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Archive Papers

NOTE: Herbert Lewandowski gave the following undated, hitherto unpublished text, together with other materials, as a present to Prof. E. J. Haeberle in 1984/85, when the latter was a visiting professor at the University of Geneva, doing research on Auguste Forel. The Ms. is written in German, typed apparently sometime between 1965 and 1984. The translation follows the original as closely as possible, even at the price of being somewhat stilted in places. German book titles have been translated into English in order to facilitate comprehension of the author's general argument. It is worth noting that, even at the time of writing this essay in the mid-sixties, Lewandowski pays little attention to the work of the recently deceased greatest sex researcher of his time: Alfred C. Kinsey. Indeed, mentioning his name at the very end of the text seems no more than an afterthought, added on the basis of second-hand knowledge. Curiously enough, there is not even a mention of the ethnological classic by Ford and Beach "Patterns of Sexual Behavior" (1951). The author also seems unaware of Harry Benjamin's studies of transsexualism, which had begun in the 1950's, although his pioneering book was not published until 1966. Lewandowski knew Benjamin personally, but apparently had lost contact with him. In the same year 1966, another pioneering work appeared which is not mentioned in this essay: Masters and Johnson's "Human Sexual Response". They also had begun their research much earlier. The most likely explanations for these oversights are Lewandowski's continued isolation in Geneva from all sexological discourse and the financially modest circumstances in which he still tried to make a living as a writer. On the other hand, the text (except for some insignificant updates) accurately reflects the general European view of sexology of the 1930's, i.e. of a time when the author himself had still been able to be actively involved.

Herbert Lewandowski
rue du Rhone 66
Geneva, Switzerland

The History of Sexology

1. Sexual Biology
2. Sexual Psychology
3. Sexual Hygiene
4. Sexual Pathology

To date, no fundamental history of sexology has been written. Therefore, it is unavoidable that one or the other important name is missing here. Moreover, in some areas of medicine there is such rapid development that, for example, a book on antibiotics is already obsolete at the time of its publication. The present brief sketch is therefore not more than a first attempt. As an important source, the book by Herbert Lewandowski was used: "Les Enfers, domaine allemand" (J.J. Pauvert, Paris, 1963). In its first chapter, at least the German contribution to sexology is presented in its basic outlines.

The beginning of our century still saw three scholars who mastered the sexual problem in all its manyfold medical, folkloristic, legal, and historical implications. Two of these published their works in German: August Forel (1848-1931) and Magnus Hirschfeld (1868-1936 sic! should be 1935, ed.). The third was Havelock Ellis. August Forel, born in Morges on the shores of Lake Geneva, had French as his mother tongue, but decided to publish mostly in German. His doctoral dissertation on "The Thalamus Opticus" as well as his great work "The Sexual Question" (Munich 1905) are written in German. Forel opened the discussion of the sexual question at a time when the crudest prudery still dominated Europe - in England pants were called "the unspeakables", and in Germany a postcard was confiscated as "obscene", which showed a woman lifting her long skirt high enough to show her foot and part of her ankle (see Hirschfeld, Geschlechtskunde, volume of illustrations). Forel proved to be an exceptional person in other respects as well. In the foreword to his "Sexual Question" he said that he discussed each chapter with his wife, to whom the book was dedicated. This could be considered quite unusual at the time. Forel was also an early fighter against alcoholism, and whoever travels through Morges on Lake Geneva, where much wine is being cultivated, and where the whole population "loves a good drop", must wonder how here, of all places, an antialcoholic could become active.

Forel founded, together with Hirschfeld and Havelock Ellis, the "World League for Sexual Reform". Among other things, he wanted to reform marriage along the following lines:

  1. Name following the maternal line.
  2. Maternal custody of children.
  3. The woman's ownership of the home.
  4. The husbands right to live in the home, to receive food and domestic service.
  5. Separation of finances: The man's earnings are his, the women's earnings are hers.

The rules 2-5 were to be enforced only where voluntrary mutual agreement of the parties proved impossible. As one can see - a very wise program!

