Wayne R. Dynes
Homosexuality: A Research Guide

Originally published in: Garland Reference Library of Social Science, vol. 313,
Garland Publishing, New York, 1987, 853pp.
Reproduced here by permission of the author.



























G. FRANCE.. 60



J. IBERIA.. 71

K. ITALY. 73





P. ISLAM.. 85


R. JAPAN.. 95











V. TRAVEL. 124


B. GUIDES.. 125





D. ART: MODERN.. 134


F. FILM.. 140





K. MUSIC.. 169









H. JUDAISM.. 193












C. SPORTS.. 208




G. S & M.. 212

















C. AGING.. 238

D. BARS.. 240




H. COUPLES.. 246







O. INCEST. 259







V. ROLE.. 271



Y. YOUTH.. 275









































XX. LAW... 343




D. BRITAIN.. 351


F. CANADA.. 354









A. POLICE.. 375






C. SUICIDE.. 391



















The tentative beginnings of the task of gathering refer­ences about homosexual behavior ("sodomy") lie in the 17th and 18th centuries, when savants--generally forensic physicians, legal scholars, and theologians--began to record such writings as they were able to discover. The 19th century saw two major advances: the creation of erotic bibliographies (comprising what were sometimes termed "curiosa") by collectors and booksellers; and the compiling of systematic lists of references by homosexuals themselves (e.g. Meienreis and Ulrichs). Much has been accomplished in the present century, so that bibliog­raphical control in the sphere of homosexuality is cur­rently regarded as well developed by librarians at the Kinsey Institute, who enjoy a panoramic command of the fields of sex research. Yet problems persist. There is a tendency, found particularly but not exclusively among American scholars, to concentrate on work in one language group, so that one's vision of the universe of research - geographical and temporal — is narrowed. Moreover, there is no current annual survey of progress in gay and lesbian studies. Only recently, in fact, have some of the major current subject bibliographies, such as Art Index and MLA Bibliography, introduced homosexuality as a category. En­tries in some existing retrospective bibliographies are marred by misprints and incomplete references, faults which may to some extent be excused because of the rarity of many publications, which were often published semiclan- destinely. In addition to the general bibliographies cited below, more specialized ones will be found through­out this work under the appropriate subject categories.

1.       ASHBEE, HENRY SPENCER ("Pisanus Fraxi"). Bibliog­raphy of Forbidden Books. Introduction by Gershon Legman. New York: Jack Brussel, 1962. 3 vols.

Originally published in London under three titles: In­dex librorum prohibitorum (1877), Centuria librorum absconditorum (1879), and Catena librorum tacendorum (1885). Other reprints are known. In addition to standard bibliographical data, entries frequently contain an annotative essay summarizing the contents with liberal quotations. Although these volumes cover the whole field of erotica, they mention a considerable number of works on homosexuality, some now neglected. Each volume has an index of authors, titles, and subjects.

2.       AUGUST, EUGENE R. Men's Studies: A Selected and Annotated Interdisciplinary Bibliography. Littleton, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 1985. 233 pp. Covers some 600 English-language books, arranged in 21 topical chapters, of which the last concerns homosexual­ity. Includes autobiographies and fiction, as well as non-fiction.

3.       BEASLY, RUTH (ed.). International Directory of Sex Research and Related Fields. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1976. 2 vols.

Lists over 1600 persons and groups in 48 countries, with selected publications; derives from the files of the Alfred C. Kinsey Institute, Indiana University.

4.       BELL, LOUIS NEWTON. The Gay Seen, or 200+ Ap­proaches to the Fiction and Non-Fiction of the Other Sexual Minority. Dominguez Hills: Edu­cational Resources Center of California State College, 1975. 147 pp. (Dominguez Hills Biblio­graphical Series, 11)

Select bibliography with annotations; indexed. Sometimes idiosyncratic.

5.       BREWER, JOAN SCHERER, and ROD W. WRIGHT (eds.).

Sex Research: Bibliographies from the Institute for Sex Research. Phoenix: Oryx Press, 1979. 212 pp. Classified list of 4267 items, unannotated, selected from the holdings of the Alfred C. Kinsey Institute, Indiana University. Homosexuality has restricted coverage on the grounds that it is well treated in other publications. See "Sex Variations" (pp. 43-56) and "Pedophilia" (pp. 138-41). Author and subject indexes.

6.       BULLOUGH, VERN L., W. DORR LEGG, BARRETT W. ELCANO, and JAMES KEPNER (eds.). An Annotated Bibliography of Homosexuality. New York: Garland, 1976. 2 vols. (406; 468 pp.)

Despite some valid criticisms, this monumental work (al­most 13,000 entries) opened a new era in research horizons in its subject as the first attempt to cover, without limitations of country or time period, the entire ensemble of relevant fields—scholarly, scientific, and creative. The title notwithstanding, only a few items are anno­tated; misprints abound (esp. in the numerous German entries); and some items are incorrectly assigned to the topical categories. Each volume has an author index, but the absence of subject indexes hinders retrieval of material on specific themes.

7.       Catalogus van de Bibliotheek van het Nederlandsch Wetenschappelijk Humanitair Komitee. The Hague: MWHK, 1922. 55 pp.

Catalogue of books (Dutch, German, French, and English) kept in the house of Jacob Anton Schorer, a principal figure in the Dutch Scientific-Humanitarian Committee. An important reference for its time, the Catalogus had a number of supplements, of which four were published: 1 (1926; 28 pp.); 2 (1930; 22 pp.); 3 (1932; 24 pp.); and 4 (1936; 28 pp.).

8.       COUROUVE, CLAUDE. Bibliographie des homosexualités, 1478-1881. Third ed. Paris: The author, 1981.

A useful guide to French-language publications, fiction and non-fiction, (This section is published together with Fragments 4, by Courouve and Robert Kozérawski). It is continued in Bibliographie des homosexualités II, 1882- 1924. Third ed. (Paris: The author, 1981). A new, more comprehensive edition is in preparation.

9.       CRAWFORD, WILLIAM (ed.). Homosexuality in Canada:

A Bibliography. New ed. Toronto: Canadian Gay Archives, 1984. 378 cols. (CGA Publications, 9) Useful classified list of material published in Canada or by and about Canadians abroad. Less comprehensive for French-language than English-language materials.

10.      DALL'ORTO, GIOVANNI. Leggere omosessuale. Turin: Edizioni Gruppo Abele, 1984. 108 pp.

Fundamental list of 749 Italian-language items published between 1800 and 1983, annotated throughout. Includes translations into Italian as well as original works.

11.       DYNES, WAYNE. "A Bibliography of Bibliographies of Homosexuality," Cabirion and Gay Books Bulletin, no. 10 (1984), 16-22. About 180 items, annotated, in all major languages. In­cludes some fugitive and minor items not cited here. There is also a somewhat different version in Italian: "Bibliografia di bibliografie sull'omosessualità," Sodoma, 2 (1985), 39-54.

12.      ELYSIAN FIELDS, BOOKSELLERS. Gay Literature [Title varies]. Elmhurst, NY: Elysian Fields, 1974ff.

About 25 catalogues in this series have appeared, which are noteworthy for unusual and out-of-print items, which are sold by mail order. A number of gay and lesbian bookstores in the United States have also produced noteworthy catalogues, including A Different Light (Los Angeles), L'Androgyne (Montreal), Chosen Books (Detroit), Giovannis Room (Philadelphia), Lambda Rising (Washington, DC), Oscar Wilde Memorial Bookshop (New York City), and Womanbooks (New York City).

13.      FEUCHT, RAINER C. Homosexualität und Randgebiete. Ulm: BMCF Antiquariat, 1977. about 60 pp. Carefully compiled bookseller's catalogue of 640 items in several languages. Other useful European catalogues have been produced by the bookstores Les Mots à la Bouche (Paris), Prinz Eisenherz (Berlin), Sodom (Munich), and De Woelrat (The Hague).

14.      GAY, JULES, "COMTE D'IÉNA." Bibliographie des ouvrages relatifs à l'amour. Fourth ed., revised by J. Lemonnyer. Paris: J. Lemonnyer, and Lille: Stéphane Bécour, 1894-1900. 4 vols. The most elaborate general erotic bibliography of the 19th century. See also: Louis Perceau, Bibliographie du roman erotique au XIXe siècle (Paris: Georges Fourdrin- ier, 1930; 2 vols.).

15.      A Gay Bibliography: Eight Bibliographies on Lesbian and Male Homosexuality [ed. by Jonathan Katz et al.]. New York: Arno Press, 1975.

Comprises five short bibliographies by Marion Zimmer Bradley; Gene Damon [Barbara Grier] and Lee Stuart, The Lesbian in Literature, A Bibliography (San Francisco, 1967); Noel I. Garde, The Homosexual in Literature (New York, 1959); and William Parker, Homosexuality: Selected Abstracts and Bibliography (San Francisco, 1966).

16.      GITTINGS, BARBARA. A Gay Bibliography. Sixth ed. Philadelphia: Gay Task Force, American Library Association, 1980. 16 pp.

List of 563 current items selected to provide material that is supportive of gay people and arranged in ten major categories. In addition to books and some period­ical citations (English language only), includes films and filmstrips.

17.      HANSEN, BENT (ed.). Nordisk Bibliograf!: Homoseksualitet. Copenhagen: Forlaget Pan, 1984. 32 pp. Annotated list of original publications, fiction and nonfiction, arranged by country (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden).

18.      HERZER, MANFRED. Bibliographie zur Homosexualität: Verzeichnis des deutschsprachigen nichtbelletrist­ischen Schrifttums zur weiblichen und männlichen Homosexualität aus den Jahren 1466 bis 1975 in chronologischer Reihenfolge. Berlin: Verlag Rosa Winkel, 1982. 255 pp.

Exemplary bibliography (3404 items) of German-language non-fiction material arranged in chronological order. Subject and author indexes. A complementary volume, admitting novels, short stories, poetry and plays, is in preparation.

19.      INDIANA UNIVERSITY. ALFRED C. KINSEY INSTITUTE FOR SEX RESEARCH. Sex Studies Index, 1980. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1982. 219 pp.

Classified list for the year by author and subject (see esp. pp. 108-22). Apparently not continued. See also R. Beasly; and J. S. Brewer and R. W. Wright, above; and M. S. Weinberg and A. Bell, below.

20.      KEARNEY, PATRICK J. The Private Case: An Annotated Bibliography of the Private Case Erotica Collection in the British (Museum) Library. London: Jay Landesman, 1981. 360 pp.

Definitive catalogue of the long-mysterious British Library special collection, supplanting A. Rose (see below) for the items that it contains. Only a small num­ber of entries are directly pertinent.

21.      [MEIENREIS, RICHARD.] "Bibliographie der Homosex­ualität," JfsZ, 1 (1899), 215-38.

This list inaugurated the annual bibliographical coverage of the Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen, published under the auspices of the Berlin Scientific-Humanitarian Committee, which set world standards for homosexual bibliography. In the first ten years of compilation over 1000 contemporary publications were noted, some reviewed in considerable detail by Eugen Wilhelm.

22.      MILLER, ALAN V. Homosexuality in Specific Fields: The Arts, the Military, Prisons, Sports, Teaching and Transsexuals: A Selected Bibliography. Toron­to: Ontario Ministry of Labour, Library, 1978. 58 pp.

Something of an omnium gatherum, but sometimes useful for out-of-the-way items. The author has since pursued more defined bibliographical tasks in excellent work produced under the auspices of the Canadian Gay Archives in Toronto.

23.      MILLETT, ANTHONY PERCIVAL UPTON. Homosexuality: A Bibliography of Literature Published Since 1959 and Available in New Zealand. Wellington, NZ: Library School, 1967. 55 pp. (Bibliographical Series, 5)

Conscientious list, chiefly of interest for a few local publications.

24.      PAOLELLA, EDWARD. "A Gay/Lesbian Studies Bibliog­raphy of Resources Selected from Non-Homosexual Periodical Literature," Gay Books Bulletin, no. 6 (1981), 26-30.

Continued, with contributions from various researchers, in Gay Books Bulletin, nos. 7-9.

25.      PARKER, WILLIAM. Homosexuality: A Selective Bibliography of Over 3000 Items. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1971. 323 pp.

Emphasizes nonfiction, in English only, with the items arranged by type of publication. Subject and author indexes. Continued in his useful Homosexuality Bibliog­raphy: Supplement 1970-1975 (Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1977; 337 pp.); and Homosexuality Bibliography: Second Supplement, 1976-1982 (Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1985; 395 pp.).

26.      PIA, PASCAL. Les livres de l'enfer du XVIème siecle à nos jours. Paris: C. Coulet et A. Faure, 1978. 2 vols.

Definitive bibliographie raisonnée of the famous Enfer (private case) of the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris. The annotations contain much useful information on obscure writers, editors, and publishers. Alphabetically arranged by title, with author index.

27.      POTTER, CLARE. The Lesbian Periodicals Index. Tallahassee, FL: Naiad Press, 1986. 413 pp. Comprehensive index of 42 U.S. lesbian periodicals by author and subject (1947ff.). Does not include The Ladder (which has its own index, included in the 1975 Arno Press reprint) or "mixed" periodicals with sub­stantial lesbian content, such as Boston's Gay Community News.

28.      [ROSE, ALFRED.] "ROLF S. READE." Registrum librorum eroticorum. London: privately printed, 1936. 2 vols.

Ambitious, occasionally disorganized and inaccurate list of 5,061 erotic works in major European languages. A reprint appeared in 1965 (New York: Jack Brussel).

29.      SEROYA, FLORA C., et al. Sex and Sex Education: A

Bibliography. New York: Bowker, 1972. 336 pp. A well-balanced selection for the period, with some annotation. Author, title, and analytic subject indexes. "Homosexuality and Lesbianism" (pp. 94-104).

30.      [SFEIR-YOUNIS, LOUIS F., ed]. Vital Research on Homosexuality. Ann Arbor, MI: University Micro­films International, 1982. 16 pp.

List of 214 M.A. and Ph.D. dissertations submitted to U.S. universities, 1936-82, and available in xerox or microfilm editions.

31.      SHARMA, UMESH D., and WILFRIED C. RUDY. Homosex­uality: A Selected Bibliography. Waterloo, Ont.: Waterloo Lutheran University, 1970. 114 pp.

A conscientious effort in its time, now largely obsolete.

32.      SHORE, DAVID A. An Annotated Resource Guide to Periodicals in Human Sexuality. Chicago: The author, 1978. 38 pp.

Discusses 53 periodicals.

33.      SLEUTJES, MARTIEN (ed.). Catalogus van Leeuwen Bibliotheek: Historische Bibliotheek van de

N.V.I.H.-C.O.C. Amsterdam: N.V.I.H.-C.O.C., 1983. 123 pp.

Catalogue of the collections of the leading Dutch homosex­ual organization (ca. 2177 titles).

34.      SURGEON GENERAL'S OFFICE. UNITED STATES ARMY. Index-Catalogue of the Library. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1880-1955. 58 vols, in 4 series.

Contains references to medical and psychiatric books and articles in many languages, some not noticed elsewhere.

See "Sexual Instinct ..." as well as "Homosexuality."

35.      TASK FORCE ON LESBIAN AND GAY ISSUES. An Annotated Bibliography of Lesbian and Gay Readings. New York: Council on Social Work Education, 1983. 41 pp.

About selected 350 entries, almost all annotated. Chiefly nonfiction with a social-science emphasis, but including a few novels and poetry collections.

36.      ULRICHS, KARL HEINRICH. "Argonauticus." Zastrow und die Urninge des pietistischen, ultramontanen und freidenkenden Lagers, Leipzig: Serbe, 1869. 159 pp.

This pamphlet, ninth in the writer's series on Uranian love, concludes with the first known attempt at a separate bibliography on homosexuality (pp. 155-58). The list ("Schriften über Urningsliebe") begins with Ulrichs first eight pamphlets, followed by 27 works in ancient and modern European languages. This bibliography is not included in reprints of the pamphlet.

37.      WEIGEL, ADOLF. Bibliographisches Verzeichnis der Bibliotheken von Professor Dr. Paul H. Brandt and Baron Werner v. Bleichroder. Leipzig: The author, 1930.

The first half of this book catalogues the scholarly library of Paul H. Brandt ("Hans Licht"; 1875-1929), the great German expert on homosexuality in classical an­tiquity.

38.      WEINBERG, MARTIN S., and ALAN P. BELL (eds.). Homosexuality: An Annotated Bibliography. New York: Harper and Row, 1972. 550 pp. This large work, compiled under the auspices of the Kinsey Institute of Indiana University, provides detailed but uncritical abstracts for 1,263 books, pamphlets, and articles published in the English language from 1940 to 1968. The book stresses psychiatric, medical, and social-science contributions (many harshly negative), of which only a selection is given in this Guide. This compilation, which is conscientiously done within its own terms of reference, will serve to reconstruct th»e climate of opinion prevailing in the United States and Britain through the late 1960s.



For reasons that have not yet been fully explained, the modern approach to the study of homosexual behavior—its etiology, cultural history, psychology, and sociology— originated in the 19th century, primarily in Germany. Independent scholars such as Hoessli and Ulrichs, very

much aware of their outsider status, delved deeply into the history of the subject. Their accomplishments laid the foundations for the Berlin Scientific-humanitarian Committee, begun in 1897 with the dual aim of promoting legal reform and knowledge. The 19th century also saw the rise of the modern psychiatric approach to the subject. (For Freudian psychoanalysis, see XVII.B-C.)

39.      ALETRINO, ARNOLD. "Uranisme et dégénérescence," Archives d'Anthropologie Criminelle, 23 (1908), 633-67.

An early sympathetic overview by a Dutch physician and novelist (1858-1916), who concludes that "degeneracy and innate homosexuality are no more closely linked than degeneracy and heterosexuality." The belief that homosex­uality can occur in normal individuals was first enun­ciated by Aletrino in "Over uranisme en het laatste werk van Raffalovich (Marc André)," Psychiatrische en Neurolog­ische Bladen 1 (1897), 351-65, 452-83. See Maurice van Lieshout, "Stiefkind der natuur: Het homobeeld bij Alet­rino en Von Römer," Homojaarboek, 1 (1981), 75-105.

40.      BLOCH, IWAN. Das Sexualleben unserer Zeit in seinen Beziehungen zur modernen Kultur. Berlin: Marcus, 1907. 822 pp.

An early synthesis of the whole field of sexology by a Berlin dermatologist and polymath (1872-1922). There is an English translation by M. Eden Paul, The Sexual Life of Our Time in Its Relations to Modern Civilization (London: William Heinemann, 1908; 790 pp.); see Chapter 19, "The Riddle of Homosexuality" (pp.487-535) and Chapter 20, "Pseudo-Homosexuality" (pp. 537-54). Among the many learned works Bloch published, his masterwork is probably Der Ursprung der Syphilis (Jena: Fischer, 1901-11; 2 vols.). Bloch sometimes wrote under the pseudonym "Eugen Dühren."

41.      BLÜHER, HANS. Die Rede des Aristophanes: Proleg­omena zu einer Soziologie des Menschengeschlechts. Hamburg: Kala-Verlag, 1966. 166 pp. An attempt, written towards the end of his life, by the right-wing German homosexual theoretician (1888-1955), to summarize his ideas. Blüher is best known for his stress on the role of male bonding in the formation of states, as seen in his: Die Rolle der Erotik in der männlichen Gesellschaft (Jena: Diederichs, 1917-18; 2 vols.). See Richard Mills in Gay Sunshine, no. 41-43 (1980, 41-45.

42.      BURTON, RICHARD, SIR. "Terminal Essay, Part IV, Social Conditions—Pederasty," in The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night (London: privately printed, 1886), vol. 10, pp. 205-54.

In this learned essay, the English diplomat and oriental­ist (1821-90) contends that there exists a "sotadic zone" between the thirtieth and forty-third degrees, north

latitude, within which homosexual behavior is popular and endemic. For some glosses on this text, see Stephen W. Foster, "The Annotated Burton," in: Louie Crew (ed.), The Gay Academic (Palm Springs, CA: ETC, 1978), pp. 92-101. There is a biography, not altogether satisfactory, by Fawn M. Brodie, The Devil Drives: A Life of Sir Richard Burton (London: Penguin Books, 1971; 505 pp.).

43.      CARPENTER, EDWARD. Homogenic Love and Its Place in a Free Society. Manchester: Labour Press, 1894. 51 pp.

An early defense of the dignity of homosexual love by an English socialist and feminist (1844-1929). This book was followed by several other notable publications, including Ioläus: An Anthology of Friendship (London: Sonnenschein, 1902; 190 pp; the third edition of 1920 was reissued by Pagan Press, New York, in 1982); The Intermediate Sex: A Study of Some Transitional Types of Men and Women (Lon­don: Sonnenschein, 1908; 175 pp.); Intermediate Types among Primitive Folk (London: George Allen and Unwin, 1918; 185 pp.). The fullest account of his life is: Tsu- shichi Tsuzuki, Edward Carpenter... (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980; 237 pp.). See also: A Biblio­graphy of Edward Carpenter (Sheffield: Sheffield Central Libraries, 1949; 83 pp.); and Jonathan Cutbill, The Writings of Edward Carpenter ... (London: Gay's the Word, 1980; 9 pp.).

44.      CHEVALIER, JULIEN. Une maladie de personnalité: l'inversion sexuelle: psycho-physiologie, socio­logie, tératologie, aliénation mentale, psychologie morbide, anthropologie, médecine judiciaire. Lyon: Storck, 1893. 520 pp. A major early work on sexual inversion, which treats it as a chief symptom of a hereditary neuro-psychopathic con­dition that constitutes neither a distinct disease entity nor an instinctive monomania. It is innate, appears from earliest childhood, is stable, is accompanied by a signif­icant phenomenology of mental or nervous disturbances, and causes irrestistible impulses. The book is an expanded version of an earlier work: De l'inversion de l'instinct sexuel au point de vue médico-légal (Paris: 0. Doin, 1885; 168 pp.).

45.      ELLIS, HAVELOCK. Sexual Inversion. New York: Arno Press, 1975. 299 pp.

The noted English sexologist and moralist (1859-1939) viewed homosexuality sympathetically, as a congenital variation. This issue reprints the first English edition (London: 1897), which is quite rare. The book was ac­tually first published in German as translated by Alfred Kurella: Das konträre Geschlechtsgefühl (Leipzig: Georg Wigand, 1896; 308 pp.), a version which bore the name of Ellis's collaborator, John Addington Symonds, removed in subsequent issues at the behest of Symonds's heirs.

Claude Courouve, in: Gay Books Bulletin, no. 5 (1981), 23-25; and in: Cabirion, no. 12 (1985), 30-31.

52.      GUYON, RENÉ. Etudes d'éthique sexuelle. Saint- Denis: Dardaillon, 1929-38. 6 vols.

Of the ten volumes originally projected by the French jurist and adviser to the Thai government, only the first six appeared. Guyon sought to work out the full implications of the distinction between the sexual instinct and the reproductive function. Two parts have been translated into English: The Ethics of Sexual Acts (New York: Knopf, 1934; 383 pp.); and Sexual Freedom (New York: Knopf, 1939; 344 pp.).

53.      HEIMSOTH, KARL-GUENTHER. Hetero- und Homophilie: eine neuorientierende An- und Einordnung der Er­scheinungsbilder, der "Homosexualität" und der "Inversion: in Berücksichtigung der sogenannten "normale Freundschaft" auf Grund der zwei ver­schiedenen erotischen Anziehungsgesetze und der bisexuellen Grundeinstellung des Mannes. Dort­mund: Schmidt und Andernach, 1924. 33 pp.

Heimsoth, an eccentric right-wing German theorist, is remembered for two things: (1) he introduced the term homophilia; and (2) he advocated an astrological approach to homosexuality (see Charakterkonstellationen, Munich: Barth, 1928; 200 pp.).

