of Sex Educator, Counselors and Therapists, The Society for the Scientific Study of Sex; Argentina: Codes of Ethics by Associations and Councils of Graduates in Psychology, Sociology, Medicine and the Code of Ethic of the Public College of Lawyers in Buenos Aires city; Spain: Deontological Code of Official Colleges of Psychology Graduates and Deontological Code of the Spanish Federation of Sexology Societies. Individual responsibility of each professional which object of study are Human Beings and their sexuality, must be the observation of the behavior rules fulfillment which regulate the exercise of the profession with respect in order to protect Human and Civil Rights. The development of a dynamic group of ethical rules for the behaviors related to the professional exercise, requires the personal obligation to make ethics be present in our acts. With this aim, the interconsultation with colleagues and organisms is promoted. P. Brenot says: "The constitution of a deontological code is one of the development phases of the profession which reinforces a discipline coherent with its professional practice" (1994, Sexology, Presses Universitaires de France) Professionals consensus on the exercise of the specialty imposes that they only must be professionals having a diploma in degree careers who have acquired a special "know to do”. These professionals are not the only ones pursuing humanity and social objectives, it is convenient, and in some cases it is necessary the intermultidisciplinary collaboration with other professionals, independent of the competences and knowledges of each of them. These professions are ruled by principles common to all professional ethics, respect to the person, protection of human and civil rights, sense of responsibility, honesty, sincerity to the people or groups one works with, prudence in the use of instruments and techniques, professional competence, strength in the objective and scientific fundaments of their professional participation. They have to make a constant effort to update their competence, integrating the socio cultural contents, respecting transcultural variations by considering human sexuality in a given social context. The final aim of this discipline is a human and social one. This can be observed in objectives such as welfare, health, life quality, people and the amplitude of groups development in the different fields of individual and social life. World Health Organization says: "Sexual Health is the integration of somatic, emotional, intellectual and social elements constituting the sexual being, through positively enriching means, which reinforce personality, communication and love" (1975, "Instruction and Assistance in human sexuality questions, health professionals formation", Technical reports series n° 572, Geneva) Professionals working with Human Beings and their sexuality will neither make by the themselves nor contribute to practices attempting against freedom or civil, physical, moral and/or social integrity of people. Direct participation or cooperation during torture and mistreating constitutes not only a crime but also the most serious violation to professional ethics. They will never participate as investigators, advisors, concealer or in any other way in either torture or other degrading, cruel and inhuman proceedings. This condition must be kept, whatever the situation the person is in: accusations, crimes, suspicions, as whatever the social and political environment in which it takes place (dictatorship, revolution, war, terrorism, etc.) During the exercise of their profession, (whenever they learn about human right violations, mistreatments or any other degrading act towards anyone), they must inform the competent organism. They will not discriminate people on the basis of birth, age, race, sex, religion, sexual orientation, ideology, nationality, social class or any other human characteristic. These health professionals must be people capable of considering problems with neutrality and impartiality. This aptitude is the one resulting of an effort required from all the therapists, educators and investigators with the aim of their knowing sincerely and deeply the reasons pushing them to continue with these disciplines. They must all the same fulfill their purpose starting from their limits, which includes thoughts, dogmas and personal ideologies. This body ol rules makes up the deontological code (must be) of the specialists and it specifies the duties of therapists, educators and investigators, considering that human sexuality is studied from different disciplines: philosophy, economy, politics, theology, medicine, psychology, sociology, anthropology and other sciences. The aim of this Code of Ethics is providing rules of excellence for professional behavior which could be applied in the presence of law by the associations, federations and professional colleges or other recognized organisms. When taking decisions related to professional behaviors, this Code of Ethics will be considered together with the laws in force. If the Code of Ethics establishes rules of behaviors more burdensome than those established by ordinary legislation, professionals will have to follow the ethic rule, except this implies the violations of rules established by superior entity (Such as the Constitution of each country)

I. Application of ethic rules

Section 1.

These rules are to be applied to the activities of all the professionals included in the reference. The activity of a professional which object of study is Human Being and their Sexuality, resulting subject to the Code of Ethics, can be revised according to the exercise of these norms. Competence Capability Aptitude. This Code of Ethics will be applied to therapists, educators or investigators of subjects related to Human Beings and their sexuality.