Similarly to Freud, Hirschfeld also arrived at his sexual theory due to a singular case: Freud had been consulted by Breuer in the treatment of a hysterical girl, Hirschfeld came to know the fate of a homosexual, which inspired him to write his book "Sappho and Socrates", published in 1896. Thus, Hirschfeld, at the same time as Freud, entered the vast realm of sexuality which was then considered "taboo". Hirschfeld studied the function of internal secretions and came to the conclusion: "Our glands are our fate" - Freud came from the neuroses and believed: "Our unconscious is our fate". The theories of both researchers complement each other, just as body and soul complement each other. In the realm of the body, for Hirschfeld all sexual differences are merely differences of degree; he assumes that ca. one third of humankind deviates from the norm. In the realm of the soul, Freud believes the boundaries between health and illness to be gradual. Especially certain illnesses allowed Freud to recognize the dominant role of the unconscious.

As stated, Forel, Hirschfeld, and Ellis still addressed the sexual problem in all of its ramifications. In our epoch of specialists this is hardly possible anymore. Therefore, we will now contemplate sexology in its four most important reflections: Sexual biology, sexual psychology, sexual hygiene, and sexual pathology. Since nearly every phenomenon of the sexual life touches upon all four areas, and since both the transitions from the somatic to the psychological and that from the normal to the pathological are gradual, the division into the four disciplines serves only to facilitate the study. A strict separation of disciplines, however, is impossible in reality.

1. Sexual Biology
Strictly speaking, psychology, hygiene and pathology also belong to biology, since they are all manifestations of bios = life. However, since we have here separated the three special areas from the rest, there remains for biology everything that is physiological, anatomy, the knowledge of organs and the human physical constitution.

The first physician to occupy himself with the anatomy of the sexual organs was Martin Schurig (1662-1733) in Dresden. Following the practice of his time, he published his anatomical treatises in Latin. His contemporary, the Dutch Antonius A. Leeuvenhoek (1632-1723), using a simple magnifying glass, discovered the spermatozoa (male sperm cells). Exactly 150 years later, the German researcher Karl Ernst von Baer discovered the female egg cell. A long scientific dispute as to which of the two elements was more important for the formation of a new human being was laid to rest in 1875 by Oskar Hertwig (1849-1922), who was able to recognize both elements as equally important when he observed the fertilization of the egg of a sea urchin.

In 1859, when Darwin's chief work "The Origin of Species by Natural Selection" appeared, Richard Semon was born in Berlin. His research was devoted to the cell as the smallest element of the organism. In his main study "The Mneme as Maintaining Principle of the Organic Process" (Leipzig, 1904), Semon confirmed Darwin's doctrine. In addition, Darwin gained a prophet of high rank in Germany: Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919).

While Darwinism thus quickly gained ground in Europe, this doctrine was simply banned in some universities in the US. By the way, it had been a Catholic priest who had supplied the most important elements for the science of heredity - the abbot Gregor Mendel in Brünn (1822-1884). After WWI, the Brünn professor Hugo Iltis created in Mendel's home country a museum devoted to the great discoverer.

As Darwin found especially enthusiastic representatives of his doctrine in Germany, so he himself had been greatly influenced by the book "Cosmos - Attempt of a Physical Description of the World" by Alexander von Humboldt.

Darwin's work opened the way for a whole number of works that incorporated sexual phenomena in scientific observations. The work of Wilhelm Bölsche (1861 - ) "Love Life in Nature" was a widely used as an educational text at the beginning of our century. Much read were also the books by Paolo Mantegazza (1831- 1910): "Physiology of Love" and "Hygiene of Love".

About the researcher Theodor H. van de Velde, born on February 12, 1873 in Leeuwarden (Holland), a descendant of the famous painters Willem and Adriaen van de Velde, we know this: Early on, he experienced rejection in his Calvinistic homeland and therefore moved to Switzerland in 1916. He wrote his main work "Ideal Marriage" in Switzerland and in German, and he also first published it this way. Therefore, one can count him as a German-language author. In "Ideal Marriage", van de Velde, for the first time in medical literature, discussed coital positions, something that had, however, been dealt with earlier in Indian and oriental books on the "art of love". This fact accounted for van de Velde's fame. His real interest, however, was artistic. His "Marriage Mirror" ("Ehespiegel", Leipzig-Zurich, 1929) must be considered his best work. In it, he records thoughts inspired by pictures of married couples.

Eugen Steinach became well known as the discoverer of the puberty gland, the researcher of hormones, and the champion of rejuvenation by means of vasoligation, named "Steinach operation" after him. Steinach died in 1944 in Territet near Montreux. He is said to have left his fortune to the persecuted and the refugees, but, in spite of intensive investigations, no information concerning the whereabouts of his fortune could be ascertained. Even Steinach's intellectual property has often been used by others without mentioning his name. The best tributes to Steinach are by Harry Benjamin (The Scientific Monthly) and Heinrich Meng ("Psyche und Hormon", Huber, Bern-Stuttgart).

