ISSN 1944 ¨C 6683
Volume 5, No 1, March 30, 2012
Publisher: NG Man-Lun, M.D.
Advisor: RUAN Fangfu, M.D., Ph.D.
Chief Editor: DENG Mingyu, M.D., Ph.D.
World Association of Chinese Sexologists
Room 1801, 18/F, Capitol Centre, No. 5-19,
Jardine¡¯s Bazaar, Causeway Bay, Hong Kong
International Association of Chinese Medical Specialists & Psychologists
36-40 Main St., #209, Flushing, New York 11354, USA.
Tel: (718) 820-9320, Fax: (718) 886-5228
SIECUS Launches Creating a Sexually Healthy America
A Five-Year Strategic Plan 2012¨C2016
The Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States (SIECUS) has launched our strategic plan for the period of 2012 ¨C 2016 that will allow us to make significant progress toward Creating a Sexually Healthy America. Throughout our 48 years, SIECUS has effectively advocated for the right of all people to accurate information about sexuality and sexual health, comprehensive education about sexuality, and sexual health services.
While fundamental to being human, sexuality is also one of the most complex and politicized personal issues debated in the public arena. The success of SIECUS¡¯ education and advocacy efforts has proven that addressing sexuality honestly and openly can be a powerful force for achieving significant outcomes in public health, gender equity, and social justice.
SIECUS is unique in the way that we work at the nexus of policy and program implementation. Our goal is to provide leadership in the field of sexuality by framing the dialogue about sexuality education and sexual health; working to ensure federal, state, and local policies are supportive of comprehensive sexuality education; and ensuring that high-quality sexuality education programs are put into place at the state and local levels.
Our work puts SIECUS at the intersection of multiple issues: reproductive health; reproductive justice; HIV/AIDS; social justice; adolescent health; and, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) equality. We actively engage with those relevant communities as well as those addressing the health and rights of disabled and socially and economically disenfranchised populations. Historically, we brought many of these different issues and communities together around the challenge of providing comprehensive sexuality education.
Today, we have the opportunity to foster the first generation of sexually healthy adults. We will seize this opportunity by defining, framing, and supporting a new public discourse to shift the paradigm on sexual health and well-being to create a sexually healthy America.
In support of our new strategic plan, SIECUS is reframing and reprioritizing our programmatic, policy, and advocacy efforts under three strategic priorities for the period of 2012¡ª2016:
1. Sexual Health and Well-Being
2. Sexuality Education
3. Sexual Health Care Services
Each of these strategic priorities is interconnected; only by providing access to high-quality sexuality education and sexual health care services will we reach the goal of a public that enjoys sexual health and well-being throughout the lifespan. Each of these strategic priorities will be addressed by leveraging our position at the nexus of policy and program implementation.
Sex Rights in Greater China 2011: A Report
Josephine Ho, Ph.D
Chair Professor, Center for the Study of Sexualities
National Central University, Taiwan
After four years of collaboration, the annual reports from Hong Kong, Taiwan, and China that make this overall report on sex rights in Greater China have developed into their own individual styles. The Hong Kong report always employs the most detailed description and analysis of major sex rights events in Hong Kong, providing not only historical accounts of the context but also meticulous records of the contestations. The Taiwan report recounts the ten most significant sex rights events with a view toward linking up various local sex rights groups to create a resisting alliance, so the report always includes rigorous analyses by and dialogs among various groups, thus turning the announcing press conference into a counter-offensive upon sex-negative views in the sexual mainstream. The Mainland report/review of significant gender/sexuality events is born out of an intensive process of selection, discussion, and even debate among more than a dozen scholars/activists who chose to gather in Beijing this year and suffer the long process in person rather than in virtual space. Whichever format, the locally produced sex rights reports always kept complete records of significant events for the year, and provided in-depth analyses to illuminate on the impact of the events on their relative societies, elaborating on the rich meaning of sex rights as self-education and social education. Four years of close collaboration also helped us detect the hot spots of sex rights contestation. These hot spots emerged out of their unique historical-social specificities, and, along with dramatic social change and the resistance of marginalized subjects, are evolving into varied but vivid encounters as well as changing and shifting positions.