Section 2. Instruction necessary in the case of Clinical Therapists

Paragraph a.

Having a university degree or a degree career from universities officially accredited in each country, in disciplines such as medicine, psychology or any other academic instruction recognized by the Ethics Committee of each country.

Paragraph b.

Knowledge of medicine, psychology, anthropology, etc. acquired in Universities and doctorates complementing the instruction must be considered, making up in this way a ”corpus” of knowledge, as, in many countries, education legislation in force does not consider the academic instruction in human sexuality, this is covered by post grade courses in universities or at a private level. To exercise as therapists, they must have an academic degree, as hachelor's degree or doctorate and/or both, related to Human Beings and their sexuality area. The obligation to an academic instruction and permanent updating is necessary.

Paragraph c.

Phey should have benefited from a personal psychotherapy, tending to the search of conscience and knowledge of their own behavior. There is not a theoretical technical model suggested and specific for the personal investigation.

Section 3. Instruction necessary in the case of educators

Paragraph a.

Having a university degree in a degree career in Universities officially accredited in each country, or a degree in tertiary education from institutions officially recognized in each country, or any other academic instruction recognized by the Committee of Ethics in each country.

Paragraph b.

Having acquired specific knowledge in Education dictated in post graduate universities and/or authorized schools. Obligation to instruction and permanent updating is a duty. Their performance is lirnited to education, they can not either treat human beings as therapists nor investigate outside education field.

Paragraph c.

Educators must have benefited from an introspective personal work, inclined to the search of conscience and to the knowledge of their own behavior and sexuality. Educators must be conscious of the personal values system which they introduce in the education context, and they must reveal these values to their students. They must avoid giving their opinion or proposing values reflecting their personal inclinations and they should be sensible to the necessities and welfare of the students. They have to be capable of transmitting the knowledge to students in a neutral and impartial way.

Section 4. Instruction necessary in the case of investigators

Paragraph a.

Having a University degree from Universities officially accredited in each country, in different disciplines, such as sociology anthropology, medicine, biology, psychology or any other academic instruction recognized in the Code of Ethics of each country.

Paragraph b.

Having acquired knowledge about methodology of Investigation in post graduate career if he or she has not acquired it in University.

Paragraph c.

Investigators ought to have enjoyed the benefits of a personal introspective work, tending to the search of conscience and to the knowledge of their own behavior and sexuality. They must be aware of the system of personal values they introduce in the investigation context. They must reveal these values to the people who are their investigations object, when they or the competent authority require them to do so.

Section 5.

The use of words such as sexologist, sexual therapist, sexual educator, sexual investigator, do not offer proper information about the academic degree achieved and, to avoid the ambiguity of some word, which are not employed with the same homogeneity, academic degree must be mentioned followed by... "specialist in human sexuality" and/or "specialist in sexology" and/or "sexual educator" and/or "human sexuality investigator".

Section 6. Limits to the competence of educators, therapists and investigators.

Paragraph a.

Psychologists and / or specialized and / or doctors in general, specialized in human beings and their sexuality, must recognize the limits of their professional actions as clearly as possible and, whenever necessary, they have to consult the Committee of Ethics, who, if it finds it necessary, will consult the Ethics Tribunal of each country.

Paragraph b.

Therapists, while providing assistance, must discover, evaluate and measure the risks run by their consultants, of making a psychological, medical, psychiatrist, psychosomatic, familiar and or social complication. In this case, they have to interconsultate other professionals. In no way, therapists in charge of treatment should occupy of situations related to interests which could be considered as opposed. Under no circumstances, should relationships be created.

Paragraph c.

They have to take the necessary prevention to avoid risky situations. They must know the measures to be taken when such incidents occur, either if they are solved by the therapist or by a competent specialist to whom they give the task. They must know the limits of their therapeutic actions as clearly as possible in the three most important levels: intellectual, emotional and ethical. Professional secret is the essence of all treatment.

Paragraph d.

When professionals mentioned in the title consider that any particular condition of people or groups consulting them could affect their professional performance, for example: birth, age, race, sex, religion, ideology, nationality, social class, sexual orientation, incapability, political orientation reasons or any other characteristics bothering them, they will have to withdraw. They must respect the individuality of each person: religious, ethical, moral or political beliefs. Professionals will not provide teaching, investigation or treatment services using theories and/or techniques which have not been duly tested, approved and universally recognized.

