Introduction

Advisory Editors

Contributing Editors

Authors

ABORTION

Abortions in Ancient Times
Anti-Abortion Laws
Problems Caused by the Laws
Changing Policies
The Right to Life and Pro-Choice Movements
Abortion Procedures
Ethical and Political Issues

ADDICTION: SEX ADDICTION
ADULTERY

Historical Concepts of Adultery
Modem Concepts and Patterns of Adultery
Swinging
Open Marriage

AGING AND SEXUALITY
AIDS AND HIV INFECTION

Prevalence
Testing
Research and Treatment
Psychosocial Aspects of AIDS
Treatment Groups
Other Issues of Economics and of Public Policy
AIDS and Politics
Legal and Ethical Issues
A Cross-Cultural View
AIDS and the Future

AIDS, RELIGION, AND SEXUAL ORIENTATION

Scripture and Tradition

AMBISEXUALITY
ANAL SEX
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

Male Anatomy and Physiology
Female Anatomy

ANORGASMIA

Introduction
Orgasmic Response
Preorgasmia or Primary Anorgasmia
Secondary Anorgasmia

Situational Anorgasmia
Random Anorgasmia

Summary

ANTHROPOLOGY: INFLUENCE OF CULTURE ON SEX

The Culture of Anthropology: Its Paradigm
Methods, Findings, and Interpretations

Participant Observation: Method
Participant Observation: Findings and Interpretations
Cross-Cultural Research: Method
Cross-Cultural Research: Findings and Interpretations

Contemporary Perspectives and Concerns About Anthropology, Sex, and Culture

APHRODISIACS AND ANAPHRODISIACS

Aphrodisiacs
Anaphrodisiac

ART: PAINTING, SCULPTURE, AND OTHER VISUAL ART

Western Christian Tradition
Growth of Erotic Art

THE ARTS AND SEXUALITY
ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION
AUTOEROTICISM

BENJAMIN, HARRY
BERDACHE AND AMAZON ROLES AMONG AMERICAN INDIANS

Berdache
Amazon
Same-Sex Marriage
European Impact

BESTIALITY

Folklore, Literature, and Humor
Behavior
Law
The Imaginary and the Real

BISEXUALITY
BLOCH, IWAN
BODY IMAGERY AND GUIDED IMAGERY

Body Imagery at the Center for Marital and Sexual Studies

BONDAGE
BOOKSELLING IN THE FIELD OF SEXOLOGY
BUDDHISM AND SEX

BUKKAKE

Introduction
Masturbation and bukkake
Bukkake on the Internet
The Mainstreaming of Bukkake
Sexual Health
Risks
Discussion
References

BUTCH AND FEMME, TOP AND BOTTOM, IN A GAY WORLD

Butch and Femme in the Lesbian Community
Butch and Fern, Top and Bottom, Among Gay Men
Conclusions

CALDERONE, MARY S.
CANCER AND SEXUALITY

Effects of Cancer Treatment on Male Sexuality

Prostate Cancer
Testicular Cancer
Bladder Cancer
Colon Rectal Cancer
Penile Cancer
Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy

Effects of Cancer Treatment on Female Sexuality

Gynecologic Cancers
Bladder Cancer
Colon Rectal Cancer
Breast Cancer
Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy

Conclusion

CANON LAW AND SEX

St. Augustine's Influence
The Penitentials
Gratian's Influence
Sexual Sins and Offenses

CASANOVA; CASANOVISM
CASTRATION
CATHOLIC ATTITUDES TOWARD SEXUALITY

Sexuality in Marriage
Premarital Sex
Abortion
Homosexuality

CENSORSHIP AND SEX

The Narrated and Written Word
Censorship of the Press in England and America

Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries
Eighteenth Century
The Nineteenth Century
Twentieth Century

Theater and Performance
Art
Music
Film
Radio
Television
Telephone
Conclusion

CENTER FOR MARITAL AND SEXUAL STUDIES
CERVICAL CAP
CHASTITY GIRDLES
CHILDREN AND SEX

The Infant's Developing Sexuality
Later Childhood Sexual Development
Pediatric and Adolescent Sexual Problems
Sexual Abuse of Children

CHILDREN AND SEX, PART II: CHILDHOOD SEXUALITY

Self-Exploration and Autoerotic Activity
Sexual Fantasy
Encounters With Peers
Inhibiting Sexual Experiences of Infants and Young Children
Child Sexuality as Society Sees It