Fierce contestations over sex rights raged in 2011, and the arch enemy in all three locations is none other than the increasingly outspoken conservative Christian community. Mid-year, a famous Christian actress in mainland China openly voiced her opposition to homosexuality on her blog, sparking a fierce debate. Significantly and for the first time in history, the official China Central TV (CCTV) chose to respond¡ªin prime-time evening news¡ªby calling upon the public to respect the choice of individual groups and eliminate prejudice. Contrasted with the continuous state repression of gay cultural festivals in the previous years, the recent warming deserves further observation. Whether these anti-homosexual or pro-homosexual moves will bring about real consequences for gays and lesbians in China, these events certainly have brought the issues into public view and heightened public awareness of homosexuality, thus inviting more emotional investment in the issue and fueling future contestations.
Interestingly, in Hong Kong, where the homosexual movement has gradually matured over the years, one major official institution, the Social Welfare Agency, took the initiative in 2011 to invite a physician famous for advocating and providing reparative therapy for homosexuals to train the agency¡¯s civil servants. Such Christian-based corrective therapy also continues to pathologize homosexuality as they aggressively provide more and more consultations to teenagers through the school system. Similarly, Taiwan¡¯s Ministry of Education was scheduled to put homosexual issues into its gender-equity education material in 2011. As news reached the public, Christian groups mobilized a massive petition that deployed scare tactics on worried parents and teachers and succeeded in putting the teaching material on hold indefinitely. In this so-called most gay-friendly country in Asia, overt discrimination against homosexuals is still rampant, as one gay service center was forced to move out of its community in Taichung city this year.
Overt discrimination, where the opponents and their hostility are plainly in sight, is much easier to deal with than the soft powers of governance where protective laws and protective discourses work together to make resistance increasingly difficult. For example, derision and bullying are nothing new for homosexual students on campuses; some queer students have even developed a very strong subjectivity that would take up the position of shame and turn it into occasions of counter-offensive. Many have also changed the emotional tenor of the terms and transformed such terms of shame into terms of endearment to be used among gays themselves. Yet in 2011, with the advocacy of certain mainstream feminist scholars, Taiwan¡¯s Ministry of Education, in the name of protection of the weak, added anti-bullying articles to the Gender-Equity Laws, once for all outlawing the use of any form of hate speech, even those that are used by queer students, with penalty as severe as expulsion.
Prejudice and discrimination do deserve up-front handling, but top-down punitive measures will never truly reach the root of hatred, not would it empower those who suffer from the discrimination. More importantly, the cited demand of civility (respect for self and respect for others) happens to be the rationale behind present sexual harassment legislation in Taiwan that criminalizes all representations of sex. In other words, the power that aims to eliminate sexual subjectivity is now presenting itself as a power that protects sexual subjects. This seemingly progressive and protective measure is an imitation of hate-speech legislation in the west, serving only to strengthen the mechanism of regulation and discipline, turning the self-control of civility into imposed regulation, robbing homosexual students of their only weapon of counter-attack¡ªtheir queer languages. Similarly, as China considers itself more and more as a great nation, its aspirations for modernization and civility will also increase in intensity, and high-pressure regulatory strategies may be replaced with soft power governance. This is something to look out for if we are concerned about sex rights in China.
The tendency toward severe legislation and sentimental protectionism is joined by another important force that strengthens the powers of surveillance and censorship¡ªthe child-protection imperative. Spreading low birth rate has been exacerbating anxieties in Asia¡¯s aging societies, giving conservative groups the edge to push for an extreme protectionism that demands to segregate all children from all sex and sexual representations. The sense of urgency is radicalized by the process of globalization and its cultural expansion, which encouraged the younger generation everywhere to extend their bodily practices far beyond traditional boundaries. From the wide-spread phenomenon of teenage girls offering compensated companionship (known in Japanese as enjo-kosai) to the immense popularity of boy love (BL) mangas and novels among teenage girls all over Taiwan, Hong Kong, and China, young women are now practicing new, positive, and self-determined relations with their bodies and desires. As sexual autonomy constitutes one important dimension of women¡¯s liberation in our world, gender and social roles are also under pressure to change. In response, conservative groups are using the child-protection imperative to curb such thrusts of liberation, thus frustrating the freedom and autonomy of adults, in particular, women.