54.      HILLER, KURT. Paragraph 175: Die Schmach des Jahr­hunderts! Hannover: P. Steegmann, 1922. 133 pp.

Essays and speeches by a German essayist, publicist and advocate of gay rights (1885-1972), involved in several avant-garde and independent left movements during the period. See his autobiography: Leben gegen die Zeit (Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt, 1969-73; 2 vols.); as well as Lewis D. Wurgaft, The Activists: Kurt Hiller and the Politics of Action on the German Left, 1914-1933 (Trans­actions of the American Philosophical Society, 67:8, 1977; 114 pp.).

55.      HIRSCHFELD, MAGNUS. Die Homosexualität des Mannes und des Weibes. Berlin: Louis Marcus, 1914. 1067 PP.

This encyclopedic, indeed monumental work sums up the accomplishments of a decade and a half of intense activity on the part of a team of scholars associated with the Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen, published by the Berlin Scientific-Humanitarian Committee. Of necessity dated in the legal and psychiatric fields, it remains worth consulting for the historical and cultural infor­mation it distills. Numerous footnotes and indexes of names, and subjects. There are complete reprints of 1920 and 1985, but the 1963 issue (Köppern im Taunus: Dithmar) is to be avoided inasmuch as it is drastically abridged.

60.      JÄGER, GUSTAV. Entdeckung der Seele. Second ed. Leipzig: E. Guenther, 1880. 387 pp.

On pp. 245-54 and 264-66 of this now forgotten book, which promoted an eccentric olfactory theory of sexual attrac­tion, the new term "homosexual" was transmitted to the medical and general public. Thereby Jager's informant Kertbeny relayed his ideas and terms to the generation of activists that emerged about 1900. See also his: "Ein bisher ungedrücktes Kapitel über Homosexualität aus Der Entdeckung der Seele," JfsZ, 2 (1900), 53-125.

61.      [KERTBENY, KÄROLY MARIA.] Paragraph 143 des Preussischen Strafgesetzbuches von 14, April 1851 und seine Aufrechterhaltung als Paragraph 152 im Entwürfe eines Strafgesetzbuches für den Nord­deutschen Bund. Leipzig: Serbe, 1869. 88 pp.

This pamphlet is a legal memoir by an Austrian-Hungarian writer (born Karl Maria Benkert; 1824-1882), calling for the abrogation of the penalty for male homosexual conduct in the projected penal code. This text employed the word "homosexual" for the first time. The memoir was supple­mented by another: Des Gemeinschädliche des Paragraph 143 des preussischen Strafgesetzbuches vom 14. April 1851 und daher seine nothwendige Tilgung als Paragraph 152 im Entwürfe eines Strafgesetzbuches fur den Norddeutschen Bund (Leipzig: Serbe, 1870; 75 pp.). The attribution to Kertbeny, though likely, is not absolutely certain; see Manfred Herzer, "Kertbeny and the Nameless Love," JH, 12 (1985), 1-26.

62.      KRAFFT-EBING, RICHARD VON. Psychopathia sexualis: eine klinisch-forensische Studie. Stuttgart: Enke, 1886. 110 pp.

The book that made the Austrian psychiatrist (1840-1902) famous: the first best seller in modern sexology. Pages 56-72 and 102-08 deal with sexual inversion. The author revised it repeatedly so that it attained 414 pp. by the ninth ed. of 1894. The twelfth ed. (1903) was the last he personally supervised. There are several English ver­sions; see, e.g., that of Franklin S. Klaf, Psychopathia Sexualis, with Especial Reference to the Antipathic Sexual Instinct: A Medico-Forensic Study (New York: Stein and Day, 1965; 434 pp.). See also his "Neue Studien auf dem Gebiete der Homosexualität," JfsZ, 3 (1901), 1-36.

63.      LOMBROSO, CESARE, and GUGLIELMO FERRERO. La donna delinquente: la prostituta e la donna normale. Turin: Roux, 1893. 640 pp.

Lombroso (1836-1909) was an influential Italian criminol­ogist who advocated a congenital theory of criminal behavior. He regarded same-sex behavior—in this case lesbianism—as an aspect of degeneration. There is an English version: The Female Offender (New York: Philo­sophical Library, 1958; 313 pp.). See also: L'uomo delinquente in rapporto all'antropologia, alia giuris- prudenza e alia psichiatria. Turin: Bocca, 1889; 3

195 pp.

An essay by a Spanish novelist and literary critic (1882-1937), intended as a complement to Gide's Corydon. See also his work of literary criticism: Homosexualism«) creador. (Madrid: Javier Morata, 1933; 383 pp.).

69.      RAFFALOVICH, MARC ANDRÉ. Uranisme et unisexualité: étude sur différentes manifestations de l'instinct sexuel. Lyon: Storck, 1896. 363 pp.

This substantial work by the Anglo-French-Polish writer (1864-1934) offers a positive overview of the subject, seeking to redirect the dominant medical discourse onto a more humane path. Raffalovich, who frequently contri­buted articles on contemporary events and theories to the French periodical Archives d'Anthropologie Criminelle, showed a strong interest in the biographies of noted homosexuals. See Philip W. J. Healy, "Uranisme et Unisexualité: A Late Victorian View of Homosexuality," New Blackfriars, 59 (1978), 56-65; and "The Making of an Edinburgh Salon," Journal of the Eighteen Nineties Soci­ety, no. 12-13 (1981-82), 25-39.

70.      RAMDOHR, FRIEDRICH WILHELM BASIL VON. Venus urania: über die Natur der Liebe, über ihre Ver­edelung und Verschönerung. Leipzig: Göschen, 1798. 4 vols.

A diffuse work in the Sturm und Drang mode on love and friendship, with some guarded comments on emotional relations between men as a Platonic counterpart of heterosexual passion (vol. 3, 133-230).

71.      SYMONDS, JOHN ADDINGTON. Male Love: A Problem in Greek Ethics and other Writings. Edited by John Lauritsen. New York: Pagan Press, 1983. 162 pp.

The Essay "A Problem in Greek Ethics," which has a complicated publishing history, was written by Symonds in 1873 as a defense of homosexuality from the ancient Greek example. This volume contains an appreciation of Symonds (1840-93) by Robert Peters. See also Symonds, The Letters. Edited by Herbert M. Schueller and Robert Peters (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1967-69; 3 vols.) and the Memoirs. Edited by Phyllis Grosskurth (New York: Knopf, 1985; 319 pp.). Some passages not otherwise easily available are found in Percy Lancelot Babington, Bibliography of the Writings of John Addington Symonds (London: John Castle, 1925; 244 pp.).

72.      TAMASSIA, ARRIGO. "Sull’inversione dell'istinto sessuale," Rivista sperimentale di freniatria e di medicina legale, 4 (1878), 93-117.

In an analysis deriving from the writings of J. L. Casper, K. F. 0. Westphal and R. von Krafft-Ebing, the Italian psychiatrist introduced the term "sexual inversion" as the equivalent of Westphal's "konträre Sexualempfindung," which earlier writers in the Romance languages had para­phrased awkwardly at best. Inversion became the inter-

key insight of universal bisexuality was further developed by the psychoanalytic school. See the translation: Sex and Character (New York: G. Putnam's Sons, 1906; 356 pp.).

77.      WESTERMARCK, EDWARD. The Origin and Development of Moral Ideas. London: Macmillan, 1906-08. 2 vols.

See Chapter 43, "Homosexual Love" (vol. 2, pp. 456-89). From his field work and extensive reading, the Finnish anthropologist Westermarck (1862-1939) produced a remark­able cross-cultural tableau, which implicitly demonstrated the variability of same-sex relations. See Timothy Stroup (ed.), Edward Westermarck: Essays on His Life and Works (Acta Philosophica Fennica, Helsinki, 34, 1982; 299 pp.; bibliography of his writings, pp. 274-92).

78.      WESTPHAL, KARL FRIEDRICH OTTO. "Die konträre Sex­ualempfindung: Symptom eines neuropathologischen (psychopathischen) Zustandes," Archiv für Psychia­trie und Nervenkrankheiten, 2 (1869), 73-108.

This paper is the starting point for the modern psychi­atric approach. Westphal's observations are based largely on one female case examined in the psychiatric ward of the Charite (General Hospital) in Berlin, as well as a male transvestite. He introduced the concept of "con­trary sexual feeling"—later standardized as the Latin- derived "sexual inversion."



In the 1920s efforts were made in various countries to diffuse sexual enlightenment—birth control, marriage counseling, and a better understanding of what were still called sexual anomalies. The Great Depression, beginning in 1929, crippled these efforts toward popular education. At the same time Hitler's rise to power radically trans­formed German sexology, undercutting its position of lead­ership in the world. Emigration from the European con­tinent brought many psychoanalytically oriented psychi­atrists to English-speaking countries, particularly to the United States. With a few exceptions, these psychiatrists generally regarded homosexuality as pathology, tended to acquiesce in the indigenous penchant for "social engineer­ing" as the answer to all human problems, and helped to rationalize lingering religious opposition to homosexual­ity. At the end of the 1940s the homosexual movement began in the United States, making contact with the renascent but still stunted European groups. Only later, in a changed social and intellectual climate, were open homosexuals able to have a voice in their own self-defin- ition.

79. "ANOMALY." The Invert. Second, enlarged ed. London: Baillere, Tindall and Cox, 1948. 290 pp. Reflections of a tormented English Catholic on a range of homosexual behavior and ethics, intended as a plea for understanding. The first half—originally published in 1927--is a valuable indicator of the ambivalence then widespread in the English-speaking world.

80.      ARTHUR, GAVIN. The Circle of Sex. San Francisco: Pan-Graphic Press, 1962. 86 pp.

A San Francisco homophile writer uses the face of a clock to present twelve types of sexual identity/orientation, ranging from exclusively heterosexual to exclusively homosexual for both men and women.

81.      CHESSER, EUSTACE. Odd Man Out: Homosexuality in

Men and Women. London: Victor Gollancz, 1959. 192 pp.

A relatively liberal work for its time, showing the in­fluence of Kinsey's findings and the Wolfenden Report. Chesser assumes that homosexual behavior is created by a faulty child-parent relationship, but society has com­plicated the matter by repressing deviant sexual behavior. See also: Edward Glover (ed.), The Problem of Homosexual­ity (London: Institute for the Study of Treatment of Delinquency, 1957; 40 pp.).

82.      CHURCHILL, WAINRIGHT. Homosexual Behavior among Males: A Cross-Cultural and Cross-Species Inves­tigation, New York: Hawthorne Books, 1967. 349 PP.

A synthesis by a homosexual psychologist, discussing the history of homosexuality (including Christian pro­hibitions) and theories of its causation. Churchill regards homosexual responsiveness as a component of mammalian sexuality, increasing as the evolutionary scale is ascended. Decries the sex-negativism ("eroto- phobia" and "homoerotophobia") that our civilization has enshrined in its legislation.

83.      FISHER, PETER. The Gay Mystique: The Myth and Reality of Male Homosexuality. New York: Stein and Day 1972. 258 pp.

A representative document of the gay-liberation ferment following the Stonewall Rebellion in 1969, discussing such matters as variations in gay-male lifestyles, civil rights, and self-esteem. See also: John Murphy, Homosex­ual Liberation: A Personal View (New York: Praeger, 1971; 182 pp.).

84.      GROSS, ALFRED A. Strangers in Our Midst: Problems of the Homosexual in American Society. Washington, DC: Public Affairs Press, 1962. 182 pp.

Humane views for the time of the Director of the George W. Henry Foundation, New York. Criticizes the police and the church for their tendencies to condemn rather than to understand, but holds that homosexuals need psychotherapy

for | their "disease." See also Gross's reminiscences of his career: "American Experiment," Man and Society: Jour­nal of the Albany Trust, no. 10 (Winter 1966), 12-22.

85.      KARLEN, ARNO. Sexuality and Homosexuality: A New

View. New York: W. W. Norton, 1971. 666 pp. Parts 1 and 2 (pp. 1-235) are chiefly concerned with historical data, from ancient Mesopotamia to the present. The remainder of the work presents case studies and interviews, framed by questionable psychoanalytic inter­pretations. While this large book is poorly organized and often intrusively judgmental, so that it must be used with caution, it does contain many references ("Critical Bibliography," pp. 619-46). See Geoff Puterbaugh, "The Mind of Arno Karlen," Gay Books Bulletin, no. 8 (1982), 20-22.

86.      MAGEE, BRYAN. One in Twenty: A Study of Homosex­uality in Men and Women. London: Seeker and Warburg, 1966. 192 pp.

BBC journalist's account of homosexual behavior in Great Britain and the Netherlands, with discussions of psychiatric attitudes, social patterns, and the legal situation.

87.      MERCER, JESSIE DECAMARRON. They Walk in Shadow: A Study of Sexual Variations with Emphasis on the Ambisexual and Homosexual Components and Our Contemporary Sex Laws. New York: Comet Press Books, 1959. 573 pp.

Turgid presentation of biological, psychological, medical, socio-moral and legal aspects of sexual variation. Com­mends the Wolfenden Report.

88.      MIRABET I MULLOY, ANTONI. Homosexualidad hoy. Barcelona: Editorial Herder, 1985. 490 pp.

Comprehensive, positive work, reviewing (1) recent scientific literature; (2) the history of repression from the classical era through the Inquisition to modern times; (3) the history of the gay movement from the turn of the century onwards; (4) the achievements of gay and lesbian organizations in Catalonia.

89.      PLUMMER, DOUGLAS. Queer People: The Truth about Homosexuals. London: W. H. Allen, 1963. 122 pp.

A British homosexual describes his own life as well as the difficulties faced by homosexuals in England in the days prior to the law reform of 1967.

90.      SAGHIR, MARCEL T. and ELI ROBINS. Male and Female Homosexuality: A Comprehensive Investigation. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1973. 341 pp. Covers the whole area of male and female homosexuality under a series of parallel chapter headings: childhood- adolescent characteristics; sexual psychologic responses; homosexual practices: statistical and behavioral consider­ations; heterosexual practices; psychopathology; parental, home and family relationships; and sociological consider­ations. Concludes that "treating homosexuality as a dis­ease and homosexuals as patients is neither scientific­ally tenable nor actually feasible and practical."

91.      SANDERS, DENNIS. Gay Source: A Catalog for Men.

New York: Coward, McCann and Geoghegan, 1977. 288 pp.

A series of short pieces coordinated to show the panorama of cultural, historical, lifestyle, and political aspects of male homosexual experience. The lists of addresses of organizations and the like are now largely out of date.

92.      STEARN, JESS. The Sixth Man. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1961. 286 pp.

A heterosexual journalist surveys the homosexual world in the Eisenhower-Kennedy era, covering places of enter­tainment, professional interests, contacts, problems with the police and blackmail, homosexual circles, aging, and homosexual types.

93.      TRIPP, CLARENCE A. The Homosexual Matrix. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1975. 314 pp.

Stimulating, sometimes controversial discussion of sexual behavior from a multi-disciplinary perspective that owes much to the work of Alfred C. Kinsey. Strongly criticizing psychoanalytic beliefs and therapy, Tripp offers his own theories concerning the dynamics of sexual relationships and the conditions that produce eroticization of stimuli. He seeks to distinguish homosexual behavior as such from effeminacy and inver­sion.

94.      WEINBERG, GEORGE. Society and the Healthy Homosex­ual. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1972. 147 pp.

Pro-homosexual arguments of a heterosexual psychologist. Strongly condemning irrational antihomosexual prejudice, Weinberg's book disseminated the term "homophobia."

95.      WEST, DONALD J. Homosexuality Re-examined.

Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1977. 359 pp.

This volume—a revision of the author's 1968 book, Homo­sexuality—seeks to present an updated review of the psychological, sociological, and popular literature concerning the factors that determine sexual orientation, the place of homosexuals in society, and the problems they may encounter. The point of view is that of a reasonable, though somewhat old-fashioned psychiatric liberalism. See also his: "Homosexuality and Lesbianism," British Journal of Psychiatry, 143 (1983), 221-26.

96.      ZANE, DAVID. Oh! Downtrodden. Roslyn Heights, NY: Libra Publishing, 1976. 774 pp.

Autodidact's collage of quotation and opinion, focusing

in large part on the posited parallels of the stigmatiz- ation of homosexuals, Jews, blacks, cripples, and the mentally ill.



The appearance of the first Kinsey Report in 1948, fifteen years after the destruction of the Berlin Institut fiir Sexualforschung, represents a major turning point in the study of sex. The work of Kinsey and his associates placed the subject in a positivistic and quantitative framework that enhanced their authority in the Anglo- Saxon mind. The Report also showed that the incidence of homosexual behavior was much greater than had been previously assumed, and that it could no longer be re­garded as a rare anomaly. Moreover, the publications of Kinsey and his associates also contributed to a movement for homosexual law reform, which was to triumph in England and Germany in the late 1960s, enjoying considerable, though incomplete success in the United States. There was much resistance to the Kinsey Reports (the second, female one having appeared in 1953) , and some serious flaws were detected. However, no other research team succeeded in rivaling these monuments of investigation. In the 1970s the prestige of the Kinsey publications served as the pretext for a tribe of illegitimate offspring—the jour­nalistic "reports," which professed to offer large cross- sectional studies of current sexual mores, but were often little more than gossip.  


A BANCROFT, JOHN. Human Sexuality and Its Problems.

New York: Churchill Livingston, 1983. 447 pp. cottish author attempts a digest of sexual research to 1980 for "health professionals specially inter- ed in working with sexual problems." Clinically ented, the book's main focus is on research data and interpretation.

98.        BEACH, FRANK A. (ed.). Human Sexuality in Four Perspectives, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1977. 330 pp. Eleven well-coordinated papers surveying the state of the question from the developmental, sociological, physiolog¬ical, and evolutionary points of view. See esp. "Homosexuality" by Martin Hoffman (pp. 164-89)

99.  BELL, ALAN P., and MARTIN S. WEINBERG. Homosexual­ities: A Study of Diversity among Men and Women, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1978. 505 pp. This ambitious study, intended as a complement to the two masterworks of A. C. Kinsey et al. (see below), examines the various ways individuals have made social and psycho­logical adjustments to their homosexuality. The monograph is based on interviews conducted in the San Francisco Bay area with 1500 individuals (including black men and women, groups omitted from the two Kinsey studies) in a project supported by the National Institute of Mental Health. The book has attracted criticism on several grounds: (1) the limitation to San Francisco makes extrapolation to the rest of North America problematic; (2) interviewing standards are unclear; (3) the proposed typology of specific kinds of partnerships or lifestyles— close-coupled, open-coupled, functional, dysfunctional, and asexual—is of uncertain value.

100.    BELL, ALAN P., MARTIN S. WEINBERG, and SUE KIEFER HAMMERSMITH. Sexual Preference: Its Development in

Men and Women. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1981. 242 pp. Like the previous work, this monograph appears under the sponsorship of the Alfred C. Kinsey Institute for Sexual Research, Indiana University. Reviewing the existing literature, the authors conclude that there is no signif­icant correlation between early family experience and adult sexual preference and therefore that sexual prefer­ence must be controlled essentially by biological-con­stitutional factors. In addition to the expository volume, there is also a Statistical Appendix (Blooming- ton: Indiana University Press, 1981; 321 pp.).

101.    DOWNEY, LOIS. "Intergenerational Change in Sex Behavior: A Belated Look at Kinsey's Males," Archives of Sexual Behavior, 9 (1980), 307-17.

Five generations of respondents (5,460 white males) were compared in terms of total frequency of sexual behavior. Although homosexual contacts accounted for a constant percentage of unmarried males over the five generations, more males in each generation were actively engaging in homosexual activity.

102.    GAGNON, JOHN H. "Sex Research and Social Change," Archives of Sexual Behavior, 4 (1975), 111-41.

Argues that since the turn of the century there has been a close relationship between sex research and general social conditions. While the biological tradition is still strong today, new emphasis is being placed on a cog­nitive-social learning perspective.

103.    GEBHARD, PAUL, and ALAN B. JOHNSON. The Kinsey Data: Marginal Tabulations of the 1938-1963 Interviews Conducted by the Institute of Sex Research. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 1979. 642 pp.

Permits the reexamination of certain questions covered in the 1948 and 1953 volumes. Tables 432-569 contain data pertinent to homosexual behavior. Responds in part to questions posed by William G. Cochran et al., Statistical Problems in the Kinsey Report (Washington, DC: American

Statistical Association, 1954; 338 pp.).

97.      GIESE, HANS. Der homosexuelle Hann in der Welt.

Second ed. Stuttgart: F. Enke, 1964. 228 pp. Liberal views, conditioned by existentialist philosophy, of a closeted gay sex researcher (1920-70), who worked chiefly in Hamburg. See his: "Differences in the Homosex­ual Relations of Man and Woman," International Journal of Sexology, 7 (1954), 225-27. A contemporary synthesis is Rudolf Klimmer, Die Homosexualität als biologisch­soziologische Zeitfrage (Hamburg: Kriminalistik, Verlag für kriminalistische Fachliteratur, 1965; 487 pp.).

98.      HAEBERLE, ERWIN J. The Sex Atlas: A New Illustrat­ed Guide. New York: Seabury Press, 1978. 509 pp.

A San Francisco researcher's handbook of the whole range of human sexuality, with positive treatment of homosex­ual behavior.

99.      HITE, SHERRY. The Hite Report: A Nationwide Study on Female Sexuality. New York, NY: Macmillan, 1976. 438 pp.

Summarizes the responses of 3000 American women to a questionnaire concerning their own sexuality. This book launched the fashion for a series of pop avatars of Kinsey. As samples they are almost worthless, but they reveal much of changing fashions--in this instance Hite's own feminist concepts of sexuality. See also: The Hite Report on Male Sexuality (New York: Knopf, 1981; 1129 pp. ) .

100.    HUNT, MORTON. Sexual Behavior in the 1970s. New York: Playboy, 1974. 388 pp. Journalist's effort to update Kinsey's findings; as such, it is methodologically inadequate. See pp. 303-27.

101.     JAY, KARLA, and ALLEN YOUNG. The Gay Report. New York: Summit Books, 1979. 861 pp.

Modeled on The Hite Report and its sequel, this compendium of the results of questionnaires submitted by gay men and lesbians is entertaining and sometimes instructive. It does not reflect a serious effort to obtain a balanced sample. See also: James Spada, The Spada Report: The Newest Survey of Gay Male Sexuality (New York: New Amer­ican Library, 1979; 339 pp.).

102.    KATCHADOURIAN, HERANT A. (ed.). Human Sexuality: A Comparative and Developmental Perspective.

Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979. 358 pp.

Seventeen new papers by established sex researchers, ad­dressed to lay readers and summarizing the state of research from evolutionary, biological, psychological, and sociological perspectives.

110. KINSEY, ALFRED C., et al. "Concepts of Normality and Abnormality in Sexual Behavior," in: P. H. Hoch and J. Zubin (eds.). Psychological Development in Health and Disease. New York: Grune and Stratton, 1949, pp. 11-32. Surveys the historical origins of sexual taboos as shapers of current notions of "unnatural acts." Examining recent data, concludes that prevailing concepts of normality and abnormality in human sexual behavior are simply moral evaluations. On Kinsey's (1894-1956) life, see Wardell Pomeroy, Dr. Kinsey and the Institute for Sex Research (New York: Harper and Row, 1972; 479 pp.).


E. MARTIN, and PAUL. GEBHARD. Sexual Behavior in the Human Female. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 1953. 841 pp.

This sequel to Kinsey's first great study evaluates data obtained in interviews with some 6,000 white women. Sex­ual orientation is presented on a scale similar to the one used in the first volume; however, one to three per­cent of the sample were found to be essentially nonsexual. Information is provided in relation to age, marital status, educational level attained, parental occupation, class, decade of birth, age at onset of adolescence, rural-urban background, religion, techniques, and social significance. The volume, which benefits from some methodological refinements over the first one, contains a comparison of male and female response with respect to anatomy, physiology, psychological factors, neural mech­anisms, and hormonal factors.