CHINA AND SEX

Changing Attitudes Toward Sex in China Today

CIRCUMCISION—MALE: EFFECTS UPON HUMAN SEXUALITY

Medical Procedure
Function of the Foreskin

CLIMACTERIC
CLINICAL INTERVENTION WITH TRANSGENDERED CLIENTS AND THEIR PARTNERS

Terminology
Clinical Intervention
Women Partners of Transvestites
Clinical Treatment of the Couple
Clinical Treatment of the Transsexual
Conclusion

COERCION: SEXUAL COERCION
COITAL POSITIONS

Male Superior
Female Superior
Other Positions

COMMUNICATION AND SEXUALITY

Learning to Communicate
Language Styles Used to Discuss Sexuality
Nonverbal Sexual Communication
Factors Affecting Sexual Communication
Improving Sexual Communication

COMPULSION: SEXUAL COMPULSION
COMSTOCK, ANTHONY; COMSTOCKERY

Comstockery
Anthony Comstock

CONDOM
CONFUCIANISM AND SEX
CONTRACEPTION: BIRTH CONTROL

Historical Methods of Birth Control
Diaphragms
Cervical Caps
Vaginal Sponges
Condoms
Spermicides
Oral Contraceptives
Progestin Implants
Intrauterine Devices (lUDs)
Abstinence
Sterilization
Other Birth Control Methods
Summary

COUNSELING: SEXUALITY COUNSELING

Counseling vs. Psychotherapy
Theoretical Perspectives and Techniques
Sexual Counseling

COURTESANS
COURTSHIP
COUVADE
CROSS-DRESSING

Historical Cross-Dressing
Development of the Medical Model to Explain Transvestism
Current Patterns of Cross-Dressing
Research About Cross-Dressing

DANCE AND SEXUALITY

Historical Forms of Dance
Issues of Sexuality in Dance

DATE RAPE; ACQUAINTANCE RAPE
DAVIS, KATHARINE BEMENT
DICKINSON, ROBERT LATOU
DISABILITIES AND SEXUALITY

Needs of Individuals with Learning Problems
Marriage
Parenting
Policies and Procedures
Principles for Establishing Policies and Procedures
Implementing Sexuality Education Programs
Strategies for Implementing Lessons and Discussions
Instructional Materials

THE DOUBLE STANDARD AND SEX

EDUCATION: SEXUALITY EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES

Prevalence of Sexuality Education in the United States
Objectives
Content of Sexuality Education
Support for Sexuality Education
Resources for More Information

EJACULATION

Male Ejaculation

Controlling Ejaculation
Premature Ejaculation
Ejaculatory Incompetence

Female Ejaculation

ELLIS, ALBERT
ELLIS, HAVELOCK
EMBRYOLOGY: DEVELOPMENT OF SEXUAL AND GENERATIVE ORGANS

Gates 1 and 2: Chromosomal (or Genetic and Gonadal) Sex
Gate 3: Hormonal Sex
Gate 4: Internal Sexual Anatomy
Gate 5: External Sexual Anatomy

The Eve and Adam Plans

Gate Six: Sexual Dimorphism in Neural Tendencies
Development of the Mammary Glands
Puberty
Anomalous Developments of the Sexual and Generative Organs

EROTICISM
ETHOLOGY AND SEXOLOGY

Ethological Aspects of Sexual Behavior
Proceptive Behavior
Receptive Behavior
Conceptive Behavior

EUGENICS
EXTRAMARITAL SEX

Sociobiological Explanations
Cross-Cultural Research
Legacy of EMS in Western Society
Contemporary Extramarital Sex
Summary

FANTASIES AND SEX
FASHION, CLOTHING AND SEX
FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION
FEMINISM AND SEXOLOGY

Feminists' View of the Social Construction of Sexuality
Factors Affecting Sexology Research
Two Camps of Feminists

Radical Feminists
Liberal Feminists

Feminist Sexology

FESTIVALS AND SEX

The Cultural Context of Sex and Celebration
Rituals of Reversal and Sexual License
Fertility
Marriage Ceremonies
Rites of Passage
Sex in Temples and Sacred Spaces
Conclusion

FLAGELLATION
FOREPLAY
FRAUD: SEX FRAUD
FREUD, SIGMUND
FRIENDSHIP: FEMALE-MALE FRIENDSHIP

Historical Perspective
Female-Male Friendship
Benefits of Friendship
Barriers to Female-Male Friendship

Societal Restrictions
Lack of Role Definition
Internal Barriers: Jealousy

Favorable Conditions for Female-Male Friendship
Sexual Attraction and Female-Male Friendship