Paragraph e.

The behaviors of professionals related to their private lives are outside the Ethics Tribunal province except: 1) when these behaviors do not consider Human and Civil rights and go against respect to patients customers, students, people object of their investigation, colleagues and/or any other people involved; except 2) when they do not pay attention to gender equity, commit harassment, abuse, use and/or usufruct people under their charge, 3) when they employ unknown technologies and/or methodologies of investigation not valued and accepted by the scientific international communities. if these precepts are not respected, it is the responsibility of each professional what is involved, 4) It is completely forbidden for professionals to make patients, students, and/or people investigated participate in their personal, familiar, commercial problems and/or conflicts. They can not behave immorally or go against the law. They must not have important deficiencies such as not being coherent with their personal behaviors and scientific productions as well as not having a theoretical updating. Items 1,2,3 and 4 constitute affairs of the professional public life.

Paragraph f.

Beyond the Code of Ethics of each Professionals College, it is required to reaffirm that professionals will never give their name or signature to people who, illegally, without the necessary title or authorization perform clinical, educational or investigation acts.

Paragraph g.

Ethical responsibilities of those professionals studying human beings and their sexuality can not go against the positive legisiation of each country. All the same, they will be able to let the Ethics Tribunal know the circumstances of the problems they are facing, with the aim that the mentioned entity take the measures and focus considered legitimate.

Paragraph h.

When therapists, educators and investigators express scientific, personal and/or professional considerations or when they engage in academic enterprises, they rnust do so, supported by investigations performed respecting the legislation of the country in which they are.

Paragraph i.

When professionals, clinical therapists and or sextherapists return diagnosis evaluation, orientation, supervisions, teaching, consultations, investigations or other services to a person, group, family, couple or institution, they must do so using a language easy to understand for the evaluation diagnosis, results and conclusions, as all the patients, consultants, students and people object of investigation have the right to be informed. They have right to know that there are different theories and methodologies of work and they are able to chose.

Paragraph j.

If, owing to legal or institutional reasons, professionals could not provide such information, they must previously inform about it to people, patients, customers, and groups or people object of investigation.

Paragraph k.

Only the patients and/or under special circumstances can relieve the professional from the fulfillment of professional secrecy. Professional is forever linked to professional secret which is the essence of all therapeutic, educational and/or investigation process.

Section 7. Personal problems and conflicts

The personal problems and conflicts of the professionals should not interfere in the treatment efficiency. If this occurs, they have to withdraw immediately from the situation and/or apart from patients referring it immediately to the Committee of Ethics. Specially, they must:

Paragraph a.

Ask for help to prevent unsuitable performances.

Paragraph b.

Consult and/or seek for personal or other professional support.

Paragraph c.

Evaluate together with other professionals if it is necessary to limit, suspend or conclude the professional task already affected or likely to be so.

Paragraph d.

Take the corresponding decision, specifying the reasons to the customers, patients, students or people involved or object of investigation.

Paragraph e.

In all these cases, they will have to notify the competent authority.

Paragraph f.

They can not use, for their own sake or in benefit of others, the situation of power or superiority given by the exercise of the profession on customers, patients, students, colleagues or people who are object of study. Any benefit obtained, during the treatment or as a result of it, must be considered as a serious failure if it was obtained through the breaking of those rules impending the information use which reasonably can not go out of work environment, consult or treatment. Relationships beyond the limits of an optimum distance should not be established. It is disqualified all treatment implying: the not consideration of gender equity, having sex with patients, students or any other person on whom they have transferential, moral or legal authority. The professional working with human beings and their sexuality and involves in situations of physical, psychical or moral violence as well as sexual harassment or abuse, will incur in extremely serious acts implying the use of power.

Paragraph g.

If social, commercial, financial, (or other) relationships are of previous existence, professionals will abstain from establishing professional agreements. Therapists must not accept people with whom they have shared commercial, affection or sexual activities. If, owing to unforeseen factors, multiple relationships are generated during the professional agreement term, it is the therapist’s duty to withdraw from the case as soon as inconveniences appear. Personal relationships should be avoided.