Ironically, it is feminism that provided the language and legitimacy for such protectionist measures. Women¡¯s groups in Taiwan are increasingly using concepts such as ¡°reification of women¡¯s bodies,¡± ¡°gender equality,¡± or ¡°child-protection¡± to justify the institution of laws and regulations that check nascent erotic culture. Such censorship measures have been the target of sex rights struggles in Taiwan for close to ten years now; and Hong Kong has been fighting against obscenity measures for quite a few years too. In addition to feminism, the media and netizens often added to the social impact of anti-sex tendencies: whenever sensational news about sex emerges, the impulsive responses of netizens, exaggerated by the tabloid media, often contribute to an atmosphere of social anxiety that legitimated regulatory measures. Many of the noted events this year have to do with this chemical reaction.
Another age-related development in sex rights has to do with struggles within the spheres of gender education and sex education. As gay-friendly materials were kept out of gender equity education in Taiwan this year, mainland China¡¯s sex education is also experiencing demands for more strict examination. Should sex education face up to the realities and needs of the young, or should it abide by the principle of abstinence? That seems to be the key struggle here. In mainland China, religious groups are smuggling abstinence education in the guise of ¡°objective and scientific education¡± and in some cases ¡°love of life education.¡± How to resist and debunk this protectionist and sentimental education will be an important issue for sex rights activists.
While similarities abound, differences do exist among the three locations covered by our report. Depending on the extent of modernization and globalization, as well as the spread of feminist thought and sexual liberalism, sex rights events produce varied responses and repercussions in different locations. For example, while domestic violence can still provoke conflicting opinions in mainland China, and is still enmeshed in gender characteristics and familial structures, it is branded as absolutely unacceptable in Hong Kong and Taiwan, enforced by stringent laws and spreading to cover not only violence between spouses, but between parents and children, and even homosexual couples.
These differences are not derived from linear differences in the degree and extent of development of sex rights consciousness. After all, there are no standardized indices that could be used to judge the development of sex rights. If anyone tries to apply uniformed standards to judge different locations, these uniformed standards would most likely be imported from the west (including liberal values of freedom, democracy, respect, tolerance¡), leading eventually to a reaffirmation of western values and western superiority. Such west-centered hierarchical thinking is what we need to reflect upon as we promote sex rights.
Major Sex Rights Events, Hong Kong, 2011
1. Hong Kong university students demand gender-friendly dorms
2. Transsexual¡¯s struggle for right to marry rebuked
3. Government agency invites physician to lecture on corrective therapy for gays
4. Local tabloid paper sparks controversy over obscenity laws
5. Aids prevention agency overlooks NGO demands for change to the system
Top Ten Sex Rights Violations in Taiwan, 2011
1. Aids-contaminated organ transplant sparks mass hysteria
2. Red light districts not in sight, decriminalization falters
3. Gay-friendly gender education material put on hold due to Christian protest
4. Child Welfare Law reforms prohibit explicit new reporting
5. Anti-bullying clauses require instant report on campus cases
6. Gay support center forced out of community in Taichung
7. Sex phobia censors private but sexually explicit representation
8. Forced treatment and segregation demanded of Sexual assault crimes
9. Politicians stigmatize erotic dancers and transgender performers
10. Single women politicians suffer insinuations of lesbian identity
Review of Annual Sex- and Gender-Events, Mainland China, 2011
1. Nudity photography and webcam criticized
2. Young women Boy Love (BL) novelists sentenced
3. People¡¯s delegate proposes chastity as dowry
4. Professor fired due to illicit relation with girl student
5. Gay community fights against anti-gay language
6. Queer film festival celebrates tenth anniversary
7. Transsexual performer excluded from shows due to TS identity
8. Wife of celebrity exposes domestic violence
9. Contestation over sex education heats up
10. Sex slave case exposes destitution of prostitutes
11. Shanghai high school girls found involved in occasional sexual transactions
The Pursuit of Sexual Human Rights and Gender Equality: Chinese Scholars¡¯ Commentaries on China¡¯ Sex and Gender Incidents in 2011
WANG Weiyuan1 & CHO Man-kit2
1. Postgraduate student at the Institute of Sexualities and Gender Study, Beijing Forestry University, Psychology Department of Beijing Forestry University
2. PhD Candidate in Gender Studies, the Chinese University of Hong Kong; Executive Co-director of Nu Tong Xue She
Every year since 2008, more than ten young Chinese scholars of sexual and gender studies have written commentaries on incidents they deem significant with regard to sexualities and genders in China. This activity was initiated by Fang Gang, Director of the Institute of Sexualities and Gender Study, Beijing Forestry University, Associate Professor of Psychology Department, School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Beijing Forestry University. He is also the convener of the editorial committee whose list is attached below. Sexualities/gender incidents in the Mainland China have aroused huge social concerns for years. This activity provides scholarly commentaries from the perspectives of sexual human rights and gender equality.