112.    KINSEY, ALFRED C., WARDELL B. POMEROY, A. and CLYDE E. MARTIN. Sexual Behavior in the Human Male. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 1948. 804 pp. Monumental presentation of data gathered by the Institute of Sex Research, Indiana University, through interviews with 5,300 white males, concerning sexual outlets and the factors affecting the differential frequency of these various outlets. Sexual orientation is treated in the famous 0-6 scale, ranging from exclusive heterosexuality to exclusive homosexuality. Apart from its scientific quality, the book had a major impact on the concept of sex in the United States and throughout the world. The finding that 37% of American men had had homosexual experience to orgasm meant that the behavior could no longer be viewed as a rare and exotic deviation, but was a major facet of sexual experience. Some corrections to the data regarding homosexuality appear in Paul H. Geb­hard et al., Sex Offenders (New York: Harper and Row, 1965; 875 pp.).

113.    KRONHAUSEN, EBERHARD, and PHYLLIS KRONHAUSEN. Sex Histories of American College Men. New York: Bal- lantine, 1960. 313 pp.

Popularized account of the varieties of sexual behavior of American college men based upon personal histories of

about 200 students at an all-male college. Findings, including those for homosexuality, correspond with those of Kinsey.

114.    LESTER, DAVID. Unusual Sexual Behavior: The Standard Deviations. Springfield, IL: Charles Thomas, 1975. 242 pp.

Summarizes a large body of research that tends to attrib­ute sexual variation either to biology or to family circumstances. See pp. 37-123.

115.    MASTERS, WILLIAM H., and VIRGINIA E. JOHNSON. Human Sexual Response, Boston: Little, Brown, 1966. 366 pp.

This book, produced at Masters and Johnson's Reproductive Biology Research Foundation, St. Louis, made the couple famous. They supplemented Kinsey by producing more de­tailed accounts of the physiology of the sexual act. This volume contains little on homosexuality, for which see their Homosexuality in Perspective (Boston: Little, Brown, 1979; 450 pp.).

116.    ROBINSON, PAUL. The Modernization of Sex: Havelock Ellis, Alfred Kinsey, William Masters and Virginia Johnson. New York: Harper and Row, 1976. 200 pp.

Using an intellectual-history approach, Robinson seeks to identify the assumptions, biases, tensions, and modes of reasoning that characterize these four researchers, who are probably the most influential ones produced by the English-speaking world.

117.     SCHMIDT, GUNTER. "Allies and Persecutors: Science and Medicine in the Homosexuality Issue," JH, 10:3-4 (1984), 127-40.

Traces research from the third-sex theory at the beginning of the present century to some current hormonal ap­proaches, concluding that the results can be used against homosexuals and, in fact, have been.



This category comprises several types of publications: (a) acts or proceedings of scholarly congresses, often containing material of diverse scope and quality; (b) essay collections presenting new material commissioned to create a mosaic picture of a subject; (c) assemblages of reprinted articles or excerpts (sometimes termed "case­books"); (d) collected essays by a particular author. Some collections pertaining to lesbianism appear in the following chapter (II).

118. ALBEE, GEORGE, et al. Promoting Sexual Responsib-

ilitj and Preventing Sexual Problems, Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 1983, 440 pp. Twenty-two papers from a 1981 conference generally supporting the claim that the sexist nature of our society is the root cause of sexual problems,

119,     BARNEY, NATALIE CLIFFORD. Aventures de l'esprit. New York: Arno Press, 1975, 278 pp.

Reprint of the 1929 Paris edition of essays by the Amer­ican expatriate lesbian writer on Djuna Barnes, Romaine Brooks, Colette, Max Jacob, Marcel Proust, Renee Vivien and others.

120,     BENOÎT, LUC (ed.). Sortir. Montreal: L'Aurore, 1978. 303 pp.

Twenty-two essays and creative pieces on sexual variation and liberation by Québécois writers, some homosexual and some heterosexual.

121,     BIANCHI, HERMANUS, et al. Der homosexuelle Nächste. Hamburg: Furche Verlag, 1963. 288 pp.

Nine papers by Dutch and German writers generally sym­pathetic to homosexuality in the spheres of sociology, law, religion, etc. Incorporates material from the Dutch collection De homoseksuele naaste (Baarn: Bosch & Keuning, 1961; 158 pp.). See also Theodor Bovet (ed.), Probleme der Homophilie in medizinischer, theologischer und juristischer Sicht (Bern: Haupt, 1965); and Wilhart Siegmar Schlegel (ed.), Der grosse Tabu (Munich: Rutten und Loening, 1967),

122,     BULLOUGH, VERN L. (ed.). The Frontiers of Sex Research. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1979. 190 pp.

Eighteen essays by American scholars and activists on sex roles, normality, transvestism, transsexualism, homosex­uality, etc.

123,     CHARDANS, JEAN-LOUIS. History and Anthology of Homosexuality—Histoire et anthologie de l'homosex­ualité. Paris: Centre d'Etudes et de Documentation Pédagogiques, 1970. 381 pp.

Amateurish but extensive gathering of texts given parallel in English and French; illustrated,

124,     COOK, MARK, and GLENN WILSON (eds.). Love and Attraction: An International Conference. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1979. 554 pp.

Papers on a wide variety of topics. See pp. 258-60, 263, 337, 381-86, 387-93, 497-535.

125,     CORY, DONALD WEBSTER (pseud, of Edward Sagarin), (ed.). Homosexuality in Cross-Cultural Perspect­ive, New York: Julian Press, 1956. 440 pp.

Reprints older classic essays and chapters from books on homosexuality by such writers as Richard Burton, Edward

Carpenter, Alfred C. Kinsey, Paolo Mantegazza, Voltaire, and Edward Westermarck.

119.    COUROUVE, CLAUDE, and ROBERT KOZERAWSKI. Frag­ments. Paris: The authors, 1980-81. 4 brochures.

Collects about 200 pithy texts on the question of same-sex love, from Aragon to Zola.

120.    CREW, LOUIE. The Gay Academic. Palm Springs, CA: ETC, 1978. 444 pp.

A collection of twenty-five essays exploring the status of homosexuals in the academic community and their contribu­tions to traditional academic disciplines, including psychology, literature, history, religion, and philosophy.

127.    D'ARCANGELO, ANGELO. Inside the Sexual Revolu­tion. New York: Lancer Books, 1971. 381 pp.

Lightweight articles and essays by a gay journalist who captured some of the brash optimism of the "Stonewall mood" in New York City.

128.   DUYVES, MATTIAS, et al. (eds.). Among Men, among Women: Sociological and Historical Recognition of Homosocial Arrangements. Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam, 1983. 611 pp.

Proceedings of an international conference held in Amster­dam on June 22-26, 1983, sponsored by the Gay Studies and Women's Studies Programs at the University of Amsterdam. All texts are in English. In addition to loose papers issued as supplements, however, there is a selection of fourteen revised texts in Dutch: Onder mannen, onder vrouwen: studies van homosociale emancipatie (Amsterdam: SUA, 1984).

129.    GAGNON, JOHN H., and WILLIAM SIMON (eds.). Sexual Deviance. New York: Harper and Row, 1967. 310 pp.

With one exception, this is a collection of articles reprinted from other sources. Parts 3 and 4 contain pertinent articles by Nancy Achilles, Gagnon and Simon, Evelyn Hooker, Maurice Leznoff, Albert J. Reiss, and William A. Westley.

130.    GAY, A. NOLDER (pseud, of William Koelsche). The View from the Closet: Essays on Gay Life and Liberation, 1973-1977. Boston: Union Park Press, 1978. 108 pp.

Urbane commentary on homosexual life and history by a Boston scholar and newspaper columnist.

131.    GAY ACADEMIC UNION (ed.). Universities and the Gay Experience: Proceedings of a Conference. New York: Gay Academic Union, 1974. New York: Gay Academic Union, 1974. 105 pp. Addresses, papers and discussions from the first GAU Con­ference held at John Jay College, New York, on Thanksgiv­ing Weekend, 1973, and covering such topics as coming

out, the history of science, literature, and religion. The acts of succeeding annual GAU conferences were not published as such, though some individual papers were printed in the periodicals Gai Saber and Gay Books Bul­letin.

132.    HAHN, PIERRE (ed.). Français encore un effort: l'homosexualité et sa répression: Choix de textes. Paris: Martineau, 1970. 215 pp. Anthology of short texts from ancient Greece to the present, with commentary by Hahn, a French gay activist.

133.    HAIRE, NORMAN (ed.). World League for Sexual Reform: Congress, London, 1929. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner and Co., 1930. 670 pp.

Papers covering a wide spectrum of subjects addressed by the sexual reform movement on the eve of the Great Depression.

134.    A Homosexual Emancipation Miscellany, c. 1835- 1952. New York: Arno Press, 1975. 172 pp.

Contains the poem "Don Leon," falsely attributed to Lord Byron, as well as documents by Magnus Hirschfeld, the British Society for the Study of Sex Psychology, and the American gay rights pioneers Henry Gerber and Henry Hay.

135.     ITALIAANDER, ROLF (ed.). Weder Krankheit noch Verbrechen: Plädoyer für eine Minderheit. Hamburg: Gala Verlag, 1969. 332 pp. Collection of short pieces by well-known German and foreign writers, which are generally supportive of homosexual rights, accompanied by historical and biograph­ical notes.

136.     JAY, KARLA, and ALLEN YOUNG (eds). Out of the Closets: Voices of Gay Liberation. New York: Doug­las Books, 1972. 403 pp.

Collection of short articles, many experiential and milit­ant, representing the radical phase of gay liberation immediately following the Stonewall Rebellion. See also their other collections: After You're Out (New York: Links, 1975; 296 pp.); and Lavender Culture (New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1979; 493 pp.).

137.     JOHANSEN, ANETTE, and JORGEN JOHANSEN. Rapport om homofile. Copenhagen: Lindhart og Ringhof, 1973. 187 pp.

Essays and interviews on social conditions of homosexuals.

138.     KEPNER, JAMES. A Selection of Gay Liberation Essays: 1953-1973. Torrance, CA: Kepner, 1973. 40 pp.

A group of articles by a senior figure in the Los Angeles gay movement, reprinted mainly from ONE Magazine, HELP/ Drummer, and the early Advocate.

139.    KLEINBERG, SEYMOUR. Alienated Affections: Being Gay in America. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1980. 256 pp.

Somewhat astringent essays written from a radical-exist­entialist perspective by a New York City professor, who was one of the founders of the Gay Academic Union.

140.    KRICH, AARON M. (ed.). The Homosexuals: As Seen by Themselves and Thirty Authorities. New York: Cit­adel Press, 1954. 346 pp.

Part 1 consists of individual case histories of homosex­uals and autobiographical accounts written by them. Part 2 presents "an overview of major trends in treatment" by physicians and psychoanalysts. This book is a charac­teristic document of a period in which the views and experiences of "deviants" were treated as meaningful only when interpreted and validated by judgmental psychi­atric authorities.

141.    LORAINE, JOHN A. Understanding Homosexuality: Its Biological and Psychological Bases. New York: Am­erican Elsevier, 1974. 217 pp.

Nine articles treating such topics as psychological, biological, and endocrinological factors in the etiology of homosexuality; religious and legal aspects; and the current role of homophile organizations.

142.    MARMOR, JUDD (ed.) Sexual Inversion: The Multiple Roots of Homosexuality. New York: Basic Books, 1965. 358 pp.

Collection of papers in the fields of history, compar­ative zoology, genetics, endocrinology, sociology, anthropology, law, psychology, and psychoanalytic psychi­atry. This collection, still dominated by psychiatric attitudes, should be compared with its more liberal successor: Judd Marmor (ed.), Homosexual Behavior: A Modern Reappraisal (New York: Basic Books, 1980; 416 pp.).

143.    REES, JOHN TUDOR, and HARLEY V. USILL (eds.). They Stand Apart: A Critical Survey of the Problems of Homosexuality. London: William Heinemann, 1955. 220 pp.

A collection of articles from diverse points of view on the legal situation, the nature of homosexuality, whether it is harmful, and its moral status.

144.    RUITENBEEK, HENDRIK M. (ed.). The Problem of Homosexuality in Modern Society. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1963. 304 pp.

Reprints sixteen papers, several of them (such as those by George Devereux, Evelyn Hooker, and Albert J. Reiss) classics, generally in psychiatry and the social sciences.

145.    SCHWULENREFERAT IM ALLGEMEINEN STUDENTENAUSSCHUSS DER FU BERLIN (ed.). Dokumentation der Vortragsreihe "Homosexualität und Wissenschaft." pp. Papers by fifteen authors presented at the Free Univer­sity, Berlin, on law, literature, politics, and the history and future of the gay movement in Germany.

146.    WARREN, CAROL (ed.). Sexuality: Encounters, Identities, and Relationships. Beverly Hills: Sage, 1976. 136 pp.

Reprints six papers on such topics as massage parlors; the interrelation between sex, situation, and strategies in the pairing ritual of homo ludens; secrecy in the lesbian world; bisexuality in men; family attitudes and Mexican male homosexuality; and meanings and process in erotic aggression.

147.   WELTGE, RALPH W. (ed.). The Same Sex: An Appraisal

of Homosexuality. Philadelphia: Pilgrim Press, 1969. 164 pp. Eight of the essays in this book discuss homosexuality (esp. in relation to religion, ethics, and the law) fairly neutrally, while three reflect the point of view of the emerging gay movement.

148.     ZIEGLER, ALEXANDER. Kein Recht auf Liebe: Report­agen, Aufsätze, Stücke. Frankfurt am Main: Fischer, 1978. 278 pp.

Crusading essays on pederasty, homosexuals in the work place and other subjects by a Swiss gay novelist.



Until quite recently general encyclopedias, whose publish­ers were aware that the volumes were destined for the shelves of secondary school and college libraries, discretely shunned the whole subject of homosexuality or dismissed it with a few evasive or uninformative remarks. Hence the topic was treated only in specialized reference works, which were, however, usually compiled by individ­uals working in the tradition of the sexual science that had emerged in the early twentieth century. Their treatments summarize what was then known (or simply believed) by the major investigators of homosexual behavior and psychology.

149. ELLIS, ALBERT, and ALBERT ABARBANEL (eds.). The Encyclopedia of Sexual Behavior. New York: Haw­thorn Books, 1961. 2 vols. Articles by various writers with a cross-cultural and international emphasis. While attitudes are often dated, the entries still convey useful information. Bibliographies; index.

150.    GIESE, HANS. Wörterbuch der Sexualwissenschaft. Bonn: Instituts-Verlag, 1952. 216 pp. Dictionary of sex research compiled by a (closeted) West German homosexual scholar.

151.    HAIRE, NORMAN (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Sexual Knowledge. New York: Coward McCann, 1934. 636 pp. Based in large measure on material assembled in France by "Dr. Costler" (Arthur Koestler). Haire, an Australian physician and leader of the sex reform movement in the interwar period, was homosexual.

152.    HEGELER, INGE, and STEN HEGELER. An ABZ of Love. New York: Medical Press of New York, 1963. 288 pp.

Translation of a Danish work. About 600 entries, with 120 drawings; emphasizes sexual techniques.

153.    MARCUSE, MAX (ed.). Handwörterbuch der Sexualwis­senschaft. Bonn: A. Marcuse und E. Weber, 1923. 481 pp.

An encyclopedic dictionary fusing sexological and psychi­atric viewpoints. Contains several outstanding articles by Hans Licht (Paul Brandt).

154.    ROBINSON, VICTOR (ed.). Encyclopaedia Sexualis: A Comprehensive Encyclopaedia-Dictionary of the Sexual Sciences. New York: Digwall-Rock, 1936. 819 pp.

Reflects European sex research of the pre-1933 period, though many articles are written by Americans. In addition to the usual entries, see "Elmira Reformatory, Sex in," "Hirschfeld, Magnus," and "Homosexual Twins."

155.     SANTA VICCA, EDMUND F. The Treatment of Homosex­uality in Current Encyclopedias. Ann Arbor: Uni­versity of Michigan, 1977. 323 pp. (unpublished dissertation).

Treats mainly general encyclopedias, rather than special­ized ones.



The emergence of gay and lesbian studies has posed special problems for cataloguing and collection of materials, some of which can be best solved in the special gay and lesbian archives. As regards the profession, anecdotal evidence suggests that a high proportion of male librarians are homosexual, but the actual incidence and its sociopsychol- ogical grounding have not been elucidated.

156. BERMAN, SANFORD. The Joy of Cataloging. Phoenix: Oryx Press, 1980. 242 pp.

Heterodox and stimulating reflections by a Minnesota librarian who has championed the cause of adapting cata­loguing practices to new social realities.

157.     BROOKS, JOAN, and HELEN C. HOFFER (eds.). Sexual Nomenclature: A Thesaurus. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1976.

Computer printout of 2,000 descriptors (subject headings) and their hierarchies, as well as 250 cross-references from unused to used terms, documenting cataloguing practice at the Kinsey Institute for Sex Research, Indiana University.

158.     FRASER, JAMES A., and HAROLD A. AVERILL. Organiz­ing an Archives: The Canadian Gay Archives Exper­ience. Toronto: Canadian Gay Archives, 1983. 68 pp. (CGA Publication no. 8)

Comprehensive, practical guide to planning and running a gay/lesbian archive, presenting the CGA experience and recommendations for use elsewhere. See also: Rick Bebout, "Stashing the Evidence: The Canadian Gay Arch­ives," Body Politic, no. 55 (August 1979), 21-22, 26.

159.     GELLATLY, PETER. Sex Magazines in the Library Collection: A Scholarly Study of Sex in Serials and Periodicals. New York: Haworth Press, 1981. 142 pp.

Twelve papers on an important body of material not adequately addressed, as a rule, in libraries. Note esp. Frederick McEnroe, "A Select Bibliography of Gay and Lesbian Periodicals" (pp. 87-97).

160.     GITTINGS, BARBARA. "Combatting the Lies in the Library," in: Louie Crew (ed.), The Gay Academic (Palm Springs: ETC, 1978), 107-20.

Lively account of experiences in the American Library Association's Task Force on Gay Liberation, which she heads. See also the brochure published by this task force (subtitled: How to Get Gay Materials into Libraries: A Guide to Library Selections Policies fy the Non-Librar­ian): Stuart R. Miller, Censored, Ignored, Overlooked, Too Expensive? (Philadelphia: ALA Gay Task Force, 1979; 10 PP-)

161.     GRECO, STEPHEN, and CHARLES FABER. "In Search of Our History: Archives, Libraries and Projects in History," Advocate, no. 330 (November 12, 1981), 22-27.

On emerging institutions in New York City, San Francisco, and Los Angeles.

162.    HANCKEL, FRANCES, and JOHN CUNNINGHAM. "Can Young Gays Find Happiness in YA Books?" Wilson Library Bulletin, 50 (1976), 528-34.

Positive advice on selecting fiction with gay themes and characters for library collections serving young adults.

Since this article was written, there has been consider­able improvement, both quantitatively and qualitatively; see: Christine Jenkins and Julie Morris, A Look at Gay- ness: An Annotated Bibliography of Gay Materials for Toung People. Second ed. (Ann Arbor: Kindred Spirit Press, 1982; 19 pp.).

163.    LEHMAN, J. LEE. "The Lesbian Herstory Archives," Advocate, no. 264 (April 5, 1979), 14-17.

Account of the formation of the Archives in New York City in 1973, its scope, acquisitions, and cataloguing prac­tices. See also Beth Hodges, "Interview with Joan and Deborah of the Lesbian Herstory Archives," Sinister Wisdom, no.11 (Fall 1979), 3-13; and no. 13 (Spring 1980), 101-05. Bibliographies and information about acquisitions are published in Lesbian Herstory Archives News. See also: Clair Potter, The Lesbian Periodicals Index (Tallahassee, FL: Naiad, 1986; 413 pp.)

164.    MICHEL, DEE. Gay Studies Thesaurus. Revised ed. Princeton, NJ: The author, 1985. 76 pp.

Contains a total of 1215 items, of which 911 are preferred terms, to assist in "indexing and accessing materials of relevance to gay culture, history, politics and psychol­ogy." This work, with a male emphasis, may be comple­mented by the Lesbian Periodicals Index Thesaurus and the Women's Studies Database.

165.     TIMMONS, STUART. "Special Report: Gay/Lesbian Archives," Advocate, no. 447 (May 27. 1986), 30-33.

More than sixty gay and lesbian collections now exist. They share poor finances and a growing concern about the preservation of their holdings.

166.    WOLF, STEVE. "Sex and the Single Cataloguer," in: Celeste West and Elizabeth Katz (eds.). Revolting Librarians. San Francisco: Bootlegger Press, 1972, pp. 39-44.

About prejudices in subject headings and classification systems. In the same volume, see also Bianca Guttag, "Homophobia in Library School" (pp. 37-38).



The establishment of a large and viable gay and lesbian press in North America has been a surprising and welcome development of the post-Stonewall years—even if the papers are more notable for their numbers than for sustained quality of journalism. Pre-Hitler Germany offers some precedent, and currently there are significant gay presses in France, the Netherlands, Australia and a few other countries. A different topic is the treatment of homosexuality in the mainstream press, as well as the

newer media of radio and television. For a long time these mainstream outlets drew a veil of silence over the whole matter. Once this blackout was ended, they retained a real potential for stereotypical and inadequate cover­age. Concern for apparent imbalance has called into being several homosexual groups to monitor coverage, especially in television—where there has been some resentment at the appearance of what others regard as yet another pressure group.

167.   ANDERSON, SCOTT. "The Gay Press Proliferates—and So Do Its Problems," Advocate, no. 282 (December 13, 1979), 19-23.

This issue contains other relevant articles.

168.     ARMSTRONG, DAVID. A Trumpet to Arms: Alternative Media in America. Boston: South End Press, 1981. 359 pp.

An illustrated account of the rise of the "underground press" in the 1960s and 1970s. See esp. pp. 230-53.

169.     BRODY, MICHAL (ed.). Are We There Yet? A Continu­ing History of Lavender Woman, A Chicago Lesbian Newspaper, 1971-1976. Iowa City: Aunt Lute, 1985. 188 pp.

Reprints of articles interspersed with interviews present a composite picture of the paper and its times.

170.     CHESMAN, ANDREA, and POLLY JOAN. Guide to Women's Publishing. Paradise, CA: Dustbooks, 1978. 304 PP«

Includes data on lesbian presses, magazines, newspapers, literary-cultural journals, print shops, bookstores, and organizations.

171.     CLARKE, LIGE, and JACK NICHOLS. I Have More Fun with You Than Anybody. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1972. 152 pp.

Memoirs of the gay activist lovers who edited the New York City Newspaper Gay.

172.     COLLYER, ROBIN, et al. "The Body Politic Trial," Centerfold (Toronto), (February-March 1979), 92-114.

Account of the prosecution of the distinguished Canadian gay monthly for printing an article on pedophilia. Need­less to say, the ongoing course of the trials is covered in editorials and stories in The Body Politic itself.

173.     COON, EARL O. "Homosexuality in the News," Ar­chives of Criminal Dynamics, 2 (1957), 843-65.

Purports to offer a method of reading between the lines of news stories to detect homosexual situations that were not explicitly mentioned in the press of that day.

                GORZINE, HAROLD JAY. The Gay Press. St. Louis: Washington University, 1977. 277 pp. (unpublished dissertation)

Careful study of selected runs of gay newspapers.

                A Gay News Chronology, January 1969-May 1975. New York: Arno Press, 1975. 156 pp. Abstracts (562) of articles appearing in The New York Times. May be supplemented for succeeding years by con­sulting The New York Times Index.

                "Gay News: How Good Are the Mainstream Media?" Ad­vocate, no. 347 (July 22, 1982), 25-27, 54.

Most gay reporters and editors remain closeted, and thus a newsroom climate antagonistic to gays is allowed to thrive and influence the choice and tone of stories.