Paragraph h.

Health professionals can not derive their customers or patients without their previous agreement and, in all cases, they will have to be derived to legally authorized professionals. Also, they will not use their degree to harbor deceitful activities, health professionals must perform their activities under maximum impartiality conditions. Services given in free of charge institutions does not exempt from the consideration, respect and attention to people.

Paragraph i.

They can only delegate to their collaborators, supervised, investigation assistants and people under their direction, those responsibilities corresponding according to competence and professional or academic authorization of them, and in all cases, under the total responsibility of those professionals who delegated. For the sake of a major efficiency of the tasks, cultural and individual characteristics of each Human Being should be considered, namely, birth, age, gender, race, religion, ideology, nationality, sex, sexual orientation, incapability and/or social class. Therapists have to explain to the competent authority the reasons why they do not work with those persons having any of the mentioned characteristics, and showing that such acts are not discrimination ways. If discrimination were proved, it must be denounced to the competent authority and to the Ethics Tribunal of each country.

II. Duties of clinical therapists, educators and investigators.

Section 8. Duties to the patients

Therapists must try to lessen all kind of suffering and incompetence in their patients and/or customers. They can not have sex with his patients and/or customers. Exploration and study of sex genital sensibility are possible only through investigations, with aims already explained in the submitted projects, academically approved and authorized by the person who was object of the experience, who will be previously informed of its scope, considering that people understand it.

Section 9. Duties towards society.

Access to treatments must not be discouraged owing to financial reasons. This is a duty of professionals to assure the necessary treatment continuity, offering derivation alternatives in case of economic difficulties. Under no circumstances, should payment alternatives implying the forced continuity of treatment be proposed.

Section 10. About the investigation.

Ethical commissions will estimate the demands resulting from investigations and will emit the necessary judgments. Investigators can collaborate with the methodological proposals considered useful and/or necessary, acknowledging the application authorities about them.

Section 11. Reservation duties.

Therapists will not participate in sensual and/or sexual experiences. They will only be able to observe, conceptualize and / or clarify or interpret. Under no circumstance, will he disqualify the behavior of patients or third persons, and will not ease the argument against other love or familiar links. The use of any kind of physical, psychical or rnoral violence is not accepted. Therapist must protect all and each of the patients frorn others, included their relatives. No way of violence will be admitted, not even if consented. Patients will be advised that they will be the only responsible of eventual changes in their affection, economic, familiar and/or labor links. Therapists must always consider that their patients are always in a special vulnerability position with reference to the therapist. The ability of patients or customers to judge their own welfare is temporarily diminished owing to the wish of success in the therapy, the belief that the therapist will always act in their favor, and because they suppose that the therapist enjoys enough competence, knowledge and high deontological exigencies. For all this, therapists must always bear in mind the responsibility they have to protect the rights and welfare of their patients/customers. Therapists rnust not use their privilege position to seduce the customer, establish love relationships or having sex with them. Sexual activity with the patient is not a method therapeutically acceptable. If the relationship between the patient and the therapist goes beyond the personal environment, therapists will have to chose between keeping the relationship within the clinical agreement or deriving the patient to another professional putting the relationship aside the personal environment. It is incompatible to keep an affective sexual relationship with the patient while he or she is under treatment. Therefore it is a serious cause and must be denounced to the competent authority and the Ethics Tribunal.

Section 12. Duties to colleagues and collaborators.

Duties and rights of the profession constitute themselves taking the principle of professional independence and autonomy as basis, whatever the hierarchy position occupied by any organization with reference to other professionals and/or higher authorities. Psychology exercise is based on the right and duty of a reciprocal respect between therapists, sex therapists, and other similar professions. Specially and besides the constructive critic seen as proper, during the profession exercise, colleagues or other professionals working with methods similar or different must not be discredited. Subjects such as variety of theories, schools, methods and kind of interventions enjoying scientific and professional credibility will be dealt with respectfully. They will work respectfully and honestly with colleagues and collaborators with whom they share tasks. Experiences, observations, developments and investigations performed, either in formal or informal spaces of teaching, must be transmitted to their colleagues.

