According to Parker (2005):
“Islamic and Minang adat (customary) teachings about pre-marital sexuality lay down very clear rules about adolescent sexual behaviour. The message is that girls need to be secluded and protected and that sexual practice is forbidden. On the other hand, teenage girls are strongly encouraged to finish senior high school, with parents often sending their daughters away to Islamic boarding schools, and to continue studying at university or other institutions of higher education. In schools there is a strong ethos of educational and career achievement for girls, and many girls have high ambitions. Many schoolgirls eloquently and articulately espouse the Islamic and adat teachings, arguing that their main duty is to study hard and that these teachings provide the discipline that will get them through their education. Needless to say, girls are also exposed to media messages (mainly from TV and magazines/tabloids) that suggest exciting alternatives to the Islamic and adat model of seclusion and abstinence.”
D. F., Growing Up Sexually.
Last revised: May 2005
 Parker, Lyn,
‘Schooled Sexuality among Minangkabau teenage girls’. Association of South East
Asian Studies (UK) 22nd Conference 2005, “Turbulence and Continuity in