Commentary is not simply to dramatize an incident into a social hot topic, rather, it is meant to convey an idea of progress, shape public opinions and effect social changes.
In this connection, selected incidents are not necessarily well known by the public. Only those incidents that can be made use to advocate new ideas are included. We hope that the public and the media would direct their attention to our commentaries rather than the incidents themselves.
The committee hope that, by annual commentary and media release, this activity can play a role in making known to the public the current sexualities and gender issues, and thereby facilitating progress in sexual rights and gender equality, social democracy and tolerance. The commentaries are made in individual capacity and scholarly judgement, not to be representative of the organizations the commentators work for.
Fang Gang said that he hopes the commentary could be made once a year. He believes that with persistence in ten or twenty years¡¯ time, the effort accumulated little by little will surely make a huge contribution to the progress of sexual rights and gender equality in the Chinese society.
Currently, all the participating scholars are engaged in sexualities or gender research. Some of them are PhD-holders in the field of humanities and social sciences and teach in colleges or universities. With cross-disciplinary background, they are in a good position to provide a comprehensive account and commentaries on issues of significance to sexualities and gender. The 2011 editorial committee is comprised of ten more scholars, they are: Fang Gang, Chen Yaya, Guo Qiaohui, Guo Xiaofei, Huang Can, Hu Xiaohong, Li Bian, Peng Tao, Shen Yifei,Wang Xiaoping, Wei Jiangang, Zhu Xueqin, Zhang Jingjie, Zhang Yuxia, Zhang Jing and Zhao Hejun.
¡°The top 11 sexuality / gender incidents in the Mainland China" in 2011 are as follows (in chronological order):
1, ¡°Nude model of Renmin University of China¡± and ¡°bathroom dating¡±
Zizi Su, a female student at the Xu Beihong Art Institute, Renmin University of China, held a body photography exhibition and was interviewed by the media in the nude. On Valentine's day, a mother published a nude shower video of her daughter Lulu Gan, aged 26 years old, on the Internet for marriage matching. It was then followed by other intimate videos of the mother and daughter online. Most net users are of the view that the two incidents are bad examples that people used stunts to boost their fame and fortune.
Both of the two incidents reflect the conflict between freedom of body expression and the mainstream ideology in a patriarchal society that takes female public nudity as a social taboo. However, having been stigmatized by how people think of them, they are posing challenges to the very stigma by virtue of their own subjectivity, expanding the public space of the body and embodying an aspiration for freedom by a lived living being.
Even the so-called "hype" is also a way to exercise personal expression of body autonomy through which they can find it fulfilling. It shows that the mainstream society, when challenged, is not monolithic.
2, The Yaoi fiction author sentenced
He Jiang was an Internet writer, publishing pornographic novels online for a long time. Her novels are full of descriptions of homosexuals, sexual abuse and sexual relations between relatives. She had uploaded more than 200 sex novels in a few years. Therefore, He Jiang was sentenced to detention for four months in March 2011 for committing crimes of spreading pornographic materials. In the same year, the Internet Censoring Sub-group of the Police Department at Zhengzhou, Henan Province arrested 32 contracted authors of a nationwide ¡°Yaoi (BL) novel network¡±, most of them are women aged about 20 years old. Many of them faced the same fate as Jiang He.
Section 367 of the Criminal Code expressly provides that ¡°sexually explicit works of artistic and literary values is not considered pornographic material¡±. Are these Yaoi works pornographic? In the document issued by the Office of Information and Publication, homosexuality was taken to be equivalent to pornography. The film censorship system also prohibits all descriptions of homosexual relations even if they are ¡°platonic love¡±. It suffices to question that a more stringent regulation is imposed on homosexual literary works than the heterosexual ¡°pornographic materials¡±. ¡°Pornographic¡° expression is a kind of constitutionally protected expression. Women¡¯s writing of erotic relations between men is a hardcore member of the Coalition for sexual orientation equality. As a Gay-Straight Alliance in Chinese-style, it should be free from fear.