Section 13. Relationship with couples and/or families

When there is an agreement to work with two or more people having a familiar or intimate relationship (such as couples, wife and husband, parents and children, etc.) they will be able to participate in a group therapy and they will be evaluated only once before the treatment considered as suitable. People belonging to the same family or with opposite interests can not be assisted separately by the same professional. It is a duty of the therapist to clarify the action plan and the professional secrecy scope to each of the treatment participants. In the same way, they will be in charge of establishing the steps to be followed if under age are included.

Section 14. Professional relationship conclusion.

The decsion of the patient to conclude the professional relationship must be respected, and the therapists can not possibly influence the patient to modify his or her decision basing on sure or eventual risks.

Section 15. Invasions of privacy

Paragraph a.

Health professionals, clinical sexology specialists, must be really cautious, prudent and critical in their written reports. They must avoid notions easily related to devaluating or discriminating associations such as healthy/ill. normal/abnormal, sexually normal/abnormal, adapted/not adapted etc., and they will only include the necessary information in their written or oral reports. If there were any possibility of serious damage for the patients, relatives or even third persons, they will be able to denounce the situation to the competent authority in order to stop danger. They can ask for the suitable security measures to the same authorities in cases of risk for material goods.

Paragraph b.

Discussion about confidential information with other professionals will always take place under the service receptor/s authorization, and with the corresponding respect to all the patients dignity.

Paragraph c.

The obligation of keeping professional secrecy is for all the member of groups or teams of professionals, in this way, right to privacy is protected through professional secrecy.

Paragraph d.

Professional secrecy is still a duty even after having ended the relationship with the patient.

Paragraph e.

In the case of under age, there must be a psychological and material responsible person, and they will be their parents or guardian. They will be informed, unless they are the source of danger. In all cases, the professional will prioritizes the interests of the under age. Decisions involving the delivery of reports to the guardians or parents will be explicitly established by the therapist.

Section 16. Professional secrecy limits.

The therapist is attached to the professional secrecy, direct or indirectly referred to the people to whom professional secrecy links them. Only if the patient authorizes them, they will be able to leave this secrecy without effect. When they work in a company, school, Tribunal or any other institution, to whom they will have to report about the examined or evaluated persons, it is the professional's task to acknowledge the examined person of this situation, only exempted from doing so if the examination is order by judges or if it is compulsory.

Section 17. Records keeping.

Professionals must assure the confidentiality and the professional secrecy of their records. The keeping, transfer or elimination of the information included in them rnust be under their exclusive and strict control, either if they are written, cornputerized or kept by any other method. Records will be kept and eliminated as per the legislation in force of each country.

Section 18. Interconsultations.

Confidential information must not be shared vvhen consulting with colleagues unless previous agreement of the patient and only in the necessary degree for the achievement of the consultation aims.

Section 19. Confidential information kept in data base.

Paragraph a.

If the confidential information is entered into a data base, or any other analogous system, which could be entered by people not having the patient's authorization, a codification system must be employed with the aim of avoiding personal identifications.

Paragraph b.

If an identification record approved by an institutional committee or similar, requires the inclusion of identifying elements, they will have to be erased or modifed in such a way that the information could not be obtained by thirds.

Section 20. Use of confidential information for teaching or any other purpose

Paragraph a.

For conferences, essays or any other public means, confidential information must not be revealed, unless that the person involved had authorize in written form or in the case of legal or judicial authorization.

Paragraph b.

Professionals will have to provide the information in these cases, rnodifying it in such a way that the concerned persons could not be identified. Record and data base property is regulated by legal principles which force their owners to take the licit and reasonable measures to make them be available to help the best interests in the receptors of the service.

Section 21. Teaching. Supervision. Training. Investigation. Publications.

Paragraph a.

Those responsible for education and training programs must assure that there is a description of the program contents, of their aims, training objectives and requirements which must be fulfilled to satisfactorily complete the program. This information must be precise and of easy access to all the concerned parties. Deceiving publicity must be avoided.

Paragraph b.

Publicity must precisely describe the educational objectives, the teachers who will be in charge and the programs cost as well as the belonging to other institutions, so that public could be well informed.

Paragraph c.

The academic level of the teachers involved in the training and training will be assured.

Paragraph d.

The rights of the people participating in the investigation will be assured. The planning for the investigations must be performed strictly following the specific regulations of each country. Previous to all investigations, there has to be the explicit agreement of the participants, who will have been enough informed, about the subjects of investigation. Only anonymous polls are excluded of this obligation.