                GIROUARD, MICHEL. Je vis mon homosexualité. Mont­real: Québécor, 1980. 224 pp.

Autobiographical account of a French-Canadian television personality.

                GOULD, ROBERT E. "Homosexuality on Tэlevision," Medical Aspects of Human Sexuality. 7 (October 1973), 116-27.

An early article when offerings were indeed meager. Lists of relevant television programs (of necessity incomplete) may be found in William Parker, Homosexuality Bibliog­raphy: Supplement, 1970-1975 (Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1977), pp. 274-76; and idem, Homosexuality Bibliography: Second Supplement, 1976-1982 (Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1985), pp. 322-27.

                GRIER, BARBARA, and COLETTA REID (eds.). The Lavender Herring: Lesbian Essays from The Ladder. Oakland, CA: Diana Press, 1976. 357 pp. Writings selected from the leading lesbian monthly, The Ladder (1956-72), which was itself reprinted in its entirety, with a new index, by Arno Press, New York, 1975.

                HANSCOMBE, GILLIAN, and ANDREW LUMSDEN. Title Fight: The Battle for Gay News. London: Brilliance Books, 1984. 264 pp.

Account of the complex maneuvers that resulted in the demise of Britain's chief gay newspaper.

                HEMMINGS, SUSAN. "Horrifjic Practices: How Lesbians Were Presented in the Newîspapers of 1978," in: Gay Left Collective (ed.), Homosexuality: Power and Politics. London: Allison and Busby, 1980, pp. 157-71.

In 1978 British newspapers broke their habitual silence on lesbianism in a series of sensational stories—on a lesbian Member of Parliament; on|artificial insemina­tion; and on a teacher.

                HOFSESS, JOHN. "The Sexual Niggers," Content: Can­ada's National News Media Magazine,(August 1977), 15, 18-19, 21-25.

Surveys treatment of homosexuals in major newspapers and magazines of Canada.

                 HOHMANN, JOACHIM S. (ed.). Der Eigene: Ein Blatt für männliche Kultur, Frankfurt am Main: Foerster, 1981. 379 pp.

Selection of articles, fiction and illustrations from the German magazine, which appeared in Berlin—with interruptions— from 1896 to 1931. See also the same editor's selection from the Swiss magazine (1933-67) Der Kreis (Frankfurt am Main: Foerster, 1980; 285 pp.)

                 HOWES, KEITH, and JULIAN MELDRIM. Declaring an Interest: A Projected Catalogue of Gay Images on Television in Britain. Third ed. London: Hall- Carpenter Archives, 1983. 56 pp.

An alphabetical list of programs (including discussions, documentaries, television plays, series, and films) broadcast since 1954 on British public and commercial television, with brief descriptive comments. Index of persons.

                LAERMER, RICHARD. "The Televised Gay: How We're Pictured on the Tube," Advocate, no. 413 (February 5, 1985), 20-25.

Well informed survey, with relevant quotations from net­work officials and producers.

                 KPFA-FM (Radio Station, Berkeley, CA). The Homosexual in Our Society: The Transcript of a Program Broadcast on November 24, 1958. San Francisco: Pan-Graphic Press, 1959. 32 pp. Two-hour program with gay and non-gay discussants, perhaps the first of its kind. Text reprinted in Mattachine Review, 6:7 (July 1960), 12-28; 6:8 (August 1960), 9-25.

                 LESBIAN AND GAY MEDIA ADVOCATES. Talk Back! The Gay Person's Guide to Media Action. Boston: Al- yson, 1982. 119 pp.

How to get complaints about homophobic material in the media taken seriously.

                LEVINE, RICHARD M. "How the Gay Lobby Has Changed Television," TV Guide, 29:22 (May 30, 1981), 2-6; and 29:23 (June 6, 1981), 47-52.

Objective presentation of the impact of the Gay Media Task Force in pressing for positive images of gays and les­bians, as well as in combatting stereotypes.

                MAURIAC, JEAN-PIERRE. "Arcadie, l'homophile et la presse," Arcadie, 243 (March 1974), 148-66.

The monthly Arcadie, at that time the only French gay periodical, contrasts its role with that of the main­stream press.

                MAYNOR, JOE E. "Fundamentalist Ministers vs. Gay Rights Groups," TV Guide, 28:46 (November 15, 1980), 16-20.

A clash in Charlotte, NC, presents problems for the Federal Communications Commission.

191.    MONTGOMERY, KATHRYN. "Gay Activists and the Networks," Journal of Communication, 31 (Summer 1981), 49-57.

Gay activists have had success with the television networks by adapting themselves to their structure, geographical and operationally, while using techniques of surveillance and feedback. See also her (unpub­lished) dissertation: Gay Activists and the Networks: A Case Study of Special Interest Pressure on the Networks (Los Angeles: University of Southern California, 1979; 243 pp.).

192.    NICHOLSON, JOE. "Coming Out at the New York Post," Columbia Journalism Review, 20 (March-April 1982), 26-27.

Personal account of experiences at the controversial New York City afternoon paper.

193.     PARK, JAN CARL. "An Annotated Bibliography of Gay and Lesbian Communication Studies, Alternative Communications, 1:2 (May 1979). [entire issue]

Survey by the editor of Alternative Communications, published by the Caucus of Gay Male and Lesbian Concerns of the Speech Communication Association.

194.     PEARCE, FRANK. "How to Be Immoral and 111, Pathetic and Dangerous All at the Same Time," in: Stanley Cohen and Jack Young (eds.), The Manufacture of the News. London: Constable, 1973, pp. 284-301.

Analysis and critique of the treatment of homosexuals in the British media,

195.     PECK, ABE. Uncovering the Sixties: The Life and Times of Underground Newspapers. New York: Pan­theon, 1985. 304 pp.

Lively account by a participant of the rise, heyday, and fall of the underground presses, 1964-1973, cast against the culture and politics of the era. Only sporadic dis­cussion of the gay/lesbian press, which is (perhaps ironically) virtually the sole survivor of this once flourishing phenomenon.

196.     PIERSON, RANSDELL. "Uptight on Gay News," Columbia Journalism Review (March-April 1982), 25-33.

Concludes that, while papers frequently present gays in a crime or drag-queen context and sporadically report on their political activities, they almost never treat the wider issues of how gays live.

197.    RADER, DOTSON. "An American Son," Rolling Stone, (April 27, 1973), 44-46.

On the brief fame of Lance Loud, a young man of Santa Barbara who came out on the television documentary "An American Family."

198.     SCHMIDT, WOLFGANG JOHANN (ed.). Jahrbuch fiir sexuelle Zwischenstufen. Frankfurt am Main: Qum- ran, 1983. 2 vols.

Selection of articles from the great German Yearbook, which had been published by the Scientific-Humanitarian Committee from 1899 to 1923. Includes Tables of Contents for all issues.

199.     SPIEGELMAN, WILLARD. "The Progress of a Genre: Gay Journalism and Its Audience," Salmagundi, 58 (1982), 308-25.

A not unsympathetic examination of some continuities in gay male journalism, which yet concludes: "To define an audience through sexual inclination alone is to appeal to the lowest common denominator, the cravings of the flesh."

200.    WINTER, ALAN D. The Gay Press: A History of the Gay Community and Its Publications. Austin, TX: The author, 1977. 114 pp. Perceives four phases in the American gay press: secre­tive and conservative (1950s); open and moderate (1960s); radical and militant (1969-71); seeking new directions (1972ff . ).



The existence of "personals" columns in middle-class news­papers opened a path for homosexuals to meet—at least in a few newspapers willing to accept discreetly worded notices. With the lifting of taboos in the 1960s, it was possible to create explicit ads—though the franker ones appeared mainly in the underground press and gay papers. Sociologists have studied these ads as evidence of court­ship patterns and concepts of desired sexual partners.

201.     ASCHAFFENBURG, GUSTAV. "Homosexuelle Werbeschrift­en," Ärztliche Sachverständigenzeitung, 34 (1928), 351-54.

Homosexual advertisements in Weimar Germany.

202.     BERNAY, JÉRÔME. "Les homosexuels à travers les petites annonces du Nouvel Observateur," Arcadie, no. 298 (October 1978), 505-18.

Attitudes revealed by French personal advertisements.

203. DEAUX, KAY, and RANDEL HANNA. "Courtship in the

Personals Column: The Influence of Gender and Sexual Orientation," Sex Roles, 11:5/6 (1984), 353-75.

An analysis of 800 ads, equally balanced between men and women, heterosexual and homosexual, shows that men were more concerned with physical characteristics, while women stressed psychological factors. Homosexuals were more concerned with sexuality, while heterosexuala specified a broader range of characteristics.

204.    KLIMMER, RUDOLF. "Annoncen in einer Zeitschrift für Homosexuelle," Nervenarzt, 40 (1969), 272-75.

Analysis of ads in a Danish gay magazine. See also his article on S & M ads in: Sexualmedizin, 4 (1974), 585- 88.

205.     LANER, MARY R. "Media Mating II: 'Personals' Advertisements of Lesbian Women," JH, 4 (1978), 41-61.

Advertisements were found to be more like those of nonles- bian women advertisers than like those of men of either orientation.

206.     LANER, MARY R., and G. LEVI KAMEL. "Media Mating I: Newspaper 'Personals' Ads of Homosexual Men," JH, 3 (1977), 149-62.

Homosexual ads were more frank than heterosexual ones, and more specific about goals for desired relationships, reflecting the "virilization" of the gay male subculture.

207.     LEE, JOHN A. "Meeting Males by Mail," in Louie Crew (ed.), The Gay Academic. Palm Springs, CA: ETC, 1978, pp. 415-27.

Besides attempting to characterize the differences between Canadian and U.S. ads (based on analysis of the ads in Body Politic and The Advocate respectively, Lee reports on his own luck with ads he placed.

208.     LUMBY, MALCOLM E. "Men Who Advertise for Sex," JH, 4 (1978), 63-72.

Based on a content analysis of 1,111 paid ads in The Advocate, characterises differences between personal and commercial (models, masseurs, and escorts) ads.

209.     NÄCKE, PAUL. "Angebot und Nachfrage von Homosex­uellen in Zeitungen," Archiv für Kriminalanthro­pologie und Kriminalistik, 8 (1902), 339-50; 9 (1902), 217-18.

Together with "Päderastische Annoncen"—loc. cit., pp. 215-16—the first studies of gay "personals" advertis­ements.

210.    NACKE, PAUL. "Zeitungsannoncen von weiblichen Homosexuellen," Archiv für Kriminalanthopologie und Kriminalistik, 10 (1903), 225-29.

On turn-of-the-century lesbian advertisements.

211.    PRAETORIUS, NUMA (pseud, of Eugen Wilhelm). "Homosexuelle Inserate," Anthropophyteia, 6 (1909), 167-77.

Study of personal ads in the Paris newspaper Le Journal. Followed by another study on ads in Le Supplement, ibid., 8 (1911), 231-43. Cf. also ibid., 8 (1911), 224-31.

212.    PRESTON, JOHN, and FREDERICK BRANDT. Classified Affairs: A Gay Man's Guide to the Personal Ads. Boston: Alyson, 1984. 120 pp. How to write and interpret an ad, and where to place it--with model examples.

213.    "Thirty-one Words," Body Politic, no. 113 (April 1985), 29-32, 45.

Opinions by various members of the editorial board of the Canadian gay monthly regarding the acceptability of a racially explicit ad. Note an earlier contribution by a reader (Allen Max), ibid., no. 55 (August 1979), 6.



The concept of public opinion tends to oscillate between two objects: (1) the views held by everyone who holds an opinion, the public in the broad sense; and (2) the views of "opinion-making" elites—professionals, politicians, journalists, etc. Both concepts have been employed in measuring attitudes regarding homosexual behavior. Apart from their value in supporting legal and political efforts to secure civil rights for homosexuals, public opinion surveys provide information on myths and stereotypes perpetuated by the masses.

214. BOWMAN, RICHARD. "Public Attitudes toward Homosex­uality in New Zealand," International Review of Modern Sociology, 9 (1979), 224-243. Interviews with 321 heterosexual adults in two New Zealand cities found that the great majority did not express anti- homosexual attitudes and supported removal of negative sanctions against homosexuals.

214A. CHAPPELL, DUNCAN, and PAUL R. WILSON. "Public Attitudes to the Reform of the Law Relating to Abortion and Homosexuality," Australian Law Journal, 42 (1968), 120-21, 175-79. Shows the lingering of older attitudes. See also the follow-up article, idem, "Changing Attitudes toward Homosexual Law Reform," ibid., 46 (1972), 22-29; and Hong Sung-Mooh, "Australian Attitudes towards Homosexu­ality: A Comparison with College Students," Journal of Psychology, 117 (1984), 89-96.

215.    DE BOER, CONNIE. "The Polls: Attitudes toward Homo­sexuality," Public Opinion Quarterly, 44 (Summer 1978), 266-76.

Offers some international comparisons.

216.     "Les français et l'homosexualité: sondage réalisé

par 1 ' I. F. 0. P.," Arcadie, no. 304 (April 1979), 283-68.

Results of a survey on homosexuality by the French In­stitute of Public Opinion, presented with commentary by André Baudry, Marc Daniel, and others.

217.    GALLUP OPINION INDEX, PRINCETON. "Homosexuality in America—Poll Findings," The Gallup Report, no. 147 (October 1977), 1-24.

A majority held that homosexuals deserve equal rights in jobs, but in general the poll discloses a mixed pattern. Some minor advances are shown in the subsequent study, ibid., no. 205, 3-19.

218.    GLASSNER, BARRY, and CAROL OWEN. "Variations in Attitudes toward Homosexuality," Cornell Journal of Social Relations, 11 (1976), 161-76.

Reports on an attitude questionnaire given to 61 under­graduates at a St. Louis university. Being female, having known homosexuals, and having parents perceived as having an accepting attitude toward them were factors associated with less social distance from homosexuals.

219.    GROSS, ALAN E., et al. "Disclosure of Sexual Orientation and Impressions of Male and Female Homosexuals," Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 6 (1980), 307-14.

In a videotape test, homosexually identified targets were judged more stereotypically by subjects of their own sex than by tho se of the other sex.

220.    HENLEY, NANCY, and FRED PINCUS. "Interrelationship of Sexist, Racist, and Antihomosexual Attitudes," Psychological Reports, 42 (1978), 83-90.

Evaluating a questionnaire adminstered to 211 undergrad­uates, sexism and antihomosexual attitudes were negatively correlated with father's and mother's education. Religious and political orientation was also important.

221.    "Homosexuality: Public Attitudes," Drum, no. 25 (August 1967), 11-13, 29-31.

Reports on a CBS survey.

222.    HONG, SUNG-MOOK. "Sex, Religion and Factor Analytically Derived Attitudes toward Homosexual­ity," Australian Journal of Sex, Marriage and Family, 4 (1983), 142-50.

Two factors were identified: Social-Personal Acceptance and Perceived Normality, indicating that attitudes to­ward homosexuality involve multidimensional rather

than unidimensional concepts.

223.     IRWIN, PATRICK, and NORMAN L. THOMPSON. "Accep­tance of the Rights of Homosexuals: A Social Profile," JH, 3 (1977), 107-21.

Evaluating data from a nationwide survey, the authors conclude that respondents who were willing to grant rights to homosexuals tended to be well educated, young, Jewish or nonreligious, from urban areas, raised in the Northeast or Pacific states, and willing to provide freedom of expression to people with nonconformist political ideas.

224.     LARSEN, KNUD S. et al. "Attitudes of Heterosexuals toward Homosexuality: A Likert-type Scale and Construct Validity," Journal of Sex Research, 16 (1980), 245-57.

Reports on the development and testing with undergraduates of a 20-item Heterosexual Attitudes Toward Homosexuality (HATH) Scale. See alpo Larsen et al., "Anti-Black At­titudes, Religious Orthodoxy, Permissiveness, and Sex­ual Information: A Study of the Attitudes of Heterosex­uals toward Homosexuality," ibid., 19 (1983), 105-18.

225.     LAURENS, ANDRE. Les Francais: Passions et tabous. Paris: Editions Alain Moreau, 1985. 328 pp. Correlates results of public opinion surveys conducted by the Institut Francais de Recherches Economiques et Soc- iales. French opinion on homosexuality is changing, thanks to extensive discussion in the media. More toler­ant views are held by young people and by Socialist Party voters.

226.     LEVITT, EUGENE E., and ALBERT D. KLASSEN. "Public Attitudes toward Homosexuality: Part of the 1970 National Survey by the Institute for Sex Research," JH (1974), 29-43.

Based on a sample of 30,018 Americans, prsents data on feelings of distrust and repugnance, rights of homosex­uals, causes and cures of homosexuality, legal controls, and homophobia.

227.    MCCLOSKY, HERBERT, and ALIDA BRILL. Dimensions of Tolerance: What Americans Believe about Civil Liberties. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1983. 512 pp.

This major study compares the findings of two surveys commissioned by the Russell Sage Foundation with others. Concludes that tolerance must be learned, and the sophis­ticated arguments on which it is based make it much harder to learn than intolerance. The surveys also highlight the role of the elites, who tend to hold views in advance of those of the population at large, and thereby to serve to some extent as a bulwark against the potential "tyranny of the majority." See esp. pp. 202-07.

228.     MILLHAM, JIM, et al. "A Factor-Analytic Concep tualization of Attitudes toward Male and Female Homosexuals," JH 2 (1976), 3-10. Evaluating a questionnaire administered to 785 male and female heterosexuals, it was found that they make greater distinctions in conceptualizing homosexuality than had been previously recognized.

229.    MORIN, JEAN-PAUL, and GEORGETTE ST. ARNAUD. "Per­ceptions de l'homosexualité dans la société qué­bécoise contemporaine," Service Social (Canada), 24 (July-December 1975), 47-89.

Includes comparison of opinions of homosexuals with a random sample of the public.

230.    NEWMAN, GRAEME. Comparative Deviance: Reception and Law in Six Cultures. New York: Elsevier, 1976. 332 pp.

Study of opinion and mores in India, Indonesia, Iran, Italy, the United States, and Yugoslavia showed wide variations with regard to abortion and homosexuality, whereas murder, robbery, rape and the like were univer­sally condemned.

231.     NYBERG, KENNETH L., and JON P. ALSTON. "Analysis of Public Attitudes toward Homosexual Behavior," JH, 2 (1976-77), 99-107.

Data from a 1974 survey of 1,197 persons showed that more favorable attitudes toward homosexuality were held by those who were under 30, lived in larger urban centers, and had college experience. See also Nyberg and Alston, "Homosexual Labeling by University Youths," Adolescence, 12 (1977), 541-46.

232.     PRICE, JAMES H. "High School Students' Attitudes toward Homosexuals," Journal of School Health, 52 .(1982), 469-74.

Males generally held more negative views on homosexuality than did females, though both agreed that is "unnatural." The author discusses ways in which adolescents can become more accepting of homosexuals,

233.     ROONEY, ELIZABETH A., and DON C. GIBBONS. "Social Reactions to 'Crimes without Victims.'" Social Problems, 13 (1966), 400-10.

Interprets answers of 353 San Francisco area residents regarding abortion, drugs, and homosexuality—with very mixed opinions expressed regarding the last.

234.     SCHNEIDER, WILLIAM, and I. A. LEWIS. "The Straight Story on Homosexuality and Gay Rights," Public Opinion, 7 (February-March 1984), 16-20, 59-60.

Interprets Los Angeles Times polls of September 1983 (national) and October 1983 (California), concluding that "there are reasons to believe that sympathy for homosex­uals will grow in time.... The gay rights movement, however, faces a far more difficult situation that the

comparable movements for civil rights and women's rights." See also: Schneider, "Homosexuality Still 'Wrong,' But No Public Backlash on AIDS," Los Angeles Times, Opinion section (January 5, 1986).

235.     SHERRILL, KENNETH. "Homophobia: Illness or Disease?" Gai Saber, 1 (1977), 27-40.

Analyzes data on aversive attitudes to homosexuality collected by the National Opinion Research Center (Univer­sity of Chicago) in 1973. Concludes that support for civil rights and liberties is linked to the trend toward the youth culture and the "new morality."

236.     SIMMONS, J. L. "Public Stereotypes of Deviants," Social Problems, 13 (1965) 223-32.

In a survey studying the public perception of deviance, homosexuality was the most frequent response to the question of what constitutes deviance.

237.     SMOLENAARS, A. J. "Analysis of Pick 3/8 Data on Attitudes toward Homosexuality, by the Compensatory Distance Model," Nederlands Tijdschrift voor de Psychologie en haar Grensgebieden, 29 (1974), 631-47.

Reports on a survey of 385 Dutch subjects of different professions, indicating that some professions were more homogeneous in their opinions than others.

238.     SOBEL, H. J. "Adolescent Attitudes toward Homosex­uality in Relation to Self Concept and Body Satisfaction," Adolescence, 11 (1976), 443-53.

Psychodynamic approach.

239.     TURNBULL, DEBI, and MARVIN BROWN. "Attitudes towards Homosexuality and Male and Female Reactions to Homosexual and Heterosexual Slides," Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 9 (1977), 68-80.

Saskatchewan students were more antihomosexual than an Ontario sample. Antihomosexual attitudes tended to correlate with dislike of the slides as pornographic.

240.    WARD, R. A. "Typifications of Homosexuals," Sociological Quarterly, 20 (1979), 411-23.

Categorization as found in public opinion inquiries.

241.    WEIS, CHARLES B., and ROBERT N. DAIN. "Ego Development and Sex Attitudes in Heterosexual and Homosexual Men and Women," Archives of Sexual Behavior, 8 (1979), 341-56.

More negative attitudes toward homosexuality were correl­ated with higher levels of personal guilt for heterosexual and homosexual men and for heterosexual women.

242.     WEST, WALTER G. "Public Tolerance of Homosexual Behavior," Journal of Social Relations, 12 (1977), 25-36.

Tabulation of the answers of 1,504 respondents disclosed that the less tolerant individual is older, less educated, and attends church more frequently.

243. YOUNG, MICHAEL, and JEAN WHIRTVINE. "Attitudes of Heterosexual Students toward Homosexual Behavior," Psychological Reports, 51 (1982), 673-74. Results from a required freshman course showed predomin­antly negative attitudes. See also: Randall G. Cuenot and Stephen S. Fugita, "Perceived Homosexuality: Measuring Heterosexual Attitudinal and Nonverbal Reactions,"Per­sonality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 8 (1982),100-06.



Professional opinion, especially in the helping profes­sions, is of consequence not merely for its influence on the society as a whole, but also because of the contact of professional individuals with homosexuals, including ones who have problems exacerbated by their marginal and soc­ially precarious lifestyles.

244.     AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION, TASK FORCE ON THE STATUS OF LESBIAN AND GAY MALE PSYCHOLOGISTS. Removing the Stigma: Final Report of Board of Social and Ethical Responsibility. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 1980. 151 pp. (Manuscript no. 2121)

Strongly positive statement.

245.     BARR, R. F., and S. V. CATTS. "Psychiatry Opinion and Homosexuality: A Short Report," JH, 1 (1974), 213-15.

In a survey of about 200 psychiatric professionals, the majority took the view either that homosexuality is a developmental anomaly not necessarily associated with neurotic symptoms or that it is a normal variant like left-handedness. See also: Frances E. Baum, "Gay and Lesbian Lifestyles: Implications for Social Workers," Australian Social Work, 36 (March 1983), 23-29; and Pet­er J. Blizzard and Murray S. Smith, "Medical Students; Attitudes and Opinions about Human Sexual Behavior," Australian Journal of Social Issues, 10:4 (1975), 229-313.

246.     DAVISON, GERALD C., and G. TERRENCE WILSON. "Atti­tudes of Behavior Therapists toward Homosexuality," Behavior Therapy, 4 (1973), 6830-96.

Responses to a questionnaire sent to British and American behavior therapists reveal continuing strong support for aversion therapy and for changing homosexual orientation.