Magnus Hirschfeld, in 1916, had already occupied himself extensively with Steinach's work in the "Yearbook for Sexual Intermediate Stages" in the article "The Studies of Prof. E. Steinach in Artificial Masculinization, Femininization and Hermaphroditization". Recently, Dr. Harry Benjamin has continued to work in this direction. Since the progress of hormonal research, although aiming at influencing biological factors, is used primarily in sexual hygiene, it will be discussed in section 3.

Part of sexual biology is further research in the human constitution, a field that has recently received a new impulse through the sensational work of Prof. Ernst Kretschmer "Körperbau und Charakter" (Body Structure and Character). People have always been interested in the connection between outward appearance and psychological peculiarities. There are ample literary examples, from Aristotle's "Physiognomica" to Lavater's "Physiognomic Fragments". In 1853, the Dresden physician Carl Gustav Carus (1789-1869) already published his "Symbolism of the Human Form". Carus already used the term "constitutions" and presented 14 basic types, actually a rather rich arsenal.

In the 109 years between the publication of Carus' "Symbolism" and that of a new classification of types by W. S. Schlegel ("The Sexual Instincts of Man", Hamburg, 1962) the main impulse, as already mentioned, had come from Ernst Kretzschmer. He divided human beings into two main groups: the Cyclothymics and the Schizothymics. Typical for the schizothymics, according to Kretzschmer, is the asthenic build; for the cyclothymics it is the pyknic appearance. A third type of body build he called the athletic. As representatives of the asthenic type one could consider Dante, Voltaire, Frederick the Great; as representatives of the pyknic type Luther and Napoléon I, as athlectic types Bismarck, Hindenburg, Chaljapin. Gradually, an enormous literature grew up around the problem of constitution. A bibliography of nearly 1000 titles can be found in the book "Sexual Constitution" by Helene Stourzh-Anderle (Maudrich, Wien-Bonn 1955).

2. Sexual Psychology
This field owes its modern progress mainly to three of four researchers who worked in Vienna around the turn of the 19th to the 20th century. Richard Freiherr von Krafft-Ebing held, from 1899-1902, the Vienna university chair for psychiatry. He is the author of the world-famous book "Psychopathia sexualis", which, similar to the works of Martin Schurig, at first was published in Latin, but later also appeared in German. Among others, Dr. Alexander Hartwich has edited the book in German under the title "The Aberrations of the Sexual Life" (Zurich and Leipzig, 1937). Krafft-Ebing was born in 1840, the three others belonged to a younger generation of researchers: Sigmund Freud (born 1856), Eugen Steinach and Friedrich s. Krauss (born ca. 1868). By the way, none of the four was born in Vienna. Krafft-Ebing was from Mannheim, Freud from Freiberg (in some encyclopedias mistakenly identified as "Freudberg"), Steinach came from Hohenems, and Friedrich S. Krauss from Brod on the Save.

Freud's life's work, psychoanalysis, has had a world-wide effect. Ps.A. is today generally known in its basic features, although still controversial. The essential point in Freud's psychoanalysis is the influence of sexuality on the life of the mind. Sexuality may be repressed from conscious awareness, but will continue to have its effect through the unconscious. This must be emphasized, because a great number of original adherents and disciples of Freud's have tried to destroy this very cornerstone or to move it elsewhere. Among these is Adler, who, following Nietzsche, formulated the will to power as the fundamental principle of "individual psychology". Another one is C.G. Jung, who believed he recognized unconscious archetypes as the leading images and determining elements in the human psyche, and who introduced the idea of a "complex psychology". Other disciples who broke with Freud were Wilhelm Reich and Wilhelm Stekel.

Hanns Sachs has provided a very accurate description of Freud's achievment as a researcher and of the attitude of his original adherents and later adversaries: "Freud stood firmly enough not to tumble when he realized that we are not and never will be masters of our own soul, and also when he made the shattering discovery of which unholy stuff the unknown masters are made. Standing close to the abyss, he did not flinch when he had to look down. Most of those who followed his path first became dizzy, and they had to hold on to him for support when the mountains around them seemed to sway. What could those do who were too proud to be supported by him, yet too weak to support themselves? They covered their eyes with their hands and stole away." (Hanns Sachs: Freud, Master and Friend. London 1950 S. 112).