3, ¡°Chastity as dowry¡± proposed by a member of the National People¡¯s Congress
Last year, Wanqing Bai, a member of the National People¡¯s Congress, People's representative of Shanghai Municipal, advised in a TV show that unmarried young women should respect and care about themselves, not to be ¡°over-indulgent¡±. She stressed that ¡°virginity of girls is the most precious dowry to be given to her husband's family¡±. This year, the issue was brought up again and has raised a big controversy about women¡¯s ¡°chastity¡±. Some people supported Wanqing Bai, but more people criticized this speech for spreading sex discrimination. In a TV show, Bai claimed she held such a view out of her concern about young women and said that "losing one" is not the same as ¡°no chastity¡±. At the same time, Bai proposed that men should also have chastity as well. Some people even suggested that ¡°chastity¡± is a psychological state but not necessarily a ¡°Virgin¡± in a biological sense.
The view of ¡°chastity as dowry¡± objectifies women¡¯s body, depriving women of autonomy to their own their body and submitting it as an object under the control of men. This is a typical view of ¡°chastity¡± under the discourse of patriarchy.
Many controls are imposed in the name of ¡°protection¡± and good will, but their nature is to mistakenly change a culturally constructed wrongdoing into public morality. It is a gross interference with the personal ways of life. What is important lies not in the number of sexual acts, no matter it is one or ten thousand. Rather, women¡¯s right to body autonomy is the most important. As long as a woman consents, having sex once or ten thousand times is equally chaste. The body is free indeed; however, people are classified into benign and cheap ones according to the ¡°chastity views¡± in which women suffer more oppression. However, no one, irrespective of any gender they are, should be free from this. People are free in the physical and psychological sense so that we have to discard the view of so-called psychological virginity. Is it not enough to control women¡¯s first sex but their every sex throughout their life? Is it not enough to control women¡¯s body but their mind? Such a view of ¡°chastity as dowry¡± is the real culprit that damages women's physical and mental health.
4, Professor of Peking University was sacked for having ¡°love affair¡±
A professor of Peking University met a young woman in Lijiang in 2009 and developed with her into a sexual relationship. The professor promised to help her pass the enrolling exams of Peking University. In April, 2011, the professor reported to the police that because the woman failed to be admitted to the university, she threatened him with hurting his family if he could not give her ¥ 300,000 as compensation. A week later, the woman was put in jail. Many Chinese netizens expressed sympathy to the woman, criticizing the Peking University professor for having "love affair". Later then, the Peking University discontinued the contract with the professor because ¡°his behavior is inconsistent with what a teacher should do and ruins the university¡¯s reputation".
In terms of their identities, there seems to be an unequal power relation. We do oppose that the one in high position to abuse his/her power to sexually exploit the others, as it may hurt the sexual autonomy of the weak ones. If the professor did take advantage of his power to satisfy his own desires by making false promises, such behavior is what we should condemn and resist. And, the punishment by the relevant institutions is not unfounded.
However, we are not against intimate or sexual relations between independent people even though they are in unequal positions. In the private personal relationship, it is stereotypical and irresponsible to speculate the power relation of a given relationship simply by their respective status and identities. Teachers carry no moral responsibility to become a victim of the "sex" code. Their private life is their personal right, which should not be tied together with occupation. To impose punishment detrimental to one¡¯s career simply because of her/his personal choices in private life is violation of human rights.
Through this kind of punishment, the university tries to set up their agency¡¯s "decent" and "pure" image. Let alone it is ostrichism, the real problem lies in: who gives the right professional agency managers to deprive a citizen¡¯s job chance for his private life?
5. ¡°Anti-gay¡± remarks fought back by lesbian and gay communities
June 26, Liping Lu forwarded a priest¡¯s microblog to Weibo, which contains wordings such as ¡°shame¡±, ¡°sinner¡± to describe homosexual groups. Liping Lu forwarded these remarks and asked ¡°brothers and sisters to help spread and support the words¡±. Liping Lu¡¯s anti-gay remarks immediately provoked protests from lesbian and gay groups. The communities gathered together and launched a massive ¡°down with Lu¡± campaign on the Internet. Some people supported the campaign, others objected and opined that homosexuals¡¯ ¡°fierce counterattack¡± is a sign of no confidence. Several mainstream media, including China Central television also expressed comments supportive of homosexuals.