247. DRESSLER, JOSHUA. "Study of Law Student Attitudes

Regarding the Rights of Gay People to Be Teachers,'1 JH, 4 (1979), 315-29. From a survey of 528 students at 12 schools concludes that law students, esp. women, are comparatively tolerant of the right of homosexual persons to serve as teachers,

248.     FORT, JOEL, et al. "Attitudes of Mental Health Professionals toward Homosexuality and Its Treat­ment," Psychological Reports, 29 (1971), 347-50.

Survey of 163 professional therapists in the San Francisco Bay area showed little support for mandatory treatment, near unanimity on the need for liberalization of the law, and widespread support for nonexclusionary employ­ment practices.

249.     GAGNON, JOHN, et al. "Report of the American Sociological Association's Task Group on Homosex­uality," American Sociologist, 17 (1982), 164-80.

Consistent with previous stands by the Association, the Report was strongly supportive.

250.     GARFINKLE, ELLEN M., and STEPHEN F. MORIN. "Psy­chologists' Attitudes toward Homosexual Psychother­apy Clients," Journal of Social Issues, 34 (1978), 101-12.

In blind tests of a hypothetical client (presented as either heterosexual or homosexual) attributions of psy­chological health were found to differ as a function of sexual orientation of client and sex of therapist.

251.     GARTRELL, NANETTE, et al. "Psychiatrists' Atti­tudes toward Female Homosexuality," Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 159 (1974), 141-44.

Of 908 psychiatrists responding to a questionnaire, 66% challenged the traditional belief that lesbianism equates with sickness or inadequacy.

252.     GOCHROS, HARVEY L. "Teaching More or Less Straight Social Work Students to Be Helpful to More or Less Gay People," Homosexual Counseling Journal, 2:2 (1975), 58-67.

Discomfort among social workers in dealing with homosexual clients is often owing to inexperience with them, and can be lessened through a program of learning experiences. See also: Gochros: "Teaching Social Workers to Meet the Needs of the Homosexually Oriented," Journal of Social Work and Human Sexuality, 2 (1983-84), 137-56.

253.     GROSS, MARY J. "Changing Attitudes toward Homosex­uality—or Are They?" Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 16 (1978), 70-75.

Some change for the better is found among medical and psy­chiatric professionals, but old attitudes linger among many.

254. MANOS, NIKOLAS. "Sexual Life, Problems, and Attitudes of the Prospective Greek Physicians," Archives of Sexual Behavior, 12 (1983), 435-443. Results of a questionnaire given to 82 male and 48 female Greek medical students showed liberal trend.

255.    MAY, EUGENE P. "Counselors', Psychologists', and Homosexuals' Philosophies of Human Nature and Attitudes toward Homosexual Behavior," Homosexual Counseling Journal, 1 (1974). 35 pp.

Similarities and contrasts among the three groups based on the Philosophies of Human Nature Scale of L. S. Wrights- man.

256.    MORRIS, PHILIP A. "Doctors' Attitudes to Homosexu­ality," British Journal of Psychiatry, 122 (1973), 435-36.

On more than 200 questionnaires returned, only a few respondents considered homosexuality a disease, though a large number regarded it as an aberrant behavior pattern.

257.     SCHWARTZ, MICHAEL. "Military Psychiatry—Theory and Practice in Noncombat Areas: The Role Conflicts of the Psychiatrist," Comprehensive Psychiatry, 12 (1971), 520-25.

Protests that in the military the psychiatrist has been forced to relinquish his role as helper therapist and to become, instead, detective-interrogator for the institu­tion. This creates distrust among those he should be trying to help.



In the English-speaking world virtually all writings on homosexuality were long thought obscene. Only in recent decades has the right to publish, distribute and sell increasingly explicit materials with a homosexual content been recognized by the courts and the police. The works listed below deal with some of the problems occasioned by homosexual and other pornography and by the feminist backlash against the flood of what some women consider offensive and even threatening publications. The struggle for the freedom of the gay press is far from ended, as is shown by recent cases in Canada and Great Britain.

258. ATHANASIOU, ROBERT, and PHILLIP SHAVER. "Cor­relates of Response to Pornography: A Comparison of Male Heterosexuals and Homosexuals," Proceedings of the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, 5 (1970), 349-50. In a survey of 20,000 Americans more monotonie relation­ships between response to pornography and behavior were found for heterosexuals than for homosexuals.

259.     BLACtfFORD, GREGG. "Looking at Pornography: Erotica and the Socialist Morality," Gay Left, 6 (1978), 16-20.

Asks: Can we retain the erotic values of sexual images, while eliminating the sexist and exploitative elements?

260.     BURGESS, ANN WOLBERT, and MARIEANNE LINDEQVIST CLARK (eds.). Child Pornography and Sex Rings. Lexington: Lexington Books, 1984. 227 pp. Papers from a social-work perspective, some tending to judgmental, even inflammatory attitudes.

261.     BURSTYN, VARDA (ed.). Women against Censorship. Vancouver: Douglas and Mclntyre, 1985. 208 pp. Papers by Canadian and U. S. feminists, arguing that women have nothing to gain by allying themselves with censorship advocates and politicians.

262.     CALIFIA, PAT. "Feminism vs. Sex: A New Conser­vative Wave?" Advocate, no. 286 (February 21, 1980), 13-15.

Warns of the dangers of a de facto alliance of antiporn feminists—some lesbian—and the New Right. See also her: "Among Us, Against Us: The New Puritans," ibid., no. 290 (April 17, 1980), 14-18; "The Age of Consent: An Issue and Its Effects on the Gay Movement," ibid., no. 303 (October 16, 1980), 19-23, 45, and no. 304 (October 30, 1980), 17-23, 45; and "See No Evil: The Antiporn Movement," ibid., no. 428 (September 3, 1985), 35-39.

263.     CLAPP, JANE. Art Censorship: A Chronology of Proscribed and Prescribed Art. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1972. 582 pp.

This rather dry compilation serves to focus attention on censorship of the fine arts, which has been neglected in recent controversies centering on printed matter and film. Bibliography of 641 items; index.

264.     COPP, DAVID, and SUSAN WENDELL (eds.). Pornography and Censorship. Buffalo: Prometheus Books, 1983. 414 pp.

Valuable collection of papers treating the problems from several vantage points of philosophy, social science, and law.

265.     DWORKIN, ANDREA. Pornography: Hen Possessing

Women. New York: Perigee (Putnam), 1981. 300 pp. An impassioned polemic, which has proved an effective vehicle for the propagation of Dworkin's militant views. Unfortunately the treatment of gay-male erotica is ten­dentious and misleading.

266.     ENGLISH, DEIRDRE. "The Politics of Porn: Can Feminists Walk the Line?" Mother Jones, 5:3 (April 1980), 20-23, 43-50.

Well-reasoned critique of the antipornography trend among

some feminists (including Dworkin), arguing that taking men's pornography away will not alter how they think and feel about women.

259.        FAUST, BEATRICE. Women, Sex and Pornography. New York: Macmillan, 1981. 239 pp. Fair-minded, but properly critical examination of the antipornography arguments.

260.        GOLDSTEIN, MICHAEL J., and HAROLD S. KANT. Pornog­raphy and Sexual Deviance: A Report of the Legal and Behavioral Institute, Beverly Hills, Cal­ifornia. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1973. 194 pp.

Compared results of extensive interviews among atypical groups (rapists, homosexuals, and heavy users of pornog­raphy) with two control samples, concluding that the nondeviant groups had had significantly greater exposure to pornographic materials during adolescence than the deviants.

261.        GOODMAN, MICHAEL BARRY. Contemporary Literary Censorship: The Case of Burroughs' Naked Lunch. Methuen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1981. 330 pp.

Traces the controversy beginning in 1958, which was ultimately settled in a successful court battle under­taken by Grove Press, with important consequences for the freedom to read and publish. See also: Charles Rembar, The End of Obscenity: The Trials of Lady Chatter- ley, Tropic of Cancer, and Fanny Hill (New York: Random House, 1968; 528 pp.).

262.        JENKINSON, EDWARD B. Censors in the Classroom. New York: Avon, 1982. 184 pp.

Offers a number of case studies of recent campaigns in the United States for censorship of textbooks and other reading materials.

263.        LAURITSEN, JOHN. Dangerous Trends in Feminism: Disruptions, Censorship, Bigotry. New York: The author, 1977. 9 pp. The author was one of the first to point out the problems posed by the Susan Brownmiller-Andrea Dworkin trend in feminism. See also his: Rape, Hysteria, and Civil | Liberties (New York: The author, 1979; 14 pp.).

264.        LEDERER, LAURA (ed.). Take Back the Night: Women on Pornography. New York: Morrow, 1980. 361 pp.

Collection of papers by a number of writers who argue that pornography is causally linked to male aggressive­ness and attacks on women.

265.        LEWIS, FELICE FLANNERY. Literature, Obscenity and

Law. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1976. 297 pp. Lucid and scholarly portrayal of the interaction of

literary art, society's values and pressures, and the legal system's response to changing conditions—chiefly in 20th century American literature. See also: Dorothy Ganfield Fowler, Unmailable: Congress and the Post Office (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1977; 266 pp.).

266.    MCCOY, RALPH E. Freedom of the Press: An Annotated Bibliography. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1968. about 500 pp.

An exemplary record of English-language materials from the 16th century to 1966. A Ten Year Supplement (1967-1977) appeared in 1979 (557 pp.).

267.    MALAMUTH, NEIL M., and EDWARD DONNERSTEIN (eds.). Pornography and Sexual Aggression. Orlando, FL: Academic Press, 1984. 333 pp.

Papers by various researchers grouped under the categories of individual differences, experimental studies, correla­tional and cross-cultural factors, communicative factors, and legal implications of the research. They tend to the conclusion that pornography is harmful, though judg­ments vary as to the degree and character of the harm.

268.    MASTERSON, JOHN. "The Effects of Erotica and Pornography on Attitudes and Behavior: A Review," Bulletin of the British Psychological Society, 37 (1984), 249-52.

Questions the reliability of data on availability and use of pornography. Concludes that it in fact may be useful barometer of the state of male-female relations in soci­ety.

269.     PECKHAM, MORSE. Art and Pornography: An Experiment in Explanation. New York: Basic Books, 1969. 306 pp.

Stimulating, though sometimes opaque discussion of current theories of literary and visual erotica, with considerable attention to homosexuality. Reaches a surprisingly pos­itive conclusion: "European and American pornography ... has been as steadily innovative as science itself..." (p. 298). Includes discussion of the concept of "porno- topia," introduced by Stephen Marcus in The Other Victor­ians (New York: Basic, 1966).

270.     The Report of the Commission on Obscenity and Pornography. New York: Random House, 1970. 700 pp.

Main text of the the Report of a Presidential Commission appointed in 1968. (There are also nine volumes of sup­plementary, "technical" material.) The Report generally supports the liberal position that pornography has no substantial harmful effects, a conclusion that is still hotly debated. See also: Walter Barnett, "Corruption of Morals: The Underlying Issue of the Pornography Commis­sion Report," Law and the Social Order (1971), [part 2] 189-243.

271.     THOMPSON, ANTHONY HUGH. Censorship in Public Libraries in the United Kingdom during the Twen­tieth Century. New York: Bowker, 1976. 236 pp.

Chronological survey citing numerous cases in the country that is the source of our common "Anglo-Saxon" attitudes in the matter.

272.     VALSTAR, JOOP, et al. Porno: analyzes van de

verkeerde kant. Boskoop, Netherlands: De Woerat, 1982. (Homopolitieke teksten, 3) Five papers analyzing the porno controversy from a gay- liberation viewpoint, and arguing for the freeing of fantasy.

273.    WALKER, CHRIS. "Potentially Beneficial Aspects of Pornography," Fag Rag, no. 25 (1978), 8-10.

Images of beautiful bodies bring beauty to the homely, memories to the old, and anticipation and dreams to the young.

274.    WILLIAMS, BERNARD. Report of the Committee on Obscenity and Film Censorship. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1979. 270 pp.

This British official commission recommends abandoning such terms as "obscene" and "indecent." Holds that the printed word deserves protection, but that restrictions may be legitimately applied to visual and theatrical works.

275.     YAFFE, MAURICE, and EDWARD NELSON (eds.). The Influence of Pornography on Behavior. New York: Academic Press, 1982. 276 pp.

Assesses the current debate in which substantial harmful influence has been argued, in contrast to earlier skeptic­ism.




Although men have shown a certain prurient interest in lesbian behavior since the 16th century, it is only in recent decades that the subject has received attention from women and men that begins to compare with that bestowed on male homosexuality. Even today, there is uncertainty about the scope of the field, with some stipulating lesbian sexual relations as a defining feature, while others broaden the definition to include affectionate, not necessarily genital relations and the "woman-identified woman." Needless to say, the "second wave" of the women's movement, from the 1960s on, and women's studies programs, have greatly promoted the study of lesbianism—though sometimes at the cost of melding the subject with others which are akin to it, but still distinct. Apart from the entries in this general section, there are studies on particular aspects of lesbianism in the appropriate sections of this work.

284.     ABBOTT, SIDNEY, and BARBARA LOVE. Sappho Was a Right On Woman: A Liberated View of Lesbianism.

New York: Stein and Day, 1972. 251 pp. This statement by two New York City activists presents the lesbian experience in two parts: What It Was Like, and Living in the Future. Includes discussion of open iden­tity, activism, and links with the feminist movement.

285.     ALBRO, JOYCE C., and CAROL TULLY. "A Study of Lesbian Lifestyles in the Homosexual Micro-Culture and the Heterosexual Macro-Culture," JH, 4 (1979), 331-44.

In a survey of 91 lesbians, it was found that they re­ported a sense of isolation from the heterosexual macro- culture and turned to the homosexual microculture, for friends, emotional support, and social interaction.

286.     ALDRICH, ANN. We Walk Alone. New York: Fawcett, 1955. 143 pp.

A lesbian novelist shows that the lesbian is "many women," with a wide range of backgrounds and psychological characteristics. See also Aldrich (ed.), Carol in a Thousand Cities (Greenwich, CT: Fawcett, 1960; 256 pp.).

287.     ARNUP, KATHERINE, and AMY GOTTLIEB. "Annotated Bibliography," Resources for Feminist Research,

12:1 (March 1983), 90-100. This issue is entirely devoted to lesbian topics. There are also indices to several lesbian periodicals, a


film- and videography (pp. 87-89), and a bibliography of lesbian mothers and custody (pp. 106-09). Some Canadian emphasis.

284.        BAETZ, RUTH (ed.). Lesbian Crossroads: Personal Stories of Lesbian Struggle and Triumph. New York: William Morrow, 1980. 273 pp. Statements by a number of wpmen on self-realization, interpersonal relations, religion, and lesbian commun­ity—as well as interviews with parents and siblings.

285.        BONNET, MARIE-JO. Un choix sans equivoque: re­cherches historiques sur les relations amoureuses entre les femmes, XVIe-XXe siècle. Paris: Denoël, 1981. 296 pp.

Scholarly study of lesbian history, chiefly from French literary sources. In addition to recording known facts, treats the character of the sources, with particular reference to elements of reticence and concealment. This remarkable work contains an extensive bibliography, pp. 253-93.

286.        BRAUCKMANN, JUTTA. Weiblichkeit, Männlichkeit, und Antihomosexualität: Zur Situation der lesbischen Frau. Berlin: Verlag Rosa Winkel, 1981. 94 pp.

Divides into four sections: (1) Female Homosexuality and Heterosexuality; (2) Heterosexuality and Sexual Iden­tities; (3) Antihomosexuality and Sexual Roles; and (4) Feminine Roles and Lesbian Life. Contends that as long as there are stringent definitions of "femininity" and "masculinity," discrimination against lesbians will continue. Extensive notes and bibliography.

287.        BROOKS, VIRGINIA. Minority Stress and Lesbian Women. Lexington, MA: Heath, 1981. 219 pp. Systematic presentation of a new model of stress and stress management. Revised version of a doctoral disser­tation in sociology, University of California, Berkeley, 1977.

I 292. CAVIN, SUSAN. Lesbian Origins. San Francisco: Ism Press, 1985. 288 pp. A lesbian feminist analysis of the origins of human society (reflecting in part the ideas of Frederick j Engels); sources of women's and lesbian oppression; and new perspectives in women's liberation. Sometimes speculative, this book offers insights into a number of little studied areas.

293. CHAFETZ, JANET S., et al. "A Study of Homsosexual Women," Social Work, 19 (1974), 714-23. Based on a sample of 51 Houston women, the article exlores their lifestyles, problems, views of themselves, rela­tionships with others, and their perceptions of society's ; reactions to them. See also: Wayne L. Cotton, "Social and Sexual Relationships of Lesbians," Journal of Sex Re-

search, 11 (1975), 139-48.

294.     CORY, DONALD WEBSTER (pseud, of Edward Sagarin). The Lesbian in America. New York: Citadel Press, 1964. 288 pp.

An ethnographic study of lesbianism by a well-known male homosexual writer, who holds that lesbianism is a learned condition, established when experience proves it to be pleasurable. Also covered are lesbians' attitudes toward men, incidence, "butch" and "femme" styles, bisesxuality, family relations, passing, legal problems, and organiza­tions for lesbians.

295.     CRONIN, DENISE M. "Coming Out among Lesbians," in: Erich Goode and Richard R. Troiden (eds.), Sexual Deviance and Sexual Deviants. New York: Morrow, 1974, pp. 268-77.

From interviews and questionnaires, concludes that adopt­ing a homosexual identity has a less drastic effect on the lives of lesbians than it does on the lives of gay men. Lesbians are women first and homosexuals second.

296.     CRUIKSHANK, MARGARET (ed.). Lesbian Studies: Pres­ent and Future. Old Westbury, NY: Feminist Press, 1982. 286 pp.

Twenty-eight articles by lesbian scholars, some experien­tial, others more strictly academic. Among the useful reference features provided are "Sample Syllabi from Courses in Lesbianism" (pp. 217-35); "Bibliography: Books" by Lyndell MacCowan (pp. 237-60); and "Articles" by Margaret Cruikshank (pp. 261-73). See also: Cruikshank (ed.), The Lesbian Path: 37 Lesbian Writers Share Their Personal Experiences, Viewpoints, Traumas and Joys (Monterey, CA: Angel Press, 1980; 248 pp.).

297.     DARTY, TRUDY, and SANDEE POTTER (ed.). Women-Iden­tified Women. Palo Alto, CA: Mayfield, 1984. 316 pp.

Nineteen essays, some previously published, emphasizing the plurality of lesbian identities, problems engendered by social intolerance, and lesbian culture. This infor­mative collection also cites many useful references.

298.     DOMINY, MICHELE D. "Lesbian-Feminist Gender Concep­tions: Separatism in Christchurch, New Zealand," Signs, 11 (1986), 274-89.

Field study showing the contrast between activist groups and cultural lesbian-feminists who are seeking to achieve an "ethos of natural purity."

299.     ETTORE, ELIZABETH M. Lesbians, Women and Society. Boston: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1980. 208 pp. Employing data gathered from interviews and participant observation, an American lesbian residing in Britain offers a quasi-Marxist theory of stages of emergent les­bian political consciousness. Sometimes opaque.

300.        FARLEY, PAMELLA. "Lesbianism and the Social Function of Taboo," in: Hester Eisenstein and Alice Jardine (eds.), The Future of Difference (Boston: G. K. Hall, 1980), 267-73.

"[B]y definition heterosexuality denies homosexuality; but it both requires and suppresses the scapegoat.... Not only are the oppressed made to disappear, rendered invis­ible and even obliterated. So too are the means of op­pression made to disappear."

301.        FERGUSON, K. D., and DEANA C. FINKLER. "A Involve­ment and Overtness Measure for Lesbians: Its De­velopment and Relation to Anxiety and Social Zeit­geist," Archives of Sexual Behavior, 7 (1978), 211- 27.

Interpreting a battery of tests, finds that anxiety was not related to degree of homosexual involvement, while it reflected degree of overtness in low- but not high-status lesbians.

302.        GALANA, LAUREL, and GINA COVINA. The New Les­bians: Interviews with Women across the U.S. and Canada. New York: Random House, 1977. 223 pp.

Presents interviews with twenty-one women of diverse back­grounds and situations.

303.        GARTRELL, NANETTE. "The Lesbian as a 'Single' Woman," American Journal of Psychotherapy, 35 (1981), 502-09. Presents the process of coming out as a means of working through the conflicts that social definitions of the "single woman" create for lesbians. See rebuttal by Charles W. Socarides, ibid., 510-15.

304.        GOLDSTEIN, MELVIN. "Some Tolerant Attitudes toward Female Homosexuality throughout History," Journal of Psychohistory, 9 (1982), 437-60. Offers psychohistorical speculations as to why lesbianism has historically been tolerated, accepted and even encour­aged. See comment by Robert J. Saunders, ibid., 10 (1983), 520-21. See also Wardell B. Pomeroy, "Why We I Tolerate Lesbians," Sexology, 31 (1965), 652-55.

305.        GOODE, ERICH, and LYNNE HABER. "Sexual Correlates of Homosexual Experience: An Exploratory Study of

i                College Women," Journal of Sex Research, 13 (1977),

' 12-21.

A small group of college women who had had lesbian con­tacts were found to be in general more sexually experi­enced than a larger group without such contacts.

306.        GOODMAN, BERNICE. The Lesbian: A Celebration of

the Difference. Brooklyn, NY: Out and Out, 1977. 69 pp.

Political essays, with emphasis on the situation of les­bian mothers.

307.     GREGORY-LEWIS, SASHA. Sunday's Women: A Report on Lesbian Life Today. Boston: Beacon Press, 1979. 217 pp.

A journalist's report, competent and non-sensationalized, on the state of lesbian America at the time of writing. Shows a political spectrum ranging from traditionalists, through liberationists and radicals to authoritarians.

308.     HALLIDAY, CAROLINE, et al. Hard Words and Why Lesbians Have to Say Them. London: Onlywoman, 1978. 16 pp.

Contrasts self-understanding with    environing stereotypes.

309.     HASSELL, JULIE, and EDWARD W. SMITH. "Female Homosexuals' Concepts of Self, Men, and Women," Journal of Personality Assessment, 39 (1975), 154-59.

From a battery of tests given to 48 women, concludes that the lesbian may be more independent, changeable, and sexually preoccupied, and less well adjusted than her heterosexual counterpart.

310.     HEDBLOM, JACK H. "Dimensions of Lesbian Sexual Experience," Archives of Sexual Behavior, 2 (1973), 329-41.

In a study of 65 Philadelphia lesbians, find that early sexual experiences were consensual, refuting seduction stereotypes. Also examines coming out, awareness of lesbianism, and heterosexual involvements. See also: Hedblom, "The Female Homosexual: Social and Attitudinal Dimensions," in J. A. McCaffrey (ed.), The Homosexual Dialectic. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall,1972, pp. 31-64; as well as Hedblom and John J. Hartman, "Research on Lesbianism: Selected Effects of Time, Geographic Location and Data Collection Technique," Archives of Sexual Behavior, 9 (1980), 217-34.

311.     HESS, ELIZABETH P. "Feminist and Lesbian Develop­ment: Parallels and Divergencies," Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 23 (1983), 67-78.

Explores the means by which an identity as a "feminist" or "lesbian" becomes a positive one, as well as the interac­tion between the two identities.

312.     HOGAN, ROBERT A. et al. "Attitudes, Opinions, and Sexual Development of 205 Homosexual Women," JH, 3 (1977), 123-36.

Results show a high rate of only-child status among lesbian women, a tendency towards ambivalence of opinion on many issues, and a lack of insight into self and others.

313.     HOJGARD, GUNNA. Kaere foraeldre: Lesbiske fortael- ler om deres forhold til familien. Copenhagen: Demos, 1978. 124 pp.

Presents inverviews with lesbian women concerning their

relations with their families.