III. Questions related to professional exercise

Section 22. Fees and financial agreements

Paragraph a.

In a professional relationship, therapists and patients, customers or other receptor of professional services must agree the fees and the invoicing methods.

Paragraph b.

Professionals will not use economic means - their fees to take advantage of the receptors of their services.

Paragraph c.

If it is possible to anticipate service limits, owing to financial limitations, it has to be discussed with the patient, customer or other receptor of the services, as soon as possible.

Paragraph d.

When a professional receives payment or shares the fees with another colleague, in a relationship different from that employer/employee, payment is based on the given services and never on the patients derivation. Every industrial, commercial or professional service integrating the received fees is forbidden.

Section 23. Evaluations and forensic investigations.

Forensic reports or testimonies made by professionals in written or oral forms about a person's characteristic, can only be performed after having made suitable examinations, in order to give support to their presumed diagnosis, declarations or conclusions. Their participation must be considered as ended and it should not be extended through concealment or deceiving either if the aims are achieved or not. They will be cautious and prudent in the presence of devaluating or discriminating labels

Section 24. Official Degrees. Publicity.

They (those having official degrees) are the only ones recognized by the legislation of each country. Presentations in the mass-media/publicity. All false and commercial publicity is forbidden, there are other means to become known and being scientifically valued. Colleagues know how to distinguish publicity from notoriety. The last one is acquired through personal qualities availed by works and academic or scientific publications. When receiving mail, articles, recordings or any other material, the following precautions must be taken to be sure that: 1) declarations are based in clinical experience and bibliography 2) declarations are in agreement with this Code of Ethics and 3) the information receptors are not included if supposed that a personal relationship has been established with them. If therapists learn about deceiving declarations of their work, performed by other professionals, they must denounce them (for example the penal code of Argentina Republic and the equivalent legislation of different member countries). Professionals should not make false, fraudulent, deceiving, public declarations either by that transmitted or suggested, or omitted, related to their professional activities connected to: 1) their training, experiences or competence, 2) Academic degrees, 3) credentials, 4) Institutional affiliations, 5) services 6) scientific or clinical foundations, results or success degrees of their services, 7) Fees and 8) Publications or investigations discoveries.


Section 25.

The Code of Ethics is a law for all the professionals of the mentioned specialities.

Section 26. Ethical items confrontation.

In front of a situation which is not clear enough to see if it violates this code, the Ethics Tribunal of the different entities should be consulted, and they will dictate their judgment.

Section 27. Cooperation with Ethics Tribunals.

Professionals will cooperate with the ethical investigations, the procedures or other requirements. No cooperation is a violation to Ethics in itself.

Section 28. Complaints.

Charges against other colleagues must be performed of good will and only inspired in keeping professional honor. For its consideration, every denunciation must be concrete and based in a fact which could be sanctioned by this code or by legislation in force. ln the same way, patients or their legal representative will be able to complaint. Those having a behavior against the principles and rules established in this system, will be submitted to punishment by the Ethics Tribunal, who will assure the exercise of right to defense in judgment, as well as the assurance of right to the corresponding process. Proceedings for the sustaining of causes for behavior opposed to that established in the present Code of Ethics will be ruled by the prosecution laws dictated with this aim by the respective professional associations or colleges. Paragraph a: The following are the sanctions which could be executed by the Ethics Tribunal: a) Reprimand b) Warning c) Suspension d) Temporary disqualification e) Expulsion f) Matriculation withdrawal

Section 29.

Administrative sanctions to professionals do not exempt from the obligation of the Body and the Council to pass the case to the law court of each member country, in case of committing a public action crime. The Ethics Tribunal of each country will be appointed through election of all the collegiate federated and will be constituted by five titular members and three substitutes in case of absence, death, illnesses, exemptions and challenges, in these last two cases with previous summary to determine if it has legal basis or not.


The Ethics Tribunal, as long as the corresponding Proceedings Code or Judgment Law for Professionals of Human Being and their Sexuaiity is not in force, will be qualified to make the Code of Ethics operative in a process following the fulfillment of those guarantees recognized in the text of the Magna Charta or laws of each country.

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