Liping Lu¡¯s ¡°anti-gay¡± remarks galvanizes the voice that supports lesbian and gay people, mobilizing the lesbian and gay rights advocacy and their congregation instead. The new media played a very important role in this incident. The group that was vulnerable and dared not to speak out in the past began openly expressing their demands, which is an important revolution in term of social discourse. Many mainstream media used ¡°Tongzhi (Comrade) ¡± to refer to lesbian and gay people for the first time, showing the influence of the lesbian and gay culture.
6, 10 years of the Queer film festivals
Organized by the lesbian and gay community, the 5th Queer film festival opened in June. It has been ten years since the first Queer Film Festival in 2001. The Organizing Committee was so ambitious to hold an unprecedented film festival, but when the opening is approaching, it was halted by the authorities. In the face of this unfavorable situation, organizers refused to give up. They liaised with bars and cafes overnight and used them as temporary show places. They reacted by adopting guerrilla tactics to successfully get rid of the interference by the authorities, and finally ensured the main activities of the festival could be staged.
In recent years, despite the fact that some movies with gay contents were put on show in China, in general however, the representation of ¡°gay and lesbian culture¡± is ignored and disregarded, which is mainly reflected in the low appearance rate of homosexual characters and stereotypical representation of lesbian and gay people in the public imagination..
It is clear that by forming an alliance with the dominant moral values, the film censorship system curbs any emerging representation of non-heterosexuality. Grown in such an unfavorable circumstance, the Queer Film Festival has been the longest underground film festival in the history of China. The festival itself is a queer culture that mocks and ridicules the existing systems. It also embodies agency in queer culture.
7, Jinxing was excluded because of her gender identity
On the night of September 20, Jingxing, a Chinese transsexual dancer, posted a message on her microblog that the Administration of Radio and Television of Zhejiang Province issued a notice to the production team of a TV program, the Dynamite, produced and broadcast by the Zhejiang Satellite TV, requesting it to stop inviting her to be one of the adjudicators because she is a transsexual woman. Jingxing was deeply enraged and opined that it is an unacceptable violation of a citizen¡¯s right to freedom from gender discrimination.
From the perspective of transgender theory, human society is not only composed of males and females. There are transgender people. Transsexuals are a sub-group of transgender people. Gender equality is not only the equality between males and females; it should recognize the right of transgender people to equality and freedom from discrimination.
The widespread support that Jingxing receives in this incident unmasks the bigotry of the public power.
People who have sexual orientations and/or gender identity different from those of the majority are not always subject to discrimination. By having a higher social status, Jingxing and many other transgender people are assumed to be immune from discrimination. We tend to have an illusion that the contemporary China is a country of high tolerance and respect for diversity. However, irrespective of how great achievements one has, stigmatization of one¡¯s gender and gender preference is still like a blade over head that would chop one¡¯s head off at any time. Differences are deliberately ignored when you have use value. When you are to be excluded, differences matter and are deliberately highlighted. This is exactly how gender discrimination operates in daily ordinary life.
8, Yang Li 's wife stood out against domestic violence
In September, KIM, Yang Li¡¯s wife, disclosed in her microblog that she had been beaten by her husband, the founder of the ¡°Crazy English¡±. The incident attracted the public and media attention. Yang Li refused to respond to it at the beginning but later apologized for what he did under the severe public criticisms. He promised to seek counseling with KIM. No sooner had he promised to do so, he refused to contact his wife again and exploited every chance of media interviews to defend himself. KIM decided to apply for divorce.
This incident is a litmus test that helps evaluate how the media, the judiciary and the public respond to domestic violence. Except that KIM managed it well, the way the other parties responded to the incident is rather problematic. Yang Li as an abuser admitted no guilt of his violence. In order to boost audience rating, the media provided Li chances and platform to defend himself. They neglected their role as mass media and the responsibility to offer more chances for vulnerable women like KIM to be heard. Quite a number of people lacked a proper understanding of domestic violence so that they were too tolerant of Li and blamed KIM instead. Scholars of gender studies should put more effort in helping women from all walks of life to be equipped with skills of using media resources and gain more chances to get their voice heard. They should not limit themselves as what others did in criticizing Li for showing up in interviews.