314.     HOPKINS, JUNE H. "The Lesbian Personality," Brit­ish Journal of Psychiatry, 115 (1969), 1433-36.

In place of the descriptor "neurotic," the following terms are suggested as describing lesbians: more independent, more resilient, reserved, dominant, bohemian, self-suffic­ient, and more composed.

315.     HUGHES, NYM, et al. Stepping Out of Line. Van­couver, BC: Press Gang, 1985. 208 pp.

Essays for study and teaching on lesbianism and feminism, coming out, parenting, reorganizing the law, religion, and the medical system. Canadian emphasis; references.

316.     JOHNSTON, JILL. Lesbian Nation: The Feminist Sol­ution. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1973. 283 pp.

A militant writer advocates lesbian separatism. The text is adapted from columns in The Village Voice (New York). In a more tranquil mode, see her: "Lesbian/Feminism Re­considered," Salmagundi, no. 58-59 (1982-83), 10-24.

316A. KEHOE, MONICA (ed.). Historical, Literary and

Erotic Aspects of Lesbianism. New York: Haworth Press, 1986. 182 pp. Thirteen papers corresponding to JH, 12:3-4 (May 1986).

317.     KITZINGER, CELIA, and REX S. ROGERS. "A Q-Method- ological Study of Lesbian Identities," European Journal of Social Psychology, 15 (1985), 167-87.

English data from 41 women revealed identity factors ex­plicated as Personal Fulfillment, Special Person, Individ­ualistic, Radical Feminist and Traditional identities.

318.     KLEMESRUD, JUDY. "Lesbians: The Disciples of Sappho, Updated," New York Times Magazine (March 28, 1971), 38-39, 41-52.

Journalistic apercus of interest chiefly for the date of their appearance in a mainstream publication. Discussion in issues of April 11 (pp. 5, 55) and May 9 (pp. 79-80).

319.     KOKULA, ILSE. Formen lesbischer Subkultur: Ver­gesellschaftung und soziale Bewegung. Berlin: Ver­lag Rosa Winkel, 1983. 168 pp.

The writer, a German lesbian sociologist and activist, portrays the structure of dynamic of lesbians in three spheres: the bar, the clique, and the activist group.

320.     KRIEGER, SUSAN. "Lesbian Identity and Community: Recent Social Science Literature," Signs, 8 (1982), 91-108.

Recent studies view lesbianism as a product of multiple influences, and the examine the lesbian in terms of her relationships in couples, institutions, communities, and society rather than as an isolated individual or in relation to her family of origin. Integration in such

communities may threaten as well as support the growth of individual identity.

321.    KRIEGER, SUSAN. The Mirror Dance: Identity in a

Woman's Community. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1983. 199 pp. Ethnography of a midwestern lesbian community, where les­bian relationships are complex because they pose funda­mental challenges to the individual's sense of self.

322.    KUDA, MARIE JAYNE. Women Loving Women: A Selected and Annotated Bibliography. Chicago: Lavender Press, 1975. 28 pp.

List of about 200 entries, largely superseded by M. Cruik- shank, above, and by Barbara Grier, The Lesbian in Liter­ature (Tallahassee: Naiad Press, 1981; 168 pp.).

323.    LANER, MARY R., and ROY H. LANER. "Sexual Prefer­ence or Personal Style? Why Lesbians are Disliked," JH, 5 (1980), 339-56.

As in the case of homosexual men, the authors found that lesbians are disliked both for sexual preference and for personal style (departure from expected gender-role models).

324.    LANNING, LEE, and VERNETTE HART. Ripening: An Almanac of Lesbian Lore and Vision. Minneapolis: Word Weavers, 1982. 160 pp.

Free-form work expressing oneness with nature. See also their: Dreaming: An Almanac of Lesbian Lore and Vision (Minneapolis: Word Weavers, 1983; 153 pp.).

325.    LATORRE, RONALD A., and KRISTINA WENDENBURG. "Psychological Characteristics of Bisexual, Heterosexual and Homosexual Women," JH, 9 (1983), 87-97.

Of 125 women, feminine subjects were under-represented among homosexual and bisexual women. Otherwise, the three groups showed similar profiles.

326.    LE GARREC, EVELYNE. Des femmes qui s'aiment. Par­is: Seuil, 1984. 286 pp.

Sociological study of French lesbians in relation to society; includes personal testimonies. See also: Marie Lago and France Paramelle, La femme homosexuelle (Tour- nai: Casterman, 1976; 203 pp.); and Nella Nobili and Edith Zha, Les femmes et 1'amour (Paris: Hachette, 1979; 318 pp.).

327.    LYNCH, JEAN M., and MARY ELLEN REILLY. "Relation­ships: Lesbian Perspectives," JH, 12:2 (1986), 53-69.

A study of 70 largely middle-class and upper-middle-class lesbian couples finds that most achieve partnerships characterized by equality and freedom from traditional butch-femme role playing.

328.    MANNION, KRISTIANN. Female Homosexuality: A Comprehensive Review of Theory and Research.

Washington: American Psychological Association, 1976. 95 pp. (Catalogue of Selected Documents, 6:44)

The empirical research involves three major areas of investigation: assessment of the lesbian personality by projective techniques; personality assessment studies using nonprojective personality inventories and clinical interviews; and biographical variables derived from projective tests designed to measure attitudes toward the family, as well as from biographical questionnaires.

329.    MARTIN, DEL, and PHYLLIS LYON. Lesbian/Woman. San Francisco: Glide Foundation, 1972. 283 pp.

Forthright account of lesbians in America by two founders of Daughters of Bilitis in San Francisco—about which or­ganization the book gives considerable information. The lesbian is defined as "a women whose primary erotic, psychological, emotional and social interest is in a member of her own sex, even though that interest may not be overtly expressed." The revised edition (New York:, Bantam, 1983) has a ten-year update (1972-82).

330.     NEWTON, ESTHER. "The Mythic Mannish Lesbian: Rad- clyffe Hall and the New Woman," Signs, 9 (1984), 557-75.

Historically, the trend of cross-dressing for women in­itially signaled an asexual desire for autonomy, but gradually became linked to lesbian sexual expression as feminists sought to break out of the asexual model of romantic friendships with other women.

331.     PACZENSKY, SUSANNE VON. Verschweige Liebe: Zur Situation der lesbischen Frau in der Gesellschaft. Munich: Bertelsmann, 1984. 206 pp. Interviews with 75 Hamburg lesbians and analysis of their responses.

332.     PASTRE, GENEVIEVE. De l'amour lesbien. Paris: Pierre Horay, 1980. 298 pp.

Somewhat subjective reflections by a French lesbian theor­ist .

333.     PEPLAU, LETITIA A. et al. "Loving Women: Attach­ment and Autonomy in Lesbian Relationships," Jour­nal of Social Issues, 34 (1978), 7-27.

In a questionnaire study of 127 lesbians, the majority said that their current relationship was extremely close, personally satisfying, and egalitarian. See also: Peplau et al., "Satisfaction in Lesbian Relation­ships," JH, 8 (1982), 23-35.

334.     PONSE, BARBARA. "Secrecy in the Lesbian World," Urban Life, 5 (1976), 313-38.

In fear of disapproval and sanctions, lesbians tend to

hide their identity behind a heterosexual facade. Life is compartmentalized into gay and straight spheres. Under the influence of women's and gay liberation this situation is changing. See also her: Identities in the Lesbian World: The Social Construction of the Self (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1978; 228 pp.).

335.     POOLE, KENNETH. "The Etiology of Gender Identity and the Lesbian," Journal of Social Psychology, 87 (1972), 51-57.

Finds support for a hypothesis that the childhood social­ization experience of heterosexual females differs, in certain role-learning aspects, from that of homosexual females.

336.     PRIETO, ENRIQUE. La homosexualidad feminina. Madrid: Uve, 1982. 116 pp. This popularizing work, though primarily designed to satisfy sexual curiosity, offers some glimpses of Spanish lesbian life.

337.     RICH, ADRIENNE. "Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence," Signs, 5 (1980), 631-60.

Controversial article criticizing perceived heterosexist bias in much current feminist scholarship. "The denial of reality and visibility to women's passion for women, women's choice of women as allies, life companions, and community, the forcing of such relationships into dissim­ulation and their disintegration under intense pressure have meant an incalculable loss to the power of all women to change the social relations of the sexes, to liberate ourselves and each other." See responses by Anne Ferguson et al., ibid., 7 (1981), 158-99.

338.     RIESS, BERNARD F. et al. "Psychological Test Data on Female Homosexuality: A Review of the Liter­ature," JH, 1 (1974), 71-85.

Critical and comparative review of existing studies on responses by female homosexuals to projective and nonpro- jective tests. See also: Riess, "New Viewpoints on the Female Homosexual," in: V. Franks and V. Burtle (eds.), Women in Therapy: New Psychotherapies for a Changing Society (New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1974), pp. 191-214.

339.     ROSEN, DAVID H. Lesbianism: A Study of Female

Homosexuality« Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1974. 123 pp. Presents a review of the literature on lesbianism and results of a research study of 26 women.

340.     RUPP, LEILA J. '"Imagine My Surprise': Women's Relationships in Historical Perspective," Fron­tiers: A Journal of Women's Studies, 5:3 (Fall 1980), 61-70.

Reviews the conflicting approaches scholars have taken, presents examples of different kinds of relationships from the American women's movement in the 1940s and 50s, and proposes a conceptual approach that recognizes the diversity of women's relationships without denying their common bond.

341.     SCHÄFER, SIGRID. "Sexual and Social Problems of Lesbians," Journal of Sex Research, 12 (1976), 50-69.

From questionnaire data collected from 151 West German lesbians, discusses the coming out period, the meaning of their heterosexual experiences, and the social and psychological challenges lesbian life poses.

342.     SCHWARZ, JUDITH. "Lesbians," in: Sarah M. Pritch- ard, The Women's Annual Number 4, 1983-1984. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1984, pp. 107-24 Bibliographical essays of work in recent years (emphasiz­ing 1983), including such themes as third-world lesbians, sexuality, history, and lesbian lives.

343.     SEGREST, MAB. My Mama's Dead Squirrel: Lesbian Essays on Southern Culture. Ithaca, NY: Firebrand Books, 1985. 237 pp.

Region, family, personality and self examined by an articulate Southern lesbian.

344.     SHACHAR, SANDRA A., and LUCIA A. GILBERT. "Working Lesbians: Role Conflicts and Coping Strategies," Psychology of Women Quarterly, 7 (1983), 244-56.

The most frequently reported interrole conflicts among 70 Texas women studied were bewteen the work and lover roles, and the most frequent interrole conflicts involved the work and daughter roles.

345.     SIMON, WILLIAM, and JOHN H. GAGNON. "Femininity in the Lesbian Community," Social Problems, 15 (1967), 212-21.

Contends that lesbians tend to conform to rather than deviate from the female gender role. Within relationships lesbian sexuality is typically feminine, resulting in the stability of couple bonds. See also their: "The Lesbians: A Preliminary Overview," in: Gagnon and Simon (eds.), Sexual Deviance (New York: Harper and Row, 1967), pp. 247-82.

346.     SIMPSON, RUTH. From the Closet to the Courts: The

Lesbian Transition. New York: Penguin, 1977. 180 pp.

New York lesbian activist discusses oppression of homosex­uals by the church, psychiatric profession, police, and media—as well as the women's movement and common myths about lesbians.

347.     SOPHIE, JOAN. "A Critical Examination of Stage Theories of Lesbian Identity Development," JH, 12:2 (1986), 39-51.

Repeated interviews with 14 women were used to test existing stage theories and to formulate a new general theory.

348.     STANLEY, JULIA PENELOPE, and SUSAN J. WOLFE (eds.). The Coming Out Stories. Watertown, MA: Persephone Press, 1980. 252 pp.

Forty-two personal narratives emphasizing diversity and pride. See also M. Cruikshank (ed.), above.

349.     STEARN, JESS. The Grapevine. New York: Mcfadden- Bartell, 1965. 320 pp.

Journalistic expose, typical for the period, discussing types of lesbians, their private and social lives, and organizations.

350.     VETERE, VICTORIA A. "The Role of Friendship in the Development and Maintenance of Lesbian Love Relationships," JH, 8 (1982), 51-65.

Finds that friendship was a key factor in the formation of women's first same-sex relationship, and that it remains a prime developmental and maintenance factor in current re­lationships. See also: Jean Weber,"Lesbian Networks," Christopher Street, 3:9 (April 1979), 51-54.

351.     VIDA, GINNA (ed.). Our Right to Loves A Lesbian Resource Book. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice- Hall, 1978. 318 pp.

A well-coordinated collective work dealing with many aspects of lesbian life and with the lesbian feminist movement. Bibliography by Carol D. Lightner (pp. 284-88).

352.     WILSON, M. LEE. "Female Homosexual's Need for Dominance and Endurance," Psychological Reports, 55 (1984), 79-82.

The lack of a unique pattern for lesbians supports the contention that homosexuals can have many personalities within normal limits.

353.     WOLFF, CHARLOTTE. Love between Women. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1971. 230 pp.

Psychoanalytic approach by a London-based therapist. Sympathetic in intent, it nonetheless presents a model of lesbian existence as one marred by conflict and impair­ment .

354.     WOLF, DEBORAH GOLEMAN. The Lesbian Community.

Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979. 196 pp.

An ethnography of a lesbian feminist community based on field work in San Francisco. Finds that the impact of women's liberation has profoundly altered lesbian culture, creating a community centering on collective principles and autonomous institutions.

355. WYSOR, BETTIE. The Lesbian Myth. New York: Random House, 1974. 438 pp. Seeks to expose misconceptions found in religion, science, psychiatry, and literature—and offers discussions by lesbians on motherhood, lifestyles, sexuality, and ac­tivism.



The rise of the contemporary feminist movement produced a considerable interest in theory, some of it informed by Marxist or other leftist concerns. In some instances, especially during the radical period of the early 1970s it was suggested that the only true feminist is a lesbian— hence the phenomenon of the "political lesbian," that is one who adopts this position essentially out of political conviction rather than affectional preference.

                ALLEN, HILARY. "Political Lesbianism and Femin­ism—Space for a Sexual Politics?" M/F (London), 7 (1982), 15-34.

Examines difficulties inherent in political lesbianism and the consequences for feminist politics of sexuality.

                BARRETT, MICHELE. Women's Oppression Today: Problems in Marxist Feminist Analysis. New York: Schocken, 1980. 269 pp. Criticizes the semantic unclarity of three key terms: patriarchy, ideology, and reproduction. See index for "homosexuality" and "lesbianism."

                BEAUVOIR, SIMONE DE. The Second Sex. Translated by H. M. Parshley. New York: Modern Library, 1968. 732 pp.

A much admired and influential work, first published in France in 1949 and prophetic of the "second wave" of feminism, by an existentialist thinker and novelist. See Chapter 15, "The Lesbian" (pp. 404-24).

                CARTLEDGE, SUE, and JOANNA RYAN (eds.). Sex and Love: New Thoughts and Contradictions. London: Women's Press, 1983. 237 pp.

Fourteen original essays reflecting "the diversity of women's experience—both within the categorizations 'lesbian' and 'heterosexual,' and across the whole continuum—and the plurality of options this neces­sitates ."

                CHODOROW, NANCY. "Feminism and Difference: Gender, Relation, and Difference in Psychoanalytic Perspec­tive," Socialist Review, 46 (1979), 51-69.

Examines probl ems with the project of degendering society in order to eliminate male dominance.

                 COWARD, ROSALIND. Patriarchal Precedents: Sexual­ity and Social Relations. Boston: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1983. 326 pp.

Critical examination of the history of the concept of patriarchy in Marxist, psychoanalytic, and anthropological theory. Contends that this multiple legacy, stemming mainly from the 19th and early 20th centuries, has contributed to our present misunderstanding of the family, sexual relations, and sexual characteristics.

                 DALY, MARY. Gyn/ecology: The Metaethics of Radical Feminism. Boston: Beacon Press, 1978. 485 pp.

A theologian turned radical feminist theorist has created a compendium of religio-historical speculation, together with neologism-laden visions for a post-patriarchal future. Daly defines the concept lesbian broadly, as "woman-identified woman." See also her: Pure Lust, Ele­mental Feminist Philosophy (Boston: Beacon, 1984; 471 pp.).

                 DEFRIES, ZIRA. "Political Lesbianism and Sexual Politics," Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis, 6 (1978), 71-78.

Found that some women who had sought security in lesbian­ism experienced disenchantment as they discovered that the interpersonal dynamics of female-female and male-female relationships were similar.

                 DEMING, BARBARA. We Are All Part of One Another: A Barbara Demj?ng Reader. Edited by Jane Meyerding, with a Forward by Barbara Smith. Philadelphia: New Society Publishers, 1984. 320 pp.

Representative collection spanning her work (1959-81) as an activist for civil rights, feminism, and lesbianism. See also her: Remembering Who We Are (Tallahassee: Naiad Press, 1981; 240 pp.).

                 DONOVAN, JOSEPHINE. Feminist Theory: The Intellec­tual Traditions of American Feminism. New York: Frederick Ungar, 1985. 237 pp.

An expository synthesis, mapping the following tradi­tions: enlightenment liberal feminism, cultural feminism, Marxism, psychoanalysis, existential, radical feminism, and the "new feminist moral vision." With considerable attention to lesbian theory, this useful guide offers numerous quotations and references.

                 EICHLER, MARGRIT. The Double Standard: A Feminist Critique of the Social Sciences. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1980. 151 pp.

In this broad-gauged critique, see esp. pp. 86, 130-31.

                 EVANS, SARAH. Personal Politics: The Roots of Women's Liberation in the Civil Rights Movement and the New Left. New York: Knopf, 1979. 274 pp.

Historical reconstruction which highlights some of the

contradictions prevalent during the 1960s. See "Lesbian­ism" (pp. 225-31).

361.     FADERMAN, LILLIAN. "The 'New Gay' Lesbians," JH, 10:3-4 (1984), 85-95.

Presents the developmental process of women who have come to lesbianism through the radical feminist movement of the past fifteen years.

362.     FRIEDAN, BETTY. The Feminine Mystique. New York: Norton, 1963. 410 pp.

Catalytic statement for "second wave" feminism in North America, helping to precipitate a general reexamination of sex and gender roles, and thereby influencing the gay and lesbian movement. In the text, however, Friedan claimed that "the shallow unreality, immaturity, promiscuity, and lack of lasting human satisfaction that characterize the homosexual's sex life usually characterize all his life and interests."

363.     Love Your Enemy? The Debate Between Heterosexual Feminism and Political Lesbianism. London: Only- women, 1981. 68 pp.

Theoretical letters and articles by British women.

364.     MCALLISTER, PAM (ed.). Reweaving the Web of Life: Feminism and Nonviolence. Philadelphia: New Society, 1982. 440 pp.

This feminist-pacifist anthology includes an interview with Barbara Deming by Mab Segrest and an essay on Natalie Barney by Karla Jay.

365.     MASSEY, MARILYN CHAPIN. Feminine Soul: The Fate of

an Ideal. Boston: Beacon Press, 1985. 219 pp. Reconstructs a Central European concept as embodied in Romantic works of imagination by Johann Heinrich Pestaloz- zi, Novalis, and Friedrich Froebel. The conclusion points to parallels with such contemporary thinkers as Mary Daly and Adrienne Rich.

366.    MYRON, NANCY, and CHARLOTTE BUNCH. Lesbianism and the Women's Movement. Baltimore: Diana Press, 1975. 120 pp.

Collection of essays reprinted from The Furies discussing aspects of lesbian-feminist politics: heterosexual privilege, bisexuality, heterosexism, and lesbian separat­ism.

367.     PRESTON, JOHN. "Goodbye, Sally Gearhart: Gay Men and Feminists Have Reached a Fork in the Road," Christopher Street, no. 58 (November 1981), 17-26.

Holds that the activities of antipornography women mandate a reassessment of the relationship between gay men and feminists, including lesbians. See also: Brian Mossop, "Gay Men's Feminist Mistake," Body Politic, no. 67 (October 1980), 32.

368.    SNITOW, ANN, et al. (eds.). The Politics of Sexual­ity. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1983. 489 pp.

Collection of chiefly sex-positive papers and statements, all by women scholars, except for two (by Allen Berube and John D'Emilio).

369.    VANCE, CAROLE S. (ed.). Pleasure and Danger: Ex­ploring Female Sexuality. Boston: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1984. 462 pp.

Papers from the controversial 1982 Barnard College confer­ence. They are generally supportive of an exploratory, libertarian approach and opposed to antipornographic rigorism.



With the acceptance of women's studies in many universit­ies in North America and abroad, there has been an almost explosive growth in scholarship. To survey the field adequately would require a work several times the size of the present one. The following citations will enable one to find other references.

370.    DAVIS, NANETTE J., and JONE M. KEITH. Women and Deviance: Issues in Social Conflict and Change: An Annotated Bibliography. New York: Garland, 1984. 236 pp.

Describes some 500 items (articles and books), in such areas as criminal behavior, substance abuse, lesbianism, and mental illness.

371.    EVANS, MARY, and DAVID MORGAN. Work on Women: A Guide to the Literature. New York: Methuen, 1980. 83 pp.

Unannotated bibliography divided into nine subject- specific chapters.

372.    GILBERT, V. F., and D. S. TATLA. Women's Studies: A Bibliography of Dissertations 1870-1982. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1986. 512 pp. Lists over 12,000 unpublished dissertations completed in Britain and North America in a range of disciplines.

373.    HABER, BARBARA. Women in America: A Guide to

Books. Second ed. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1981. 262 pp. Selected, annotated list of books arranged by subject and covering the period 1963-79.

374.    HINDING, ANDREA (ed.). Women's History Sources: A Guide to Archives and Manuscript Collections in the United States. New York: R. R. Bowker, 1979. 2


Very comprehensive, but inadequately indexed for lesbian­ism. Permits access to much otherwise unretrievable material.

368.     JACOBS, SUE ELLEN. Women in Perspectives A Guide for Cross-Cultural Studies. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1974. 299 pp.

An anthropologist provides help in escaping Western parochialism.

369.     KRICHMAR, ALBERT. The Women's Movement in the Seventies: An International English-Language Bibliography. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1977. 875 pp.

Presents 8,637 citations, with one-line annotations. Complements the author's The Women's Rights Movement in the United States, 1848-1970s A Bibliography and Sourcebook (Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1972; 436 pp.).

370.     OAKES, ELIZABETH H., and KATHLEEN E. SHELDON. Guide to Social Science Resources in Women's Studies. Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio, 1978. 162 pp. Selective, well-annotated bibliography aimed primarily at "professors of introductory interdisciplinary women's studies" and other teachers. Core lists in anthropology, economics, history, psychology, sociology, and contem­porary feminist thought, stressing contemporary book- length contributions. Well indexed.

371.     REINHARZ, SHULAMIT, et al. "Methodological Issues in Feminist Research: A Bibliography of Literature in Women's Studies, Sociology and Psychology," Women's Studies International Forum, 6 (1983), 437-54.

Presents material on such issues as institutional bases, sex biases, feminist critiques, and cognitive style differences between men and women.

372.     SAHLI, NANCY. Women and Sexuality in Americas A Bibliography. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1984. 404 pp.

Annotated, with material from the late 19th century on, which is of value in tracing historical antecedents of present positions. See "Lesbians" (pp. 281-303).

373.     SEARING, SUSAN E. Introduction to Library Research

in Women's Studies. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1985. 257 pp.

"User friendly" guide to practical aspects of research, offering selected annotated lists by subject. See esp. pp. 123-24, 184, 218-19.

389. STINEMAN, ESTHER. Women's Studies: A Recommended Core Bibliography. Littleton, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 1979. 672 pp. Selected list of 1,763 books and periodicals, grouped in

twenty-one subject areas, with thoughtful, detailed annotations.