Platonic Relationships
Friendships That Include Sex

Conclusion

FROTTEURISM

G SPOT AND FEMALE PLEASURE
GEBHARD, PAUL H.
GENDER

Sex and Gender
The Cultural Anthropology of Gender
Sex Differences

GENDER: PSYCHOLOGICAL MEASUREMENTS OF MASCULINITY AND FEMININITY

The First Generation of Measures
Sex Stereotypes
Second-Generation Measures of M&F
Ending Dimorphic Sexual Essentialism
Gender Dysphoria and Stigmatization

GENDER DYSPHORIA

Characteristics
Typology
Causes
Rehabilitation

GENETICS AND SEX

The Sex Chromosomes
Sperm and Ovum Production
Chromosomes and Anomalous Sexual Development
Genetics and Anomalous Sexual Development

GERMAN SEX RESEARCHERS
GONADS
GRAEFENBERG, ERNST
GRAFFITI

Graffiti Categories
History of Graffiti
Interpretations of Graffiti Content
Sexual Graffiti
Who Writes Graffiti?

GREEKS: SEXUAL CUSTOMS OF THE ANCIENT GREEKS
GUILT: SEX GUILT

HAIRE, NORMAN
HERMAPHRODITES

Normal Embryonic and Fetal Development
Abnormal Genetic Development
Klinefelter's Syndrome
True Hermaphroditism

HINDUISM
HIRSCHFELD, MAGNUS
HOMOPHOBIA

Defining Homophobia
Research on Attitudes About Homosexuality
The Social Construction of Homosexuality

HOMOSEXUALITY

Definitions
The Sexual Aspects of Homosexuality
Psychological Adjustment
Relationship to Other Phenomena
Therapy
Conclusion

HOMOSEXUALITY AND LESBIANISM: CROSS-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVES

Problems of Definition
India
Asia
Native Americans
New Guinea
Conclusion

HORMONES: THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

Fetal Sexual Development
Hormonal Control of Sexual Maturation
Gonadal Steroids and Sexual Maturation
Male Reproductive Function
Female Reproductive Function

HUMOR AND SEX
HYMEN

IMPOTENCE

Biological Causes
Evaluation
Treatment

INCEST

Behaviors
Effects

INCUBUS AND SUCCUBUS
INDIANS: NATIVE NORTH AMERICANS
INFANT SEXUALITY

Sexual Response and Behavior
Circumcision
Toilet Training
Sexual Socialization

INFERTILITY

Fertility
Causes of Infertility
Infertility in Men
Infertility in Women
Treatment of Men
Treatment of Women
Technologies
Emotional Impact of Infertility
Financial Issues
Legislation

INSTITUTE FOR ADVANCED STUDY OF HUMAN SEXUALITY

INTERSEXUALITY

Terminology
Categories of intersex conditions
Some history of the management of intersexuality
Intersexuality among non-human species
Transsexual
Support groups for intersex persons and transsexual persons

INTIMACY
INTRAUTERINE DEVICE: DEVELOPMENT
ISLAM: SEXUAL RELATIONS IN THE MUSLIM WORLD

Homosexuality
Equality of the Sexes
The Muslim Family
Women in Islam

JOHNSON, VIRGINIA E.
JORGENSEN, CHRISTINE
JOURNALS: SEXUALITY JOURNALS
JUDAISM AND SEXUALITY

Attitude Toward Sex
Prohibited and Encouraged Sex
Homosexuality
Onanism
Love and Marriage
Divorce
Abortion
Contraception
Bastardy
Sex for Pleasure
Prostitution

JUS PRIMAE NOCTIS

KINSEY, ALFRED C.

The Kinsey Reports
The Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction

KIRKENDALL, LESTER A.
KRAFFT-EBING, RICHARD VON

KUNYAZA

LANGUAGE AND SEX

Sexual Discourses

Medico-scientific Discourse
Standard Discourse
Informal Discourse and Slang
Euphemism
Intimate Language
Insults
Erotica

Recreational Use of Sexual Language
Pathological Use of Sexual Language
Male versus Female Use of Sexual Language
Sexual Lexicography
Conclusion

LAWS AND SEX

Enforcement-of-Morals Debate and Its Lessons
Four Major Areas of Change

Freedom of Expression: Obscenity
Contraception and Abortion
Marriage and Divorce
Law Concerning Homosexuality

Sex Research and Sex Therapy
Child Sexual Abuse
Teenage Sexual Behavior and the Law
Transsexuals