Importantly, the incident reveals that because of lack of experience and a well-designed system, the enforcement authority failed to punish Li for what he did. It is to a certain extent a second harm to KIM. We call on the government to take more responsibilities and enact anti-domestic violence law as soon as possible.
9, Sex education becomes a hot topic again
This year, there are a dazzling number of issues about sex education. First, there is Lulu Peng, who graduated from the Central China Normal University with a master¡¯s degree in sexology, found it hard to find a teaching position. Second, a pilot textbook of sex education in primary schools in Beijing was criticized for ¡°going too far¡± or even being ¡°pornographic¡± for including detailed introduction of the concept of sexual intercourse with graphics. On 12th August, the International was named as ¡°the youth sexual health education promotion day¡± by ¡°the youth sexual health education base¡± to advocate for a nationwide sex education. In October, Boys and Girls, a Shanghai¡¯s ¡°gender education¡± teaching material, was published. It was introduced as a pilot curriculum in 18 primary schools in Shanghai, whose contents are similar to that of The Footsteps of Growth. In November, the media reported that Yunnan Province continued to promote ¡°Life Education¡± heavily laden with American ¡°abstinence education¡±. It was strongly criticized by scholars of sex and gender studies.
It has been the fourth times that issues about sex education are on the list of ¡°year¡¯s sex/gender incidents¡±. Every year, there are lots of new coverage and controversies about sex education, which reflects the conflicts between different sexual values as well as educational values. In an age where sexual discourse is so widespread, the difficulty of implementing youth sex education has something to do with the image of ¡°sexual innocence¡± that adults expect of the youth and its effect of social control in the name of protection.
The difficulty of promoting sex education is attributable to the authority lacking the idea of sex education, which ignores the needs of youth for sex education. While ¡°chastity education¡± that promotes sexual abstinence could be promoted across provinces and cities with slight hindrance, sex education that advocates sexual rights and gender equality has repeatedly come across huge difficulties. It clearly shows that some of the government officials hold an attitude that ¡°not to get things done to avoid going wrong.¡±
We should advocate comprehensive sex education of which knowledge; responsibility, self-protection, gender equality, sexual diversity and sexual rights form an indispensable part. Sex education of benefit to the youth should recognize that young people have rights to sexual autonomy, choice and decision.
10, Sex slavery case in Luoyang
A man in Luoyang bought a basement and hollowed a 4-meter deep cell into which he locked up 6 nightclub women as sexual slaves. The man even organized the women to work as prostitute to make profit. One of the women had been detained for 2 years. In September, a woman escaped and reported to the police. At the same time, the police found 2 dead female bodies in the cell. In response to criticisms, Luoyang launched a ¡°hundred day battle¡± to tidy up the city, increasing the magnitude of management of small beauty salon, nightclubs, saunas, motels, Internet caf¨¦ and other places so as to stringently curb ¡°prostitution, gambling, drugs¡± and other crimes.
When sex workers are robbed and physically assaulted, they find it hard to seek help from the police because the police are exactly the force that oppresses them. Why no one would find it suspicious when a couple of women had been missing for a long time? Why did her personal network not work? What made those women afraid to report to the police when they worked as prostitute outside the cell? After the case had been widely reported, the right to personal safety of sex workers still received no respect from the police. Rather, it was used as a reason to further curb sex industry. With a more stringent control imposed, is it a rescue or does it sustain an atmosphere that makes new sexual victims reluctant to seek help from the police?
The media used ¡°sex slaves¡± to attract the public eyeballs. Is such a narrative of ¡°sex slave¡± similar to pornography suitable for news? In a certain sense, the interest of the public and the media in the case of ¡°sex slave¡± is symptomatic of a hidden ¡°collective sexual desire¡±.
11, Girls sex trade case of Shanghai middle school
In November, the media revealed that the Shanghai police ¡°uncovered¡± a "compensated Dating" organization in which more than 20 participants were high school students and two of them just turned into 14. They introduced clients among each other and earned by providing sexual services for male adults. After the disclosure of the incident, there was a public outcry and a moral condemnation of these high school girls, blaming them for giving up ¡°morality¡± in return for money.
Behind the concerns about girls of high schools engaging in prostitution is full of hidden sexual imagination. The anxiety over sex workers was transferred to underage people. Severe moral condemnation buried social responsibilities.