390.     TERRIS, VIRGINIA R. Women in America: A Guide to Information Sources. Detroit: Gale, 1980. 520 pp.

Ambitious research guide and bibliography, with author, title, and subject indexes.

391.     WARREN, MARY. The Nature of Women: An Encyclopedia and Guide to the Literature. Inverness, CA: Edge- press, 1980. 701 pp.

This massive volume offers a collection of short essays on topics and authors, arranged alphabetically. Each essay presents first an objective summary, followed by the author's judgments. Strong on philosophy and theory.

392.     WILLIAMSON, JANE. New Feminist Scholarship: A Guide to Bibliographies. Old Westbury, NY: Feminist Press, 1979. 139 pp.

Lists nearly 400 bibliographies under 30 subject head­ings: about half the items are annotated. See also: Pat­ricia K. Ballou, Women: A Bibliography of Bibliographies (Boston: G. K. Hall, 1980; 155 pp.—annotates material from 1970 through 1979); and Maureen Ritchie, Women's Studies: A Checklist of Bibliographies (London: Mansell, 1980; 107 pp.—unannotated list of about 500 items).



The considerable differences between lesbian and male- homosexual behavior have been relatively little dis­cussed. Sometimes they are taken for granted as reflect­ing more general differences between men and women. Apart from the fact that these differences are as yet poorly understood, it cannot be excluded that just as male and female homosexuals differ from their heterosexual counter­parts, they will differ from each other in ways that are not predictable from heterosexual-based studies of male-female differences. Others seek to minimize lesbian-gay male differences because of an allegiance to a concept of human androgyny, which stresses the mallea­bility of all gender conditioning. Finally, there are those who hold that the political necessity of an alliance between lesbians and gay men makes discussion of differ­ences inexpedient.

393. DE MONTEFLORES, CARMEN, and STEPHEN J. SCHULTZ. "Coming Out: Similarities and Differences for Lesbians and Gay Men," Journal of Social Issues, 34 (1978), 59-72. Differences in the coming-out experiences of men and women are related to conformity to a violation of

sex-role expectations, as well as to political and legal issues.

394.     "DOB Questionnaire Reveals Some Comparisons between Male and Female Homosexuals," Ladder, 4:12 (1960), 4-25.

Gay men did not show as great an income superiority as expected, and they had experienced more frequent conflicts with the law. Men had more frequent and earlier homosex­ual experiences, but fewer of them had had heterosexual experiences.

395.     HENDERSON, ANN F. "Homosexuality in the College Years: Developmental Differences between Men and Women," Journal of American College Health, 32 (1984), 216-19.

Contends that sexual orientation is established later for women than for men, and is subjected to different psychol­ogical stresses.

396.     KARR, M. A. "Sally Gearhart: Wandering—and Wondering-—on Future Ground," Advocate, no. 286 (February 26, 1980), pp. 21-22.

Gearhart, a San Francisco lesbian activist and writer, holds that women have a "unique capacity for collective psychic power," which men lack. For this and other reasons, an alliance between lesbians and gay men is problematic.

397.     NYBERG, KENNETH L. "Sexual Aspirations and Sexual Behaviors among Homosexually Behaving Males and Females: The Impact of the Gay Community," JH, 2 (1976), 29-38.

Interprets questionnaire results as indicating that dif­ferences between lesbians and gay men reflect not only gender and general cultural differences determined by the larger society, but also the differing reception of spe­cific movements for social change among them.

398.     SAGHIR, MARCEL T., and ELI ROBINS. "Male and Fe­male Homosexuality: Natural History," Comprehen­sive Psychiatry, 12 (1971), 501-10.

Finds that the homosexual male begins his sexual involve­ment in early adolescence while the lesbian begins several years later.

399.     SCHÄFER, SIEGRID. "Sociosexual Behavior in Male and Female Homosexuals: A Study in Sex Differences," Archives of Sexual Behavior, 6 (1977), 355-64.

Interpretation of West German data indicates that being a woman tends to influence the sociosexual behavior of les­bians more than being homosexual.

400.     WINCZE, JOHN P., and C. BRANDON QUAILS. "A Compar­ison of Structural Patterns of Sexual Arousal in Male and Female Homosexuals," Archives of Sexual

Behavior, 13 (1984), 361-70. In a study of responses to films, it was found -— not

surprisingly -- that lesbians showed little response to

male erotic films and gay men were correspondingly

indifferent to lesbian erotic films.




Inasmuch as homosexual behavior is practiced by individu­als, the biographical method has often proved appealing— hence the "hall of fame" approach singling out homosexual notables, who are often presented as moral exemplars set apart from their historical context. (See "Biograph­ies: Collective," III.T). A contrasting historiographic trend seeks to determine context, and then to situate the individuals within it. This approach, often associated with the Social Construction research program, has its own problems stemming from its tendency to reduce individuals to the status of mere puppets of their social situation and to obscure continuities linking experience from one era to another. There is also a trend to broaden the scope of inquiry to comprise homosociality, including same-sex friendship, whether or not this be expressed genitally (see "Friendship," XIV.K). Another area of uncertainty is the parallelism that has often been assumed—rather than demonstrated—between lesbian and gay male experience. Historically, many cultures have not regarded the two as homologous. This section cites short methodological studies as well as larger works attempting synthesis.

401.     AGUIAR, ASDRUBAL ANTONIO D'. "Evolucao da Pederas- tia e do Lesbismo na Europa," Arquivo da Univer- sidade do Lisboa, 11 (1926), 336-620.

Survey of the history of male homosexuality and lesbianism in Europe from classical antiquity to the present, citing many texts. While much is understandably culled from other sources, this major study is useful for Spain and Portugal, and for statutory law (including that pertaining to lesbianism).

402.     ARIES, PHILIPPE, and ANDRE BEJIN (eds.). Western Sexuality: Practice and Precept in Past and Present. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1985. 220 pp.

Collection of papers treating the history of sexuality from ancient Greece onwards, several directly relevant. Translated from Communications [Paris], no. 35 (1982).

403.     BOSWELL, JOHN. "Revolutions, Universale and Sexual Categories," Salmagundi, no. 58-59 (1982-83), 89- 113.

Methodological reflections which seek to clarify the problem of continuity in sexual history by proposing a threefold typology. Boswell proposes to apply the medi­eval conflict between nominalism and essentialism as a


model for understanding current controversies.

404.     BULLOUGH, VERN. Sex, Society and History. New York: Science Society Publications, 1976. 186 pp.

Reprints fourteen scholarly papers ranging from ancient Mesopotamia through the middle ages to nineteenth- century America.

405.     BULLOUGH, VERN. Sexual Variance in Society and

History. New York: John Wiley, 1976. 715 pp. An ambitious work of synthesis, correlating homosexuality with other modes of sexual behavior, and showing the overarching control of culture, including religion. The contrast between sex-positive and sex-negative societies is overly schematic. The notes offer much documentation. See also his introductory work: Homosexuality, A History: From Ancient Greece to Gay Liberation (New York: New American Library, 1979; 196 pp.).

406.     BULLOUGH, VERN, and BONNIE BULLOUGH. Sin, Sickness and Sanity: A History of Sexual Attitudes. New

York: New American Library, 1977. 276 pp. (Merid­ian Books)

Stimulating but rapid survey of a vast domain; see pp. 3-4, pp. 3-4, 52-53, 84-85, 154-55, 201-10.

407.     CHAMBERLAIN, J. EDWARD, and SANDER L. GILMAN (ed.). Degeneration: The Dark Side of Progress. New York: Columbia University Press, 1985. 303 pp.

Papers of varying quality on the permutations of the concept in several fields, mainly in Europe in the 19th and 20th centuries. Considerable indirect interest. For an exhaustive study of a related problem, see: Alexander Demandt, Der Fall Roms: Die Auflösung des Römischen Reiches im ürteil der Nachwelt (Munich: С. H. Beck, 1984; 695 pp.), which lists 210 factors—including homosexual­ity—which have been implicated in the fall of Rome.

408.     CROMPTON, LOUIS. "Gay Genocide from Leviticus to Hitler," in: L. Crew (ed.), The Gay Academic. Palm Springs, CA: Etc., 1978, 67-91.

Surveys the persecution of male homosexuals through the application of the death penalty, from Biblical times through the Nazi era.

409.     DALL'ORTO, GIOVANNI. "L'evoluzione del concetto di 1omosessualità1 nei secoli," in: F. Castellano (ed.), Essere omosessuale. Cuneo: AGA, 1981, 39- 62.

Outline of changing concepts of homosexual behàvior from the Greeks to the present.

410.     DANIEL, MARC (pseud.)". "Essai de méthodologie pour l'étude des aspects homosexuels de ^his­toire." Arcadie, no. 131 (November 1964), 497-505; no. 132 (December 1964), 559-65.

Criticizes methods of historical analysis applied by US Movement scholars. A shortened version appeared in: ONE Quarterly (Fall 1960).

411.     DYNES, WAYNE, and WARREN JOHANSSON. "Eros, Myth and Stigma: The Historical Semantics of Sexual Intolerance," The Voice [San Francisco], 3:2 (January 14, 1981), 8.

Continues in successive issues of the newspaper until 3:10 (May 8, 1981), 34. Examines the historical role of such concepts as the unnatural, decadence, and sexism. Largely incorporated in: Dynes, Homolexis (New York: Gay Academic Union, 1985; 177 pp.).

412.     EAUBONNE, FRANÇOISE D'. Eros minoritaire. Paris: Ballard, 1970.' 326 pp.

Literary-historical survey of "minority" sexual behavior.

413.     EGLINTON, J. Z. (pseud.). Greek Love. New York: Oliver Layton Press, 1964. 504 pp.

The title notwithstanding, this book offers a compre­hensive study of sexual and educational relationships between men and boys with special reference to histor­ical aspects over the centuries (not limited to Greece). There is considerable emphasis on literary works and legal sources.

414.     FLANDRIN, JEAN-LOUIS. Le sexe et l'Occident. Paris: Seuil, 1981. 376 pp.

Collection of essays by a French historian who has become influential through his pioneering use of quantitative and and analytical methods. Of general, rather than specif­ically homosexual interest.

415.     FOUCAULT, MICHEL. The History of Sexuality: Vol. I: An Introduction. Translated from French by R. Hurley. New York: Pantheon, 1978. 170 pp. Stimulating, but sometimes opaque essay on the conceptual foundations of modern sexuality, which has had a great influence on the Social Construction school of homosexual history. This programmatic text—published in Paris in 1976 as La volonté de savoir—vas to be followed by five more volumes offering supporting detail for recent cen­turies. Although this project was not realized, two volumes dealing instead with classical antiquity did appear just before his death in 1984.

416.     FRIELE, KAREN-CHRISTINE. De vorsvant bare ... Fragmente av homofiles historié. Oslo: Gyldendal Norsk Forlag, 1985. 200 pp.

A noted Norwegian lesbian activist and scholar presents aspects of homosexual history from Old Testament times to ca. 1950.

417.     GREENBERG, DAVID, and MARCIA BYSTRYN. "Capitalism, Bureaucracy, and Male Homosexuality," Contemporary

Crises, 8 (1984), 33-56. Argues that the late 19th- and 20th-century stigmatization of homosexual behavior is a consequence of competitive capitalism and bureaucratic organization.

418.     HARDMAN, PAUL D. Homoaffectionalism: The Civiliz­ing Factor. Los Angeles: One Institute, 1985.

Reviews history from the Hittites through the Middle Ages in a new theoretical perspective.

418A. HOFFMAN, RICHARD J. "Clio, Fallacies, and Homo­sexuality," JH, 10:3/4 (Winter 1984), 45-52. Signals such methodological faults as the assertion of assumptions as proven, monothematism, semantic distor­tion, ethnocentrism, anachronism, historicism, the pathetic fallacy, and tunnel history.

419.     KEPNER, JIM. Becoming a People ... A 4,000 Year Gay and Lesbian Chronology. Los Angeles: National Gay Archives, 1983. 79 pp.

Persons and events from history marshalled chronologic­ally, with introductory reflections on method. "Prepub- lication Edition" containing some imperfections.

420.     Lesbian History Issue. Frontiers: A Journal of Women's Studies, 4:3 (Fall 1979). 88pp.

Collection of essays, many containing references, chiefly on recent history. Note especially: Judith Schwartz, "Questionnaire on Issues in Lesbian History," pp. 1-12.

421.     LICATA, SALVATORE, and ROBERT J. PETERSEN (eds.). Historical Perspectives on Homosexuality. New York: Stein and Day/Haworth Press, 1981. 224 pp. Book publication of a special number of JH (6:1/2; Fall-Winter 1980-81) containing twelve papers of excep­tional quality (high Middle Ages to the 20th century).

422.     NOONAN, JOHN T. Contraception: A History of Its Treatment by the Catholic Theologians and Canon­ists. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press, 1966. 561 pp.

Study of remarkable scope with considerable indirect application to homosexuality.

423.     PADGUG, ROBERT. "Bibliography," Committee on Lesbian and Gay History Newsletter (Summer 1983), 12-16.

Classified list of 119 items, many annotated. Contin­ued in Newsletter, no. 8 (Summer 1984) [published in IGLA Bulletin, no. 2], 38-42 (142 items).

424.     PADGUG, ROBERT. "Sexual Matters: On Conceptualiz­ing Sexuality in History," Radical History Review, 20 (1979), 3-23.

A gay historian attempts to fuse the Social Construc­tion approach to the history of the development of sex-

ual behavior with Marxist immanentism. See also Bert Hansen, "Historical Construction of Homosexuality." ibid., 66-73.

425.     PARKER, WILLIAM. "Homosexuality in History: An Annotated Bibliography," JH, 6:1/2 (Fall-Winter 1980-81), 191-210.

Classified selection of 123 items, all in the English language.

426.     SPRAGUE, GREGORY A. "Male Homosexuality in Western Culture: The Dilemma of Identity and Subculture in Historical Research." JH, 10:3/4 (Winter 1984), 29-43.

Reviews recent scholarship on the emergence of homosexual identities and subcultures in Western societies.

427.     STONE, LAWRENCE. "Sex in the West." New Republic (July 8, 1985), 25-37.

A noted historian's thoughtful synthesis for the lay reader of publications in the history of sexuality over the last decade.

428.     TAYLOR, GORDON RATTRAY. Sex in History. New York: Vanguard, 1954. 336 pp.

Offers a dualistic scheme of history as a succession of "matrist" and "patrist" eras. Only in the former, in which women had high status, did homosexuality come to flourish openly. Willful.

429.     USSEL, JOSEF MARIA WILLEM VAN. Sexualunterdriick- ung. Hamburg: Rowohlt, 1970. 248 pp.

A Belgian scholar interprets the sexual history of Europe as a pattern of repression—a view that is probably overstated. This work, translated from a Dutch original (1968), derives from a thesis emphasizing the 18th cen­tury, which remains the most useful aspect of the book in its several published versions.



The civilizations of the ancient Near East, here embracing an arc from Egypt to Iran, are difficult for the nonspec- ialist to penetrate. Because of the hermetic complexities of the written and archaeological evidence, progress in our knowledge is of necessity in the hands of trained specialists. In evaluating the citations listed below it is well to bear in mind that some are relatively specialized and technical, while others are addressed to the lay reader. In addition to their intrinsic importance, the civilizations of the ancient Near East are significant as a foundation for ancient Greece (see III.C) and a major influence on the Bible (see VII.B).

430.     ALDRED, CYRIL. Akhenaten, Pharaoh of Egypt: a New

Study. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1968. 272 pp. See Chapter 8, "The Pathology ot Akhenaten" (pp. 133-39), advancing a dubious medical explanation for the heretical ruler's androgynous appearance, which has often been remarked.

431.     BIGGS, ROBERT D. SA.ZI.GA: Ancient Mesopotamian Potency Incantations in Texts from Cuneiform Sources. Locust Valley, NY: J. J. Augustin, 1967. 86 pp.

Texts shedding light on the attitudes toward sexuality in general, and about homosexuality, including anal inter­course. See also his: "Medicine in Ancient Mesopotamia," History of Science, 8 (1969), 94-105.

432.     BOTTERO, JEAN, and H. PETSCHOW. "Homosexualität," Reallexikon der Assyriologie, 4 ['1975 ], ' 459-68 .

Well-documented survey in French of ancient Mesopotamian written and artistic evidence.

433.     BULLOUGH, VERN. "Attitudes toward Deviant Sex in Ancient Mesopotamia," Journal of Sex Research, 7:3 (1971), 184-203.

Argues that there were fewer prohibitions against sex in these early societies than in our own time.

434.     BULLOUGH, VERN. "Homosexuality as Submissive Behavior," Journal of Sex Research, 9:4 (1973), 283-88.

Argues, chiefly from mythological evidence, that the Egyptians used anal intercourse to symbolize dominance. For a broader perspective on ancient Egypt, see the author's Sexual Variance in Society and History (New York: Wiley, 1976), 58-73.

435.     DEAKIN, TERENCE J. "Evidence for Homosexuality in Ancient Egypt," International Journal of Greek Love, 1:1 (1966), 31-38.

A useful survey, critical and well referenced.

436.     DORNSEIFF, FRANZ. "Ägyptische Liebeslieder, Hoheslied, Sappho, Theokrit," Zeitschrift der Deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft, 90 (1931), 588-601.

Detects an Egyptian model for Sappho's poetry.

437.     DUCHESNE-GUILLEMIN, JACQUES. Symbols and Values in Zoroastrianism: Their Survival and Renewal. New York: Harper and Row, 1966. 167 pp. In Iran the procreative ethic of Zoroastrianism produced sometimes virulent condemnations of homosexuality, though Herodotus (1:135) mentions it as flourishing there (p. 149 ff.).

438. GOEDICKE, HANS. "Unrecognized Sportings," Journal

of the American Research Center in Egypt, 6 (1967), 97-102.

Maxim 32 of the Instructions to Ptahhotep (Papyrus Prisse 14.4-6) is interpreted (uncertainly) as an admonition to refrain from pederastic assault after meeting objections to advances.

439.     GRIFFITHS, JOHN GWYN. The Conflict of Horus and

Seth. Chicago: Argonaut, 1969. 182 pp. Interpretation of key Egyptian mythological texts with salient homoerotic features. See also his: The Origins of Osiris and His Cult (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1980; 287 pp.), p. 15.

440.     HELD, GEORGE F. "Parallels between The Gilgamesh Epic and Plato's Symposium," Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 42 (1983), 133-41.

Close reading of the language of Gilgamesh's dream reveals its homoerotic character. Translations of the epic tend to be bowdlerized in this and other regards. Note also an earlier article by Thorkild Jacobsen, "How Did Gilgames Oppress Uruk?" Acta Orientalia, 8 (1930), 70 ff.; as well as Giuseppe Furlani, "L'epopea di Gilgames come inno all'amicizia," Belfagor, 1 (1946, 577-89. See also: A. D. Kilmer; and B. Thorbjornsrud , below.

441.     HILLERS, DELBERT R. "The Bow of Aqhat: The Meaning of a Mythological Theme," in: Harry A. Hoffner, Jr. (ed.). Orient and Occident. Kevelaer: Verlag Butzon und Bercker, 1973, pp. 70-80.

Transvestism, eunuchism, and male cult prostitution in the ancient Near East.

442.     HOFFMAN, RICHARD J. "Vices, Gods, and Virtues: Cosmology as a Mediating Factor in Attitudes toward Male Homosexuality," JH, 9:2/3 (1983-84), 27-44.

Using historical and anthropological evidence, argues a contrast between monotheism and polytheism with regard to male homosexuality. Speculative.

443.     HOFFNER, HARRY A., JR. "Incest, Sodomy and Bestiality in the Ancient Near East," in: Hoffner (ed.), Orient and Occident. Kevalaer: Verlag Butzon und Bercker, 1973, pp. 81-90.

Comparative study of texts from different regions of the ancient Near East.

444.     KILMER, ANNE DRAFFKORN. "A Note on an Overlooked Word Play in the Akkadian Gilgamesh," in: G. Van Driel et al. (eds.), Zikir Sumim: Assyriological Studies Presented to F. R. Kraus on the Occasion of His Seventieth Birthday. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1982, pp. 128-32.

On homosexual puns in the Gilgamesh epic.

445.     LAMBERT, W. G. "Morals in Ancient Mesopotamia," Ex

oriente lux, 15 (1957-58), 184-96. Reveals some striking contrasts with our own attitudes.

446.     LECLANT, JEAN. "Les textes de la Pyramide de Pépi

                      (Saqqara)," Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, Comptes-Rendus, 1977, pp. 269-290.

For an Old Kingdom text from Saqqara on the relation between Osiris and Seth, see pp. 278-79.

447.     MANNICHE, LISE. "Some Aspects of Ancient Egyptian Sexual Life," Acta Orientalia, 38 (1977), 11-23.

See pp. 14-15 for brief comments on male homosexuality and lesbianism.

448.     MONTET, PIERRE. "Le fruit défendu," Kémi: Revue de Philologie et d'Archéologie Egyptiennes et Coptes,

II            (1950), 85-116.

Discusses problems of translating early Egyptian texts that seem to forbid homosexuality.

449.     MORAN, W. L. "New Evidence from Mari on the History of Prophecy," Biblica, 50 (1969), 15-56.

Possible citations from Mesopotamian palace correspondence to homosexual favorites of the king,,and to homosexual cult officials.

450.     MORET, ALEXANDRE. Du caractère religieux de la royauté pharaonique. Paris: Ernest Leroux, 1902. (Annales du Musée Guimet, Bibliothèque d'Etudes, 15).

For symbolic divine homosexual embraces in the coronation rites of Ramses II and II, see pp. 45-48, 100-01, 106-08. See also his: Le rituel du culte divin journalier en Egypte. (Paris: Ernest Leroux, 1902; Annales du Musée Guimet, Bibliothèque d'Etudes, 14), pp. 22^-24, 99-101.

451.     NIBLEY, HUGH. The Message of the Joseph Smith Papyri: An Egyptian Endowment. Salt Lake City: Deseret, 1976. 305 pp.

For description of the ritual coronation embraces of the Egyptian king, see pp. 241-66.

452.     POSENER, GEORGES. "Le conte de Neferkaré et du général Sisiné," Revue d'Egyptologie, 11 (1957), 119-37.

Text, translation and commentary and of Middle Kingdom Egyptian story of King Pepy II's (2355-2261 B.C.) am­orous trysts with his general. See also his: "Sur l'emploi euphématique de hftj(w) 'ennemi(s), "' Zeit­schrift für ägyptische Sprache, 96 (1969), 30-35.

453.     PRITCHARD, JAMES B. (ed.). Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament. Third ed. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969. 710 PP.

In this standard collection of translations, see pp. 34-35

(Egyptian Protestation of Guiltlessness), p. 181 (Middle Assyrian Laws), and p. 196 (Hittite Laws: father-son incest is a capital offense).

454.    REEDER, GREG. "Journey to the Past: Egypt and a Gay Tomb?" Advocate (May 12, 1983), 25ff.

Finds homosexuality in an Old Kingdom tomb's frescos. The tomb is published in Ahmed M. Moussa and Hartwig Altenmuller, Das Grab des Nianchnum and Chnumhotep. (Mainz: Von Zabern, 1977; 180 pp. Archäologische Ver­öffentlichungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Abteilung Kairo, 21).

455.    RIEFSTAHL, ELIZABETH. "An Enigmatic Faience Fig­ure," in: Miscellanea Wilbouriana (Brooklyn Museum), vol. 1, p. 137ff.

An ithyphallic figurine found in a tomb at Lisht is cau­tiously interpreted as a catamite for the enjoyment of the deceased.

456.    THORBJORNSRUD, BERIT. "What Can the Gilgamesh Myth Tell Us about Religion and the View of Humanity in Mesopotamia?" Temenos, 19 (1983), 112-37.

Interprets the relationship of Gilgamesh and Enkidu as a homosexual friendship that entails the rejection of Ishtar, the female principle. Much later, the Assyrians prohibited male homosexuality and abolished the cult prostitution connected with the shrines of Ishtar.