Both Ernest Jones and Hanns Sachs proved that Vienna had, at best, a negative influence on Freud and unfortunatly proved unworthy of its great son. In contrast, in Paris even the Hotel Brésil displays a memorial plaque indicating that Freud had lived here during his studies with Charcot. As his doctrine was based on the sexual and erotic, Freud introduced the word libido. Freud studied the of the workings of the pleasure principle far beyond the individual in the whole of mankind. Thus, he closes his famous essay "Civilization and its Discontents" with the words: "The human race has now progressed so far in taming the forces of nature that, with their help, it can easily eradicate itself down to the last man. People know this, hence a great deal of their restlessness, their unhappiness, their anxiety. It can now be expected that the other of the two "heavenly forces", the eternal Eros, will make an effort to hold his own in the fight against his equally immortal adversary. But who can predict success and result?"

Friedrich S. Krauss, the editor of the unsurpassed standard work "Anthroprophyteia", is the most important collector of old folklore - songs, legends, fairy tales, riddles and sayings. Grotesquely enough, in Anglo-Saxon countries one has created the science of "folklore" while practically excluding its most important subject: the sexual and erotic customs. Unfortunately, one must say that the summit achievement of the Anthropophyteia - the two volumes on the sexual life of the Japanese - have remained locked away for a very long time in library "poison cabinets". (A first attempt by the publisher Karl Schustek, today Hanau, to republish the work, failed in 1933. According to recent reports, the same publisher will now make a second attempt, for which one wishes him the previously denied, long-sought success.)

Lewandowski, in "Les Enfers, domaine allemand", emphasizes that the Viennese sexologists knew each other. Thus, Krafft-Ebing, for example, together with Frankl-Hochwart, already in 1897 supported the appointment of the "Privatdozent" Freud to a professorship. (The appointment did not happen until later - see the book by Hanns Sachs and the three-volume Freud biography by Ernest Jones, Huber, Bern 1960, pp. 394 ff.). Steinach, as reported by Harry Benjamin, had the vasolligation performed on Freud. Friedrich S. Krauss often appeared in the circles of the psychoanalysts; Sachs complained about the "blue jokes" Krauss often told on these occasions. Thereupon Freud said "in an unusually mild tone of voice": "There is a good deal of monomania in what he does, but consider this: There are many highly respected professors and scholars whose thoughts and actions are base and despicable in all kinds of ways, but who remain unchallenged, because the know how to maintain the appearance of dignity, and because their official position protects them." Thus, Freud's attitude towards Krauss was supportive, and Sachs freely admits that, this time, he had missed the target.

We have talked about Steinach in the section on "sexual biology". Let us now take a look at the truly immense literature called into existence in our century by "the sexual problem" in its myriad branches and derivations - most of it dealing with the psychology of eroticism.

A sex researcher of enormous industriousness was the Berlin physician Iwan Bloch. He was so fertile as a writer that he added three pseudonyms to his own name: Eugen Dühren, Albert Hagen, and Gerhard von Weisenburg. Bloch's magnum opus is "The Sexual Life of Our Time" (i.e. in the first quarter of our century). Bloch sees in the Marquis de Sade and the Viennese philosopher Weininger the most important representatives of a consistent sexual philosophy:
Weininger wanted to eliminate the sexual from the world, de Sade turned the sexual problem into the world problem as such and discovered more sexual perversions than Krafft-Ebing later managed to describe.

The many physicians who wrote books about sexual problems cannot possibly all listed in this short outline. Löwenfeld examined the relationship between music and sexuality, S. Placzek studied "Friendship and Sexuality". In this context, Lewandowski's book "The Sexual Problem in Modern Literature and Art" (Dresden, 1927) could also be mentioned. The guild of psychoanalysts has seen an enormous development, so that one could classify it, for example, according to a "Viennese school", a "Swiss school", an "American school" etc.. To the Viennese school belong, above all, the friends of Freud: Rank, Abraham, Eitington, Jones, Ferenczi and Sachs. Then there is Wilhelm Stekel, whose multi-volume work "Disturbances of the Instinctual and Affective Life" contains a wealth of case histories, although one does not always have to agree with Stekel's interpretation. Also from Vienna came Wilhelm Reich, whose work "The Sexual Revolution" (New York, 1951, translated into English by T. P. Wolfe) found a great deal of attention in the USA.