Young people has sexual rights, which include, among others, the right to receive sex education, the right to be free from sexual assault, and the right to autonomy as to how their body is used. Deprivation of their sexual rights in the name of protection is a violation of their sexual rights. The society needs to strengthen sex education so that young people could know how to exercise their sexual rights.
Whether the body of young people is harmed should only be determined without the interference of any external pressure. If adults would like to understand more about how the young think, they need to abandon the patronizing attitude and patiently listen to them. Prohibition, discipline and interrogation are the wrong ways. They are indeed a kind of age oppression and discrimination.
It would be wiser to think of the young who sell sex not as a ¡°problem¡± but a question that calls into question our attitude towards youth sexual rights.
Summary of Sexual Medical Anthropology
Mingyu DENG, Dechu JIN & Shiyan LAO
Institute for Oriental-western Human Sexuality, New York, USA
International Association of Chinese Medical Specialists & Psychologists
¡¾Abstract¡¿Sexual Medical Anthropology is the branch of Sexual Medicine. It research process of change in human history and reality of human sex origin, sex structure, sexual behavior and sex cultural conditions. It thus investigated the differences and relations of the original sex activities and social sex activities of modern civilization. Sexual Medical Anthropology is an interdisciplinary between the natural sciences and social sciences. It is mainly composed by two parts of physical anthropology and cultural anthropology in sexual behavior.
¡¾Key words¡¿Sexual medical anthropology; Physical anthropology; Cultural anthropology; Sexual medicine
Anarrative of Life Stories about Erotic Culture - An Example of the Workers in a Dancing Hall
Huei-Shin Chen & Yen-Chin Lin
Graduate School of Human Sexuality, SHU-TE University
¡¾Abstract¡¿Derivative of the eight industry environment in Taiwan, mostly because of family practitioners engaged in work financial difficulties, as an effort to earn high pay, they will be difficult for prostitution but also because life forced reality; Practitioners all have the mentality of shame sense, but when the economy is stable, they have the mental deficient would reward, this transformation of social values, that is worth to explore.
This study is to explore the life story of dance hall workers, and the construction of the cultural environment, the operators were to ballroom dance and related with practitioners Miss for a total of seven interviews, the results are as follows:
1. In the interview, seven members of the family were due to economic poverty, are forced to work into the ballroom.
2. Discos Miss burdened with social stigma, and not showing their work.
3. Ballroom Miss The marriage of the ballroom girls are not successful, eight members only one married, and the others may cohabitation or divorce.
4. Taiwan's erotic culture over time like a different change.
¡¾Key words¡¿Erotic culture; Stories narratives; Eight industries; Ballroom workers
Remarks on Ancient Chinese Sexual Culture
Shenyang Electricity Charger Factory, Liaonian 110500, China
¡¾Abstract¡¿ Objectives: To analyze the practical significance of Chinese sexual culture on the happiness of contemporary people¡¯s life. Methods: Ancient classical literature was reviewed and some people were interviewed for the analysis, summary and small-scale experiment. Results: Sexual culture truly plays an important role in shaping the happiness of people¡¯s life. Conclusions: The role of sexual culture in the shaping of people¡¯s happiness manifests in the following aspects: male sexual exercise methods, female sexual exercise methods, the technique of ejaculation control, technique of orgasm and Chinese sexual experience.
¡¾Key words¡¿ Sexual culture£» Sexual exercise; Sexual experience
Multifactor Logistic Regression Analysis on Sexual Dysfunction of Married Women
Zhang Zhiqiang, Hu Xiaolin & Hu Tingyi3
South China Institute of Sexology, Guangzhou 510360, China
¡¾Abstract¡¿To investigate into the sexual life of married women in China and find out the causes of the female sexual dysfunction (inadequate sexual excitement or inadequate sexual desire), 5121 cases were surveyed by medical professionals and their information was collected and processed by multifactor logistic regression analysis. The result showed that lack of sexual knowledge is the most risky factor causing sexual dysfunction. Sickness and psychological factors are more dangerous factors than the others, and menstruation is also a risk factor worth considering. It is also discovered in the study that the higher a woman¡¯s education level, the lower her possibility of having the female sexual dysfunction.
¡¾Key words¡¿Married women; Sexual dysfunction; Logistic regression analysis