457.    VELDE, H. TE. Seth, God of Confusion. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1967. 183 pp.

This standard work on the somewhat sinister Egyptian God Seth includes discussion of his homoerotic relation with Horus.

458.    WESTENDORF, WOLFHART. "Homosexualität," Lexikon der Ägyptologie, 2 (1977), cols. 1272-74.

Concise summary of current knowledge about ancient Egyp­tian homosexuality, with references.



Interest in Greek and Roman homosexuality as a subject begins with the Renaissance, as part of the learned enterprise of humanistic philology, which provided "cover" for the exploration of pédérastie themes. In the 18th century, neoclassicism sparked a new wave of interest, as seen in the career of J. J. Winckelmann, who is often regarded as the first modern art historian. With new critical methods and the beginnings of field archaeology, the 19th century revolutionized the study of the ancient past. Classical philology played an important part in the

formation of the ideas of such homosexual scholars as J. A. Symonds and K. H. Ulrichs. Since about 1965 there has been a fresh wave of classical scholarship throwing light on (homo)sexuality by profiting from the removal of taboos. See also Ancient Art (VI.B), for the important subject of vase painting, a medium that also yields social and historical data. For ancient medicine, see XXIII.D. The classical sources themselves, which exist in many editions, are not listed here as such; see the bibliog­raphies in the monographs of K. J. Dover (491), F. Buf- fiere (477), and S. Lilja (536), as well as the Personal Names Index.

459.     AFRICA, THOMAS. "Homosexuals in Greek History," Journal of Psychohistôry, 9:4 (1982), 401-20.

Focusing largely on the relatively neglected Hellenistic period, the author attempts a biographical approach, which is marred by anachronistic psychoanalytic assump­tions. For a critique, suggesting homophobia on Africa's part, see Fernando Gonzalez-Reigosa and Angel Velez-Diaz, ibid., 10:4 (1983), 511-19; followed by Africa's intemper­ate response, ibid., 11:1 (1983), 129-32.

460.     ARBOIS DE JUBAINVILLE, HENRI D.' La famille cel­tique. Paris: Bouillon, 1905. 221 pp.

The appendix (pp. 187-199) treats the question: were the ancient Celts homosexual?

461.     BABUT, DANIEL. "Les Stoiciens et l'amour," Revue des Etudes Grecques, 76 (1963), 55-63.

Refutes Flaceliere's claim that the later Stoic thinkers condemned homosexual love. See also J. M. Rist, Stoic Philosophy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1969), pp. 56-69.

462.     BAIRD, LORRAYNE Y. "Priapus gallinaceus: The Role of the Cock in Fertility and Eroticism in Classical Antiquity and the Middle Ages," Studies in Iconog­raphy, 7-8 (1981-82), 81-111.

Extensively documented study on the erotic connotations of the rooster. "In ancient Greece and surrounding areas, the most common erotic association of the cock ... seems to have been with homosexual affairs."

463.     BALSDON, J. P. V. D. Romans and Aliens. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1979. 310 pp.

This encyclopedic work helps to situate Roman concepts of pederasty in the framework of their attitudes toward foreigners. See pp. 225-27.

464.     BERNAY, JEROME. "Folies romaines: les homosexuels dans l'oeuvre de Juvénal," Arcadie, no. 259-60 (July-August 1975), 356-64.

Characters in the poet's satires. See also his: "La

repression de l'homosexualité dans la Rome antique," ibid., no. 250 (October 1974), 443-55.

454.     BETHE, ERICH. "Die dorische Knabenliebe: ihre Ethik und ihre Idee," Rheinisches Museum, 62 (1907), 438-75.

This influential study by a noted philologist offers an imaginative reconstruction of the dynamics of the relation between the male lover and his beloved in ancient Greece. Yet Bethe's attribution of the origins of the Greek in­stitution of pederasty to the Dorian influx has been weakened by recent criticisms by Sir Kenneth Dover. The paper was reissued in 1983 in Berlin (Verlag Rosa Winkel) as an independent brochure (48 pp.), with an introduction by Wolfram Setz.

455.     BEYER, RUDOLF. Fabulae graecae quatenus quave aetate puerorum amore commutatae sint. Weida, Thuringia: Thomas und Hubert, 1910. 77 pp.

This published dissertation in Latin is an important source for Greek myths of affairs between gods and their beloved boys.

456.     BLOCH, ROBERT D. Pseudo-Luciani amoribus: dissertatio inauguralis. Strasbourg: Truebner, 1907. 49 pp.

Valuable philological analysis, in Latin, of the essay on love mistakenly attributed to Lucian.

457.     BOWRA, CECIL MAURICE, SIR. Greek Lyric Poetry: from Alcman to Simonides. Second, revised ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1961. 444 pp.

Contains chapters on Sappho (pp. 176-240); Ibycus (pp. 241-67); and Anacreon (pp. 268-307, esp. pp. 277-84).

458.     BOWRA, CECIL MAURICE, SIR. Pindar. Oxford: Clar­endon Press, 1964. 446 pp.

Standard account in English of the great Theban poet; see esp. pp. 106-07, 166-70, 274, 362, 386-88.

459.     BRELICH, ANGELO. Paides e parthenoi. Rome: Edi- zioni dell'Ateneo, 1969. 500 pp.

Greek rites of initiation, including pederasty, from a comparative perspective.

460.     BREMMER, JAN. "An Enigmatic Indo-European Rite: Paederasty," Arethusa, 13:2 (1980), 279-98.

Controversial cross-cultural analysis of parallels for Greek initiatory homosexuality.

461.     BRIGHT, DAVID F. Haec mihi fingebam: Tibullus and

His World. Leiden: Brill, 1978. 275 pp. Includes discussion of lyrics addressed to the boy Marathus.

473. BRISSON, LUC. "Aspects politiques de la bisexualité: l'histoire de Polycrite." In: M. B. De Boer and T. A. Eldridge (eds.), Hommages à Maarten J. Vermaseren. Leiden: Brill, 1978, vol. 1, pp. 80-122.

On a legend found in Phlegon of Tralles and Proclus con­cerning the birth of an androgynous monster. See also his: Le mythe de Tirésias (Leiden: Brill, 1976; 189 pp.).

474.     BROUWER, PETRUS VAN LIMBURG. Histoire de la civilisation morale et religieuse des Grecs. Groningen: W. van Boekeren, 1833-42. See volume 4 (of part 2), pp. 224-75, for a Dutch classic­ist's detailed and relatively objective account of "l'amour des males," remarkable for its time.

475.     BRUYN, E. B. DE. Sex en eros bij Martialis. Am­sterdam: Arbeiderspers, 1979. 225 pp.

Sex and love in the epigrams of Martial.

476.     BUCKLER, JOHN. The Theban Hegemony, 371-362 B.C.

Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1980. 339 pp.

The period of the triumph of the Theban Band, whose homosexual character is regrettably scanted by Buckler.

477.     BUFFIÈRE, FÉLIX. Eros adolescent: la péderastie dans la Grèce antique. Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1980. 703 pp.

Monumental survey of Greek homosexuality, including its prolongation into Hellenistic and Roman times, with numerous textual analyses and translations. Sometimes uncritical. Note esp. the full index of ancient authors (pp. 660-71).

478.     BURNETT, ANNE PIPPIN. "Desire and Memory (Sappho frag. 94).," Classical Philology, 74 (1979), 16-27.

On the poet's poignant lyric of parting. In general, see Jeffrey Duban, Ancient and Modern Images of Sappho

(Lanham, MD: Classical Association of the Atlantic States/University Press of America, 1983; Classical World Special Series, 2).

479.     CALAME, CLAUDE. Les choeurs de jeunes filles en Grèce archaique. Rome: Ateneo & Bizzarii, 1977. 2 vols.

See vol. 2 esp. for evidence from Alcman's poems on les­bian aspects of girls' initation rites in early Greece.

480.     CARTLEDGE, PAUL. "The Politics of Spartan Peder­asty," Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society, 207 (1981), 17-36.

Useful, but somewhat inconclusive review of the evidence.

481. CLARKE, W. M. "Achilles and Patroclus in Love," Hermes, 106 (1978), 381-96.

From a review of textual evidence and ancient parallels, the author concludes that Homer's heroes were indeed in love. Contrast D. S. Barrett, "The Friendship of Achilles and Patroclus," Classical Bulletin, 57 (1981), 87-93, who (writing evidently in ignorance of Clarke's arguments) ex­cludes homoeroticism. See also D. S. Sinos, Achilles, Patroklos and the Meaning of 'Philos' (Innsbruck: 1980); and W. Thomas MacCary, Childlike Achilles: Ontogeny and Phylogeny in the Iliad (New York: Columbia University Press, 1982).

482.     CODY, JANE M. "The senex amator in Plautus' Casina," Hermes, 104 (1976), 453-76.

Useful study of the Roman playwright's most homosexual work.

483.     COLIN, JEAN. "Juvenal et le mariage mystique de Gracchus," Atti della Accademia delle scienze di Torino, 90:2 (1955-56), 114-216.

Detailed study of a kind of male-male marriage under re­ligious auspices, citing not only Juvenal but many other Latin authors.

484.     COURTNEY, E. C. A Commentary on the Satires of

Juvenal. London: Athlone Press, 1980. 662 pp. The most detailed commentary on the Roman poet's text. See satires 2 and 9; also 5:56-62; 6:33-37; 11:145-58; and 15: 135-37. See also J. Gerard, Juvenal et la realite contemporaine (Paris, 1956).

485.     CROMPTON, LOUIS. "What Do You Say to Someone Who Claims that Homosexuality Caused the Fall of Greece and Rome?" Christopher Street (March 1978), 49-52.

Useful concise demolition of such myths.

486.     DANIEL, MARC. Des dieux et des garçons: étude sur l'homosexualité dans la mythologie grecque. Paris: Arcadie, 1968. 38 pp.

Magico-religious elements in Greek pederasty.

487.     DELCOURT, MARIE. Hermaphrodite: Myths and Rites of the Bisexual Figure in Classical Antiquity. Translated by Jennifer Nicholson. London: Studio Books, 1961. 109 pp. A standard work on the varied aspects of the hermaphrodite myth in Greco-Roman times. See also her complementary work, stressing archaeology and art: Hermaphroditéa: recherches sur l'être double promoteur de la fertilité dans le monde classique (Brussels: Latomus/Revue d'Etudes Latines, 1966; 76 pp.).

488.     DELEPIERRE, JOSEPH OCTAVE. Dissertation sur les idées morales des Grecs et sur le danger de lire

Platon. Rouen: J. Lemonnyer, 1879. 20 pp. Curious period document introducing the term "philopede"

derived from Greek philopais.

489.     DELORME, JEAN, and WOLFGANG SPEYER. "Gymnasium," Reallexikon fur Antike und Christentum, 13 (1984), cols. 155-76.

Includes a concise account of pederasty in the gymnasia, and of Christian objections thereto. See also Delorme's book: Gymnasion: Etude sur les monuments consacrés à l'éducation en Grèce (Paris: E. de Boccard, 1960; 530 pp. ).

490.     DEVEREUX, GEORGE. "Greek Pseudo-homosexuality and the 'Greek Miracle.'" Symbolae Osloenses, 42 (1967), 69-92.

Paradoxical psychoanalytic study treating Greek pederasty as both an indispensable element of Greek high culture and a symptom of immaturity. See also his: "The Nature of Sappho's Seizure in fr 31 LP as Evidence of Her Inver­sion," Classical Quarterly, N.S., 20 (1970), 17-31; and "Why Oedipus Killed Laius," International Journal of Psy­choanalysis, 34 (1953), 132-41.

491.     DOVER, KENNETH J., SIR. Greek Homosexuality. Cam­bridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1978. 244 pp. 106 illustrations.

Penetrating study of literary sources for classical Greece (largely excluding the Hellenistic and Roman sequels, for which see esp. Buffiere, above). Beginning with a de­tailed analysis of Aeschines' "Contra Timarchum," the analysis broadens to encompass a wide range of topics, some of which are discussed brilliantly. The treatment of the iconography of vase painting is less satisfactory (compare, e.g., H. A. Shapiro, "Courtship Scenes in Attic Vase Painting, "American Journal of Archaeology, 85, 1981, 133-43). For critical reflections on the book, see John Ungaretti, "De-moralizing Morality: Where Dover's Greek Homosexuality Leaves Us," JH 8 (1983), 1-17. See also Dover: "Eros and Nomos," Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies (London), 11 (1964), 31-42.

492.     DOVER, KENNETH J., SIR. Greek Popular Morality in the Time of Plato and Aristotle. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1975. 330 pp.

An attempt to correct the traditional overintellectualized picture of Greek attitudes, including those pertaining to sex, by retrieving the views of the man and woman in the street.

493.     DUBOIS, PAGE. "Phallocentrism and Its Subversion in Plato's Phaedrus," Arethusa, 18 (1985), 91-103.

Revising an interpretation of Jacques Derrida, seeks to show that Plato appropriated maternity to the male phil­osopher. See also: Dorothea Wender, "Plato: Misogyn­ist, Paedophile, and Feminist," Arethusa, 6 (1973), 75-90.

494. DUGAS, LUDOVIC. L'amitié antique d'après les moeurs populaires et les theories des philosophes, Paris: Felix Alcan, 1894. 654 pp. Reprinted New York: Arno Press, 1976. In this comprehen­sive work concerning ancient ideas of friendship, see esp. "L'amour grec" (pp. 84-104), on pederasty. A more recent synthesis is Jean Fraisse, Philia: la notion d'amitié dans la philosophie antique (Paris: J. Vrin, 1974; 504 pp.).

495.     DUMÉZIL, GEORGES. Romans de Scythie et d'alen­tour. Paris: Payot, 1978. 380 pp.

A distinguished French scholar of comparative Indo-Euro­pean institutions reflects on the noted passage in Herodotus 4:67, concerning Scythian effeminacy in relation to subarctic shamanism ("La maladie des Enarées," pp. 212- 18).

496.     DYOR, EUGÈNE. "Dialogues sur l'amour," Arcadie, no. 67-68 (July-August 1959), 397-405.

On the work attributed to Plutarch. See also the edition of this text, Dialogues sur l'amour (Eroticos). Text, translation, and introduction by Robert Flacelière (Par­is: Les Belles Lettres, 1952; 141 pp.; an enlarged edition appreared in 1980).

497.     EYBEN, EMIEL. De jonge Romein volgens de literaire bronnen der periode ca. 200 Chr. tot ca. 500

n. Chr. Brussels: 1977. (Verhandelingen van de Koninklijke Academie voor Wetenschappen, Letteren en Schone Künsten van Belgiën, Klasse der Letteren, 39, 81). 691 pp. Granting that in young Romans the expression of homosexual impulses was stimulated by the school, the gymnasia and the army, Eyben tends to overstate negative attitudes (see esp. pp. 197, 475-79). There is a 29-page English summary.

498.     FERRI, SILVIO. "Sui vasi greci con epigrafi

'acclamatorie,'" Rendiconti della R. Accademia nazionale dei lincei; classe di scienze morali storiche e filologiche, 6th ser., 14 (1938), 93- 179.

Claims (unconvincingly) that the love names on Greek vases are in honor of deceased youths; useful appendix of texts, pp. 158-79.

499.     FIGUEIRA, THOMAS J., and GREGORY NAGY (eds.). Theognis of Megara: Poetry and Polis (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1985. 346 pp.

Essays on the archaic Greek poet and the associated corpus (the Theognidea). See esp. Daniel B. Levine, "Symposium and the Polis (pp. 176-96), John M. Lewis, "Eros and the Polis in Theognis Book II (197-222), and Walter Donlan, "Pistos Philos Hetairos" (223-45).

500. FINLEY, MOSES I. The World of Odysseus. Second

ed. New York: Viking, 1978. 188 pp. This influential analysis of Homeric culture, first pub­lished in 1954, highlights the intensity of male bonding in contrast to the relative unimportance of marital re­lationships .

501.     FLACELIÈRE, ROBERT. Love in Ancient Greece. New York: Crown, 1962. 224 pp.

Translation of L'amour en Grèce (Paris: Hachette, 1960). Although this book is by a classical scholar of repute, the chapter on homosexuality (pp. 63-100) is tendentious and sometimes inaccurate. See also: Paul Frischauer, La sexualité dans l'antiquité (Paris: Stock, 1969); Jacques Mazel, Les métamorphoses d'Eros: L'amour dans la Grèce antique (Paris: Presses de la Renaissance, 1984); Frida Wion, "L'amour grec," Bulletin de l'Association Guillaume Budé, 4th ser., 2 (1970), 249-58.

502.     FORNARA, CHARLES W. "The Cult of Harmodius and Aristogeiton," Philologus, 114 (1970), 155-80.

On the Athenian custom of commemorating the tyrant slayers, who were homosexual lovers.

503.     FOUCAULT, MICHEL. L'usage des plaisirs. Paris: Gallimard, 1984. 285 pp.

This posthumously published volume 2 of Histoire de la sexualité (on a very different plan from that originally envisaged) concentrates on ancient Greek texts bearing on the economy of self-management, including pleasure and sex. There is an English translation by Robert Hurley: The Use of Pleasure (New York: Pantheon, 1985; 293 pp.). Fol­lowed by Le souci de soi (Paris: Gallimard, 1984; 284 pp.).

504.     FRANCIS, E. D. and M. VICKERS. "Leagros Kalos," Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society, 207 (1981), 97-136. Major review of historical problems arising from one of the most famous of the love names found on Greek vases.

505.     FRIEDRICH, PAUL. The Meaning of Aphrodite. Chica­go: University of Chicago Press, 1978. 243 pp.

Primarily a reconstruction of proto-Indo-European cosmol­ogy, this monograph includes a discussion of Sappho and female homosexuality on Lesbos (pp. 108-17).

506.     FUCHS, HERMANN. Die Hylasgeschichte bei Apollonios Rhodios und Theokrit. Würzburg: Universität, 1969. 85 pp. (Inaugural-Dissertation)

The tragic story of Hercules' beloved Hylas, as rendered by two leading Hellenistic writers.

507.     GARLAND, YVON, and 0. MASSON. "Les acclamations pédérastiques de Kalami (Thasos)," Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique, 106 (1982), 3-22.

Publishes a collection of explicit pédérastie inscriptions

from the island of Thasos. See also Merle K. Landon, "Hymettiana," Hesperia, 54 (1985), 257-70 (esp. p. 264ff. on Attic kalos graffiti).

508.     GARRIDO-HORY, MARGUERITE. "La vision du dépendant chez Martial à travers les relations sexuelles," Index (Naples), 10 (1981), 298-315.

Structuralist analysis of evidence from Martial's Epigrams for homosexual (and heterosexual) relations between mas­ters and slaves. In the same issue, see: Jerzy Kolendo, "L'esclavage et la vie sexuelle des hommes libres à Rome," 288-97; and Claudine Leduc, "Le discours d'Aristophane et de Ménandre sur la sexualité des maitres et des esclaves," 271-87; and in vol. 11 (1982), Maria Anton- ietta Cervellera, "Omosessualità e ideologia schiavistica in Petronio," 221-34.

509.     GOLDEN, MARK. "Slavery and Homosexuality at Ath­ens," Phoenix, 38 (1984), 308-24.

Holds that the influence of the institution of slavery affected, sometimes negatively, even relations between free-born males.

510.     GONFROY, FRANÇOISE. "Homosexualité et idéologie esclavagiste chez Cicéron," Dialogues d'histoire ancienne, 4 (1978), 219-65. (Besancon, Université: Annales littéraires, 225)

Exposes Cicero's exploitation of sexual invective for political ends; note useful charts of terms, pp. 238-62.

511.     GRANAROLO, JEAN. "L'heure de vérité pour Tallus le cinède (Catulle XXV)," Revue des Etudes Anciennes, 60 (1958), 290-306.

Observations on the meaning of cinaedus in Roman life. See also his: L'oeuvre de Catulle: aspects religieux, éthiques et stylistiques (Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1967; 406 pp.), pp. 160-204.

512.     GRIFFIN, JASPER. "Augustan Poetry and the Life of Luxury," Journal of Roman Studies, 66 (1976), 87- 105.

Challenges the view that homosexual poems are of a differ­ent order of unreality from heterosexual ones (as main­tained, e.g., by Gordon Williams, Tradition and Origin­ality in Roman Poetry, London: Oxford University Press, 1968, p. 551). Insists that Augustan writers in both homosexual and heterosexual poetry reflect "a mode of life familiar to their reader." See also Griffin, Latin Poets and Roman Life (London: Duckworth, 1986; 240 pp.).

513.     GRIMAL, PIERRE. L'amour à Rome. Second ed. Par­is: Les Belles Lettres, 1980. 346 pp.

While this monograph on Roman sexual life scants homosex­ual themes, it is useful for comparative purposes.

514. HERMANN, ALFRED. "Antinous infelix: Zur Typologie


des Heiligen-Unheiligen in der Spätantike," in: Mullus: Festschrift für Theodor Klauser. Mün­ster: Aschendorff, 1964, pp. 155-67. Early Christian transformations of the image of Hadrian's favorite Antinous into that of an "unsaint," a demonic counter-figure to the Christian saint.

515.     HERTER, HANS. "Effeminatus," Reallexikon für Antike und Christentum, 4 (1959), cols. 620-50.

Important learned article on effeminacy and androgyny in Greco-Roman and early Christian civilization, and the explicit condemnation of the effeminate "lifestyle" by the Church.

516.     HOFFMAN, RICHARD J. "Some Cultural Aspects of Greek Male Homosexuality," JH, 5:3 (1980), 217-26.

Stresses the centrality of the Greek family in relation to the acceptance of homosexual behavior.

517.     HOWELL, PETER. A Commentary on Book One of the Epigrams of Martial. London: Athlone Press, 1980. 369 pp.

Provides detailed comment on the 20-odd sexually explicit poems, including one lesbian example. A dense treatment of another book is N. M. Kay, Martial: Book XI: A Commen­tary (London: Duckworth, 1985; 304 pp.). See also the commentary of C. Citroni, accompanying his edition of M. Valerii Martialis Epigrammata (Florence, 1975).

518.     HUBERT, CURT. De Plutarchi amatoria. Kirchhain: Max Schmersow, 1903. 98 pp.

Philological commentary on the essay on love attributed to Plutarch.

519.     HUNGER, HERBERT. Lexikon der griechischen und römischen Mythologie. Sixth ed. Vienna: Hollinek, 1969. 444 pp.

Valuable concise lexicon of Greco-Roman mythology, pro­viding not only the essentials of the myths and their sources, but also lists of later works using them as themes. See entries for Ganymedes, Hyakinthos, Hylas, etc.

520.     JEANMAIRE, HENRI. Couroi et courètes: essai sur l'éducation Spartiate et sur les rites d'adoles­cence dans l'antiquité hellénique. Lille: Biblio­thèque Universitaire, 1939. 638 pp.

Reprinted New York: Arno Press, 1975. See esp. pp. 456-60 on the pédérastie graffiti of the island of Thera.

521.     JOCELYN, H. D. "A Greek Indecency and Its Stu­dents: laikazein," Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society, 206 (1980), 12-66.

On fellation from evidence in literary works and graffiti.

522. KEULS, EVA C. The Reign of the Phallus: Sexual

politics in Ancient Greece. New York: Harper and Row, 1985. 452 pp. Argues that there is a close bond between the Athenian fixation on the phallus and the exploitative domination of women and slaves, on the one hand, and ruthless imper­ial aggression, on the other. Overstated and sometimes inaccurate, as when it claims that pederasty involved prepubertal boys.

523.     KIEFER, OTTO. Sexual Life in Ancient Rome. New York Dutton, 1935. 379 pp. A somewhat routine compilation, but occasionally quite useful. Translated by Gilbert and Helen Highet from Kiefer's Kulturgeschichte Roms (1933).