LEARNING THEORIES AND SEXUALITY
LEHFELDT, HANS
LESBIANISM
LIEF, HAROLD
LIMERENCE
LITERATURE: EROTIC THEMES

The Ancient World: Eastern Culture
The Ancient World: Greece and Rome
The Ancient World: Hebrews and Christians
The Middle Ages
The Renaissance, the Reformation, the Restoration, and the 18th-Century Romantics
Victorians and the Late Romantics
Modern Literature
Conclusion

LOVE AND SEX
LOVEMAPS

MARTIN, CLYDE E.
MASOCHISM
MASTERS, WILLIAM HOWELL
MASTURBATION
MASTURBATORY INSANITY
MATE SELECTION
MENARCHE
MENOPAUSE
MENSTRUATION
MISCEGENATION
MISOGYNIST, MISOGYNY
MOLL, ALBERT
MONEY, JOHN WILLIAM
MONOGAMY
MORALITY: SEXUAL MORALITY
MORROW, PRINCE A., AND THE SOCIAL HYGIENE MOVEMENT
MOSHER, CLELIA DUEL
MOVIES: SEXUALITY IN CINEMA

Censorship
Sexuality in Early Films
Early Modern Film
Modern Film
Sexually Liberated Modern Film
The Future

MULTIORGASM
MUSIC AND SEX

NAZIS AND SEX
NUDISM

Is Nudism a Sexual Phenomenon?

NYMPHOMANIA

OBSCENE TELEPHONE CALLS
ONANISM
ORAL-GENITAL SEX
ORGANIZATIONS: PROFESSIONAL
ORGASM

ORGASM ENHANCEMENT

Pompoir
Multiple female orgasms
Strengthening vaginal muscles, tightening the vagina
Tumescence
Erectile problems

PARAPHILIAS
PARTHENOGENESIS

PASSION
Passionate Love and Sexual Desire: Cultural and Historical Perspectives

I. Definitions of Passionate Love and Sexual Desire
   Overview
II. Anthropological and Evolutionary Perspectives
III. Historical Perspectives
IV. Cross-Cultural Perspectives
   A. The Cross-Cultural Data
      1. Susceptibility to Passionate Love
      2. Intensity of Passionate Love
IV. Directions for Future Research
   A. Historical Differences in the Meaning of Passionate Love and Sexual Desire
VII. Gazing Into The Future
   A. From Male Supremacy to Gender Equality
   B. The Pursuit of Happiness and the Avoidance of Pain
   C. A Belief That Things Can Change for the Better
References

PEDERASTY IN ANCIENT AND EARLY CHRISTIAN HISTORY
PETTING
PHEROMONES
PHILOSOPHY AND SEX
PHOBIAS
PHYSICAL DISABILITIES AND SEX

Some Common Disabling Diseases and Conditions

Cerebral Palsy (CP).
Stroke.
Multiple Sclerosis (MS).
Spinal Cord Injuries (SCI).
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA).
Poliomyelitis (Polio).
Muscular Diseases.
Amputations.
Spina Bifida.
Some Possible Sexual Effects of Disabilities Discussed Above

PIMP
PLEASURE: SEX AND PLEASURE

Pleasure Resistance
Pleasures of Sex
The Connection Between Pleasure and Health.
Emotional Involvement

Love
Intimacy
Affectionate Touch
Angry Passion

Eroticism

Sensuality
Fantasy
Romance
Resistance Anticipation
Pain as an Aphrodisiac
Forbiddenness
Novelty, Adventure, Challenge

Sex Play
Erotic Potential

POLITICAL THEORY: SEX AND POLITICAL THEORY
POLYANDRY
POLYGAMY
POLYGYNY
POMEROY, WARDELL BAXTER
PORNOGRAPHY

History
The Three Commissions
The Evidence
Pornography Defined
Matching Pornography to Fantasy

PREGNANCY

Labor
Management of Labor
Cesarean Section
Fetal Indications for Cesarean Section
The Types of Cesarean Section
Pregnancy Complications
Medical Problems in Pregnancy

AIDS
Drugs

The Postpartum Period
Sex
The Postpartum Examination

PREMARITAL SEXUALITY

Incidence and Prevalence of Teenage Sexual Activity
Factors That Influence the Initiation of Sexual Activity
Contraceptive Use During Premarital Sexual Behavior
Risks Associated with Premarital Sexual Activity

PREMATURE EJACULATION
PRINCE, VIRGINIA
PRISONS: SEX IN PRISONS

Rape
Consensual Male Homosexual Liaisons
Homosexual Prostitution
Female Homosexual Liaisons
Inmate-Staff Sexual Liaisons
AIDS
Conclusion

PROSTATE
PROSTITUTION
PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORIES
PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES OF SEXUALITY