The Swiss school is headed by C. G. Jung, who found a grateful patient in a female member of the Rockefeller family. She saw to it that Jung's complete works were published in the USA.
In Germany, C. G. Jung became very well known through his book "Conscious and Unconscious" (Fischer-Bücherei Nr. 175). Also Swiss was Rorschach, who designed a new system of diagnosing psychological states, the so-called Rorschach test. The main representative today is Dr. Ewald Bohm, who, already in 1929, had edited a book with Hirschfeld on "Sexual Education". Bohm's fundamental "Textbook of Rorschach Psychodiagnostics" was published in 1951 by Huber, Bern, and since then, has been translated into many languages. Also in Switzerland today, the Hungarian Dr. Lipot Szondi still lives and teaches. His epochal work "Analysis of Fate" complements the research of Freud and Hirschfeld in so far as here the history of ancestors occupies an outstanding place. Thus, the guiding principles "Our glands are our fate" (Hirschfeld) and "Our unconscious is our fate" (Freud) are augmented by Szondi with the sentence: "Our ancestors are our fate". Augmenting these maxims again with Napoleon's all too true statement: "Politics is our fate", we see that fate is not a simple matter at all. Both sexuality and fate are subject to manifold, often complex influences. From among the psychologists living in Switzerland today, we already mentioned Heinrich Meng, Basel, who, for a time, held the only university chair for "psychic hygiene". We should also mention Hans Zulliger, Rudolf Brun, W. Morgenthaler, O. Pfister, Hans Christoffel, Paul Reiwald, M. Gschwind, H. Krayenbühl, and W.A. Stoll.

At the head of the "American school" we find Albert Ellis, an extremely versatile writer and clever organizer, who had several of his works translated into German. He popularized his system of "rational psychotherapy" in hundreds of articles. One major work he published together with Dr. Harry Benjamin: "Prostitution re-assessed, an objective examination of prostitution" (1954). Lately, Ellis has started a large organization which offers personal counseling and training courses in different cities. The headquarters is in New York (45 East 65th Street). An important American psychologist is Theodor Reik, whose work "Psychology of Sex Relations" (New York, 1945) belongs to the standard literature of American sexual psychology. Reik also wrote a foreword to a pocket book published by his students Dr. Eberhard and Phyllis Kronhausen: "Pornography and the law" (Ballantine Books, New York, 1959).

As part of sexual psychology one should probably also list sexual ethnology, whether or not it is now called "folklore" or "cultural pattern school". We have already mentioned Friedrich S. Krauss. A good introduction to the field is provided by the work "Distant Countries - Strange Customs" by Herbert Lewandowski (Günther, Stuttgart, 1958). It is based mainly on the experiences of Dr. Magnus Hirschfeld during a trip around the world. Great recognition is due to a special researcher: Bronislaw Malinowski, whose fundamental work "The Sexual Life of Savages in Northwestern Melanesia" was published in 1929 in New York and soon translated into German. Malinowski once and for all laid to rest the idea that "savages" live outside of a system of laws. Their laws and social customs are often more severe than ours - objective comparisons often show that they are the civilized ones and we the savages. (Custom and Crime in Primitive Peoples. German edition of this book by Malinowski in Vienna, 1940, p. 77). Important for the role of sexuality in the so-called primitive cultures are Malinowski's works "Culture and Freedom" (Vienna, 1951) and "The Dynamics of Cultural Change" (also in German, Vienna, 1951).

The realm of sexual psychology is also touched by laws which preserve completely obsolete sexual attitudes to this day. Enlightening about the attitude in Anglo-Saxon countries are the already mentioned work by the Kronhausen's "Pornography and the Law" and Montgomery Hyde: "A History of Pornography" Heinemann, London - recently published in German by Hans E. Günther, Stuttgart, 1965) The ethnological works of Margaret Mead became known world-wide.

3. Sexual Hygiene
Sexual hygiene is a relatively young science, although Greeks and Romans already knew a great deal about the care of the body and hygiene. However, much of this knowledge was lost during the Middle Ages, and only 150 years ago the general hygiene was still so bad that most children died in infancy. It is little known, for example, that Goethe lost four of his five children. The causes of "childbed fever" were then unknown. It is to the credit of the Viennese physician Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis (1818-1865) that he first traced childbed fever to the lack of cleanliness on the part of doctors and midwives. After the whole medical profession had, for a long time, rejected this discovery, it was confirmed by the English surgeon Lord Lister (1827-1912). Thus, the corner stone of hygiene was laid. As its last branch, it joins the psychohygiene of Professor Heinrich Meng.

In two areas modern medicine has brought great progress: Hormonal research and birth control today belong together and can be considered subsections of sexual hygiene. Again, the German contribution to the development of these scientific fields is far from negligeable. It was a long, tortuous, and adventurous path from the first hunch about the effects of sexual hormones (Claude Bernard, 1851) to their real discovery, isolation, the understanding of their molecular structure, and finally even their artificial production. Describing the various stages of this process would fill a book. (This book has, in fact, been written: Paul de Kruif: The Male Hormone. Orell Füssli, Zürich). The Göttingen biologist Adolf Friedrich Butenandt made essential contributions to isolating the hormones and to studiying their structures. In 1939, he (together with the Zurich professor Leopold Ruzicka) received the Nobel Prize for chemistry for this work. The results of hormonal research were first used mainly for treating the infirmities of old age. Testosterone (male sex hormone) was sold in the form of preparations like Anertan, Perandren, and Testoviron. Estrogen (female sex hormone) was marketed in preparations like Ovibrin, Orchidrin, Progynon, and Ovocyclin.

These many discoveries prompted scientists to influence the pituitary gland as the steersman of the whole hormonal system. Until then, the prevention of unwanted pregnancies had been a sorry affair. Men generally used condoms and preservatives only with reluctance. Thus, the main burden remained on the women, who tried to protect themselves with cotton, sponges, douches, or creams like Patentex. In cases of failure, which often happened even with the Ogino-Knaus method recommended by church circles, often no other choice was left to prevent an unwanted family increase than an illegal abortion .

Here American researchers like Pincus took the lead and searched for a hormonal preparation that could be taken as a pill and would provide women with effective protection. In 1960, the matter had advanced far enough for the marketing of a product that was popularly referred to by the rather unattractive name "anti-baby pill".

4. Sexual Pathology
Looking briefly at the history of sexually transmitted diseases, we see that the views of Semmelweis represent the dawn of the realization that some diseases are caused by certain agents. In the second half of the 19th century, a whole lot of researchers began to go "hunting for microbes". (Comprehensive treatment by De Kruif "The Microbe Hunters", published in German by Orell Füssli, Zurich). In 1869, Pasteur had declared in Paris: "It lies in the power of man to make all infectious diseases disappear from the face of the earth." Would it also be possible to find the agents causing sexually transmitted diseases? Four German researchers have participated in this discovery. Albert Neisser (1855-1906) found the gonococcus as the agent causing gonorrhea. Fritz Schaudinn (1871-1906) identified the spirochete as the agent causing syphilis. The discovery of the agents, however, did not yet mean the cure of the diseases they caused. How far one still had to go is illustrated by the fate of Robert Koch who received the Nobel Prize in 1905 for discovering the agent causing tuberculosis, but who experienced utter failure with his medication "Tuberkulin". Again, German physicians achieved great victories: August Wassermann (1866-1925) created the Wassermann test (named after him), which is so important for the diagnosis of syphilis. He is one of the few Jews who were raised to the rank of nobility in Germany. Paul Ehrlich (1854-1915) with his Salvarsan created the first cure for syphilis, which, of course, was later replaced by penicillin, discoved by Sir Alexander Fleming (1928). In the meantime, a multitude of other antibiotics have joined penicillin, which, however, does not detract from the achievements of Ehrlich and Fleming.

The whole field of sexual pathology has been summarized by Magnus Hirschfeld in a three-volume work, which, edited by English disciples after his death, was also published in English ("Sexual Pathology", New York, 1940).

Insofar as pathological traits lead to crime, we find them described in the standard works of Dr. Erich Wulffen "The Male Sex Criminal" and "The Female Sex Criminal".

Finally, it should be emphasized again that the division of sexology into subdisciplines is only an artificial stratagem. The important works of A.C. Kinsey, "Sexual Behavior in the Human Male" (Philadelphia & London, 1948) and "Sexual Behavior in the Human Female" (Philadelphia & London, 1953) touch upon all areas from the normal to the pathological. They have had a revolutionary impact on the views in Anglo-Saxon countries.

Similarly, the main concern of W. S. Schlegel, namely to emphasize the double function of sexuality, shows how difficult it is to separate the disciplines. After all, human sexuality is not, as previously thought, merely a reproductive function. Instead, it is, first and foremost, a (social and individual, ed.) balancing function. In this, concept biology, psychology, and hygiene are combined in equal measure. Especially the recognition of the balancing function of sexuality should contribute to reducing pathological degenerations.

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