Love and Sexual Arousal
Limerence
Attachment
Forms of Love
Psychological Determinants of Sexual Behavior
Sexual Orientation
Extramarital Sex

RACE, SEX, AND MYTHS: IMAGES OF AFRICAN AMERICAN MEN AND WOMEN
RAPE
RELIGION AND SEXUALITY

Formal or Informal Values
Natural or Unnatural Sex
Control Mechanisms
Two World Views

The Fixed World View
The Process World View
General Comparisons

Western Sexual Values

RELIGIOUS INFLUENCE ON SEXUAL ATTITUDES AND FUNCTIONING

Clinical Examples

RUNDEN, CHARITY EVA

SACHER-MASOCH, LEOPOLD RITTER VON
SADE, MARQUIS DE (DONATIEN-ALPHONSE-FRANÇOIS, COMTE DE SADE)
SADISM
SANGER, MARGARET
SATYRS, SATYRIASIS; SEXUAL ADDICTION
SCIENCE AND SEXOLOGY

Feminist and Other Postpositivist Views of Science
Preventing Presuppositions from Overwhelming Science
The Scientific Restructuring of Sexology

SEXOLOGICAL EXAMINATION

Male Sexological Examination
Female Sexological Examination

SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION

Sexual Dysfunctions
Sexual Problems and Difficulties

SEXUAL ORIENTATION

Introduction
Assessment of Sexual Orientation
Measures of Sexual Orientation
The "Limerent and Lusty" Theory of Sexual Orientation
What Causes Variability in Sexual Orientation?
Conclusions

SEXUAL REVOLUTION
SEXUAL VALUES AND MORAL DEVELOPMENT

Sexual Values
Sexual Morality
Modernity Threatens Traditional Morality
Moral Development
Caring and Moral Emotion
Ethical Action Guides for Sexuality

SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES

Trichomoniasis
Chlamydia
Herpes
Gardnerella
Group B. Beta Hemolytic Streptococcus
Syphilis
Gonorrhea
Venereal Warts
Molluscum Contagiosum
Yeasts: Candida Albicans et al.
Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma Infections
Donovanosis
Chancroid
Viral Hepatitis
Cytomegalovirus Infections
Pubic Lice and Scabies
Enteric Infections
AIDS
Conclusion

SOCIOBIOLOGY

Parental Investment Theory
Mate Selection
R and K Selection

SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES OF SEXUALITY

Structural-Functional Theories of Sexuality
Conflict theories
Symbolic Interactionism
Ethnomethodology and Phenomenology

SODOM AND SODOMY

Sodomy

STERILIZATION

STEUBEN, FRIEDRICH WILHELM von
STÖCKER, HELENE
STOPES, MARIE CHARLOTTE CARMICHAEL
STRESS AND SEXUALITY
SURROGATES: SEXUAL SURROGATES

TAOISM AND SEX
THERAPY: SEX THERAPY

Historical Perspectives
Sex Therapy Today
Assessment
Sexual Problems and Therapy

TOUCH AND SEXUALITY

Touch and Childhood Development
Developmental Neuropsychology of Touch
An Obstacle to Affection

TOYS: SEX TOYS

Dildos
Vibrators
Ben-wa Balls
Other Sex Toys

TRANSSEXUALISM

Introduction
Historical Perspective
Gender Dysphoria and the Spectrum of Gender Identity Disorders
Transsexualism and Body Image
Evaluation
Trial of Cross-Gender Living—The Real-Life Test
Hormone Therapy
Sex Reassignment Surgery for Primary Transsexuals
Conclusion

ULRICHS, KARL HEINRICH

VAN DE VELDE, THEODOOR HENDRIK
VIRILITY AND MACHISMO

Appendix: ADDITIONAL SOURCES OF SEX INFORMATION

How to Do Further Research
Pathways to Sex Information

Quick Searches
Getting a Basic Background
In-Depth Investigations
Hiring Help

Basic Reference Works

Encyclopedias and Dictionaries
Directories and Catalogs
Classics
Textbooks and Basic Guides
Collections

Books and Other Monographs

Library Catalog
Books in Print
Bibliographies
Reviews
Dissertations
Catalog Ordering Sources

Periodicals

Indexes and Abstracts
Journals and Magazines

Data Bases
Conference Papers
Audiovisuals
Organizations

Professional Associations
Advocacy and Common-Interest Organizations
Organizations Addressing a Specific Disease or Problem
Self-Help Organizations
Research Centers
Libraries with Collections on Sexual Topics
Universities Granting Degrees in Sexology and Related